Preppers Investment Strategy pre SHTF

Ok. Preppers are you looking to double or triple your investment to purchase more preps? There is a secret to doing this that you not learn anywhere else. I will tell you this here!

So your bank gives .25% apy. Which equates to basically pennies on the dollar.

The bond market is negative so short term bonds pay more tgan long term bonds.

Cryto currency is BS. Enough said. Period.

The US dollar is a Fiat currency. Basically fake.

Gold and Silver. Go for it. Invest all your money into it….and see how far that gets you.

So do you want to make between 100% and 200% on your investment? Do you want to know the real secret…Hold on here it comes.

Ammo! Ammunition. Rounds, bullets, etc. Whatever you want to call it. Ammo is the investment strategy here. Purchase as much ammo as you can afford and sell it right before the 2020 election.

I guarantee you will double if not triple your money!

It doesn’t matter whether its .223, 9mm, .45acp, .22lr or 12 gauge.

Ammo always go way way up right before an election. So save your pennies, purchase as much ammo as you can. Than sell it right before the election. Profit greatly. And buy more preps.

Lol

Brent

DIY Natural Chicken Feed

Here is a great recipe for DIY Natural Chicken Feed. Most items can be stored long term and mixed as required.

Yields 100 lbs.
60 # yellow corn meal
15 # wheat middlings
8 # soybean meal
3.75 # fish meal
1 # bone meal
3 # dry skim milk
2.5 # alfalfa meal
.4 # Iodized salt
6.35 # powdered limestone
Mix all together and store in closed covered container.
As this is dusty add a small amount of water to what is
removed for feeding , as a binder. Do not add water to all
of it as it then will not keep as long.

SHTF Urban Survival Gardening

The City People’s Book of Raising Food

by Helga & William Olkowski

Contents

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1
WE START OUR GARDEN

Chapter 2
URBAN EDEN? OR, WHAT’S SO SPECIAL ABOUT THE CITY?

Chapter 3
DOING THE BEST WITH WHERE YOU ARE
Climate, Microclimate, and Miniclimate
Temperature
Wind
Light

Chapter 4
WHAT’S SO GREAT ABOUT JUST PLAIN DIRT?
How Soil Happens
Soil Character
Soil Texture
A Touch Test for Your Soil
Why Does Texture Matter?
Mulching
Rules on Watering
Structure
How to Improve the Structure of Your Soil

Chapter 5
WHY COMPOST?
Methods, Slow and Fast
The Way We Do It
Choosing a Location and Making Bins
Collecting the Materials
How Much Dry to How Much Green or Fresh Material?
Building the Pile
Turning the Pile
Using Compost

Chapter 6
WHAT DO PLANTS NEED?
See Hopk n’s Cafe!
The Mysteries of pH or Soil Acidity
What Have You Got?
Nitrogen
Recognizing Deficiencies

Chapter 7
CARROTS OR BOK CHOY? — DECIDING WHAT TO GROW
Not Much Space?
Time: A Big Villain
Preserving Food While Preserving the Planet Quantity, or Counting Calories
Quality

Chapter 8
STARTING WITH SEEDS
How To Study Seed Catalogs
Saving Your Own Seeds
Planting Indoors
Materials
Procedure
Outdoors
When and How to Transplant
Transplanting Trees: An Aside
Garlic Cloves, Tubers, and Other Possibilities

Chapter 9
MAKING FRIENDS WITH THE NEIGHBORS, OR ADVENTURES WITH CHICKENS, RABBITS, BEES, AND WORMS
Chickens or Manure, Eggs and Thoughts
Having the Birds on Wire
Having the Birds on the Ground
Feeds and Foods
Selecting Breeds
Baby Chicks
Other Details
Harvesting
Meat Rabbits
Hutches
Feeders and Waterers
Buying and Sexing
Breeding
Feeding
Butchering
Tanning
Other Sources of Information
Bees
An Ant-Proof Hive Stand
Bees and Diseases
Sources of Information
Raising Earthworms

Chapter 10
MANAGING WILDLIFE IN THE URBAN GARDEN
Wildlife in the City
Entomophobia
Natural Controls
Carnivorous Insects: Parasites and Predators
Another Look at Insecticides
Three R’s and an S
The First R = Residue
The Second R = Resurgence
S for “Secondary Pest Outbreak”
The Third R = Resistance
What the City of Berkeley Did
An Integrated Control Program
Biological Control in the Urban Garden
Resistant Plants
What Should You Do?

Chapter 11
WE TAKE TO THE ROOF
Container Gardening
Drainage
The Problems of Weight and Wear
A Meat and Greens System

Chapter 12
HOW ABOUT A COMMUNITY GARDEN?

Chapter 13
CONFESSIONS OF TWO CRAZY ENVIRONMENTALISTS
Long-Term Survival Strategies
Urban Agriculture: Reasons Why
Life Style Changes
Lawns: “What for Art Thou?”
The Future
Why Crazy?

INDEX

Introduction

I have always wanted to live on a farm. But I have always lived in the city. In this country, most people live in cities. In fact, all over the world, with a few excep-tions, the trend is towards urbanization.
City people are a funny lot. They don’t spend much time thinking about what keeps them alive-their life-support systems. There was a time when I didn’t think about it much either. Oh, of course, I knew people need air to breathe, water to drink, and food to eat. But fresh air was obviously free and available and I didn’t worry about the water that came through the pipes to my house, or the food that I bought at the store. If the vegetables and meats looked attractive, if they were a reasonable price, if they didn’t look too hard to prepare, I bought them, took them home, prepared and ate them.
Well, we’re all a bit more sophisticated now. We’ve heard about pesticide residues on foods, fertilizers contaminating water, lead in the air we breathe, the energy crisis, and other environmental disasters. If you are like me, you may have reached a point where the list is too long and upset-ting to confront. You don’t want to hear about another problem unless at the same time someone suggests what you can do about it. This is such a book-about the prob-lem of producing food for city people and what you can do about it.
Consider the tomato. It takes large amounts of energy to produce the synthetic fertilizers used by the tomato farm-er. Fossil fuels are heavily involved in modern agricultural technology and in the production of pesticides that such farming methods may seem to demand. Fossil fuel energy is also necessary to bring the tomato to the store where it is sold. How many of us walked home with our groceries this week? No doubt most used a car to bring the tomato to the kitchen, thus doing our bit directly toward energy consumption and air pollution, too.
And at the end of all that environmentally disastrous activity, what have we got? A tomato that hasn’t seen the farm in many a day, a variety with a skin tough enough to withstand lots of mechanical handling, hopefully with pesticide residues below the FDA allowable tolerances. Nothing exactly to cheer about.
So what’s a city person to do? Grow some of your own. I think that one can grow a good deal of food in the city, and have fun doing it. It was done during World War II-they were called Victory Gardens. The apartment dweller can grow tomatoes and cucumbers inside in a sunny win-dow, citrus and bell peppers too. A window box salad, of loose-leaf lettuce, radishes, green onions, cress, baby car-rots, and turnips, is a real possibility. There may be room for a planter box of food plants on the roof or in a court-yard, and even room to raise meat rabbits. You may be able to share a backyard or patio with a friend who has some outdoor space, or join forces with your neighbors in working on an empty lot, unused city-owned land; or you might talk your local parks and recreation people into let-ting you use a portion of a city park. Other city people have found a way. You can too.
Of course, not every city dweller wants to raise his own food. Even if you want to, you would have a hard time trying to raise all of it. But you can raise quite a lot. I know, because for the past four years my family has raised all of its own meat and vegetables in the middle of the city. We have taught hundreds of others to do the same. You can do it too. This book is to tell you how.
This is a record of some of our personal experiences and some of the “book learning” we found essential to our success. We hope it will be useful to you.

Helga Olkowski

P.S.: We’ve had a lot of help and encouragement from many friends and acquaintances, students, other teachers, and associates. To all these people whom we cannot thank individually we dedicate this book, but particularly to Drs. E. Williams, James Vlamis, and Bob Raabe, who helped us develop the Urban Garden Ecosystem class at the Universi-ty of California; Tom Javits, who helped carry on the class and spread the word about city food growing; and all fu-ture urban gardeners.

Chapter 1

We Start Our Garden

We sat at the kitchen table one day, and Bill said, “Look at the world. The world is in bad shape.” We started thinking about it. The more we thought, the worse we felt.
“If things fall apart, we’re helpless,” he said. Then, as they often will, Bill’s thoughts drifted to his stomach. “What we need to do is grow our own food,” he said.
“Where?” I asked nervously, peering out into our small backyard which at that time consisted mostly of a dying willow tree and two large, irregular holes. I had fancied having a Japanese garden out there. You know, with fish ponds, stepping stones, miniature trees, and all the things that could convert a space the size of a handkerchief into a vast panorama of unspoiled nature. About ten years prior, I had even gone so far as to dig holes for the ponds, and in a few unusually rainy years an inland sea had briefly mate-rialized. Usually, however, the yard was distinguished mainly by a good crop of weeds.
“Forget the Japanese garden,” Bill said. “We are going to turn the yard into a farm.” The next thing I knew he had managed to locate our camping axe and was cutting down the willow tree.
Don’t feel sorry. I did a little, but I was also relieved. That willow tree had taught me a valuable lesson. I had bought it once on an impulse, while touring a nursery in the hot, central valley of California, far from where I live on cool, foggy San Francisco Bay. A variety unsuited to my own climate, it soon succumbed to a fungus which was slowly killing it. Plants out of their native area are frequently stressed and are more susceptible to the different and strange organisms of other regions.
Once the tree was down, and as much as possible of the root system removed, we surveyed our little plot. It is long and narrow, running north and south, bounded by a two story apartment house on the east and our own three story castle on the west. Not too promising, presenting the typi-cal problems of a city garden–not very much space, not very much light. We are typical city dwellers too, not hav-ing much time to give to farming. Both of us are working full time, coming home to supper tired, with only a little daylight left. Weekends are busy with preparing lectures and reading papers.
“I believe in building winning situations,” Bill said. “Let’s start small!” And so we did. Allowing for the shade cast by the fence and hedge along the south side of the lot, with a digging fork we turned over the dirt in the small area we thought would get the most hours of sun during the day.
In a way we were complete beginners. I had done quite a bit of ornamental gardening before (mainly in the front of the house, so as to create a nice impression when one came up the walk) but not much food raising. The botany I had studied in college didn’t seem very helpful now. I felt real-ly ignorant. I didn’t know what to plant where. What could stand partial shade? The soil seemed like a clay out of which you could make pottery. We guessed the plants might find it pretty tough going but we didn’t know how to improve it. My father said, “Anything that can grow weeds that tall must be pretty rich soil.” But we didn’t know how to tell what it had and what it lacked.
We did something very inconsistent with both our tem-peraments, I guess; we turned to books first. We read and read and read. We found out that most of the really scien-tific, comprehensive texts on raising food were aimed at farmers, people who had large machines and large fields with plenty of ail-day sun, who could put their full atten-tion on agriculture. No one wrote specifically about raising food in the city-urbagriculture! We started visiting other city food gardens and talking with everyone interested and experienced.
The city is a special place. For intensive food produc-tion, particularly small urban meat-producing systems, you need special information. It was hard to come by a lot of it. A good deal we learned by trial and error. Each evening, when we sat down at the supper table we would ask each other, “Now what are we eating tonight that we didn’t produce ourselves, but might in the future?” We wanted to prove we could do it.
“If we are successful at this,” Bill said, “we’ll teach all our students. We’ll write a book telling everyone how we did it. We can create a new agriculture, a new awakening to the values and pleasures of contact with the soil, plants, and animals that support us. We could also get to see lots of beetles, butterflies, flies, and other microwildlife.” (Bill is one of those curious people called entomologists, who likes bugs!)

Chapter 2

Urban Eden? Or What’s So Special About the City?

Where can you find plants and animals from every continent on earth, all in one place? Why, in the city, of course.
People feel nostalgia for the landscapes of their youth. The first settlers brought over their favorite plants from the old world. Many became weeds and fast crowded out the natives. When the settlers moved west, they brought eastern species with them. My California city has German lindens and New England tulip trees rubbing elbows with native walnuts.
People like exotic plants too. There are avid cactus grow-ers in rainy Seattle and rainforest fern lovers in arid Tucson. There’s a challenge in growing a plant in an envi-ronment foreign to it. Most of our food crops come from somewhere else; so do many of the bugs and other animals that eat them. Knowing something about the original envi-ronment of a plant may give you a clue as to its particular requirements. Putting plants together in a very small space, when they need different kinds of care, can be a real chal-lenge too.
Besides the scarcity of open space for growing food, the less than perfect light conditions on what space there is, and the exotic nature of the plants and animals, several other characteristics make the city a special place: the dis-turbed soils, for example.
When digging foundations for a house, laying sewer lines, and grading for walkways and streets, the original topsoil may be carted off or buried, and the natural surface drainage impeded. Infertile subsoil may be exposed or miscel-laneous debris left behind by the builders. The teaching garden we eventually developed in town for students at the University of California is a virtual treasure trove of old door handles, nuts and bolts, and pieces of glass. While the latter may be the most immediately hazardous to the gar-dener, the loss of fertile topsoil is a more serious problem in terms of the efforts needed to remedy the situation.
Whatever else they may be, the density of people and vehicles assures that city soils are compacted. They are also exposed to a variety of pollutants, as are the plants them-selves. For instance, both the soils and exposed portions of the plants may accumulate lead from automobile gasoline. Next to a very busy intersection, particularly on the wind-ward side, greens like spinach and lettuce may receive quite a dose of lead, while below-ground beets, turnips, and carrots, or peas within their protecting pods, may re-main unaffected.
Away from heavy traffic lead may not pose a problem, but there may be other noticeable effects from man-made pollution. Some air pollutants act mainly to retard the growth of plants, occasionally causing striking symptoms of plant injury which may be confused with disease or mineral deficiencies, but do not make the plants unsafe to eat. For details about these less desirable random inputs into the urban ecosystem you may want to see the good color photographs in the booklet Air Pollution Injury to Vegetations, by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. It is available from the Government Printing Office in Washington, D. C. Incidentally, many of the test plants pictured in the book were grown outdoors in cities like New York or Los Angeles. Lucky readers who live in communities that are deliberately controlling their growth and auto traffic!
But with all its special problems, urbagriculture has its advantages too. Cities are usually warmer than the surrounding country, so you may be able to plant earlier and harvest longer than the farmer. Growing food on a small-scale means that many simple, cheap, environmentally sound, but labor-intensive methods are practical. You can create minienvironments, manage insect populations, fertil-ize and improve the structure of your soil with methods not usually economical for the large-scale farmer. Using compost at the rate of forty tons to an acre is possible if you have only one thousandth of an acre!
In the city we live in the midst of abundant resources, unused and unwanted by less conservation-minded folk. Leaves from the city trees on their way to the dump, scrap lumber, and empty five-gallon cans cast-off in the industri-al and commercial areas, abundant greens from the out-sides of vegetables, or those too ripe or unesthetic to sell, thrown away at the supermarket, hair sweepings from the barber shop, sawdust from the cabinet makers-these are only a few of the wonderful raw materials available free and nearby for the urban farm. It’s like living in the Gar-den of Eden. Well, almost.

Chapter 8

Doing the Best with Where You Are Climate, Microclimate, and Miniclimate

Some like it cold, some like it hot.
When we put in our first vegetable garden we set out plenty of chard. It is a vegetable that grows well all year ’round in Berkeley’s moderate “Mediterranean” climate. But you may be gardening in Minneapolis, Minnesota or Gainesville, Florida. Climate will affect what you can plant when.
The climate of your area is a summary of your daily weather during the year. The word “climate” usually refers to a large region like the eastern seaboard, the Great Lakes states, or the southern Rockies.
Your own city probably has a microclimate which differs a little from the general climate of the whole area. Besides higher temperatures than the surrounding country (it may be much hotter in the summer in high density neighbor-hoods with all the energy used to run air conditioners and the heat expelled by them into the air outdoors), your city will be affected by local geography. Perhaps it is bordered by a large body of water with its moderating influence, or sheltered from cold winds by a range of hills. Lots of particulate matter in the air from industry may mean more overcast days or may affect the pattern of rainfall over the city.
Although there is a saying that no one does much about the weather, in fact modern industrial man (that means you and me, friend) has been affecting it a good deal and most of it by accident. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology held a conference on the subject, and the pa-pers are published in a fascinating book called Inadvertent Climate Modification, available from MIT Press, Cam-bridge, Massachusetts.
But what the urban farmer wants to know is, how can one affect the weather deliberately and for positive results? The factors you need to consider are temperature, moisture, light, and wind. The general climate of your city will be affected by such considerations as latitude and elevation (you can expect roughly a one-degree rise in tem-perature with each 300-feet rise in elevation). The distance you are from the coasts or other large bodies of water, the topography of the region, the prevailing winds-none of these can you change.
The weather you can affect is the miniclimate, the cli-mate unique to your own backyard. Russell Beatty, in the Environmental Horticulture Department at the University of California, Berkeley, helped us greatly in organizing our ideas regarding urban miniclimate modification. He would begin his lectures on the subject by asking two questions:
1) How can the microclimate of a plant be manipulated to increase plant survival?
2) How can plants be manipulated to affect the microclimate?
Let us consider the various factors one by one and see what you can do about them. First there is temperature. This is the most critical in terms of growing plants and often the most difficult to affect. For one thing, it is the extremes of temperature that make the most difference.

Temperature

What plants can take cool weather? This means early spring for many parts of the country, and wintertime for the California Coast and southern states. Chard can, as we mentioned before, and beets, which are closely related. Also peas, fava beans (which are really a pea, not a bean, and are also called horsebeans), spinach, lettuce, carrots, potatoes, and all the brassicas, that is, turnips, rutabagas, radishes, cabbages, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, mustard greens, collards, kale, and any other members of this large family that you may be fond of and we’ve forgotten to mention.
Some brassicas, like collards, can even take a light frost, and it is a frost, temperatures from 32° to 30°F, that really is our main concern. A plant’s ability to withstand cold temperatures is called “hardiness.” Gradually getting plants used to the cold is called “hardening off.” This is what we do when we take a seedling grown indoors on the windowsill and move it to the semi-cool porch for a few days before transplanting it out into the garden itself.
Root crops like carrots and parsnips can be left in the ground fully grown when winter comes if they are pro-tected from low temperatures by a deep insulating blanket of compost or straw and then a covering of snow. Trunks of trees and shrubs can be protected with straw jackets for prolonged cold spells. The problem is frosts that come when the plants are in an actively growing state, in the late spring and early fall.
The kind easiest to protect against are called “radiation” frosts because the heat from the sun that is stored by the earth during the day is lost, or radiated, to the outer at-mosphere at night. This happens on very still, clear nights, when no clouds are present to reflect the heat waves back toward the earth, and no wind mixes the warm and cool air. Moisture in the air is also a protection from this kind of cold, so you can expect more problems with radiation frosts if your city is not under the influence of a marine atmosphere.
Plan ahead to protect your cool weather crops from radi-ation frosts by doing your earliest plantings close to the house where eaves or other overhanging structures may reradiate the heat back down to the plants. Here is where you can turn your city environment to your advantage. A south wall may store heat and give it out at night. Benedic-tine and Cistercian monks knew this and thus were able to grow heat-loving fruits far north in medieval England by pruning the trees and vines flat against the walls of their gardens.
One of our early steps in designing our urban garden was to take advantage of the extra heat along the south wall of our house. We decided to build raised beds there for sever-al reasons. First of all, it is a scant six feet to the edge of the property and a high bamboo hedge we grow to give us privacy on that side. Except for midsummer, plants low on the ground there would always be in the shade of that hedge. Secondly, any plants we set in the soil would be directly competing with the roots of the hedge. Further-more, the drainage in the area is very poor and during our winter rains only large board planks make the walkway passable.
Our solution was a long, narrow eighteen-inch raised bed, flat against the house. First we built a cement barrier to keep the soil away from the stucco walls (and keep out termites), then we built brick retaining walls to hold our planting mixture. We used sifted dirt from where we con-structed our chicken house, mixed with compost and a little sand to lighten the very heavy clay. Then, flat against the house wall we stretched fencing to tie tomato plants to and on which vines might climb. Since all we have is verti-cal space the plants would have to be encouraged to grow upwards. Here in this narrow, unlikely spot, winter and cold-spring peas have flourished and tomatoes and lemon cucumbers have survived late into the fall.
Another strategy is to make your early vegetables porta-ble. Five-gallon containers can be moved under trees or other protection if you suspect a frost coming-we’ll talk about container gardening in a later section of this book.
A cardboard box or bushel basket, inverted over the plant for the night, will also help. It should be large enough so the leaves do not press against the inside of the top. Remember, it is the heat stored in the soil you wish to trap. Wrapping a bag or cloth around the plant and tying it around the stem will not offer protection from this kind of frost.
When planning your urban garden, take into considera-tion that cold air is denser, heavier, and flows down to the lowest spot. Walls, fences, and borders of low shrubs can block cold air or channel it to flow around a low planting area. Large planter boxes on our porch have given us our best crops of cool weather vegetables. The angle of the sun is such that they receive light during the short days of the year where the same area is shaded by the porch roof in the summer. The few feet of elevation give the plants a temperature advantage, and the porch roof reflects back the heat at night. It may be pouring, or dark in the garden, but lettuce for our lunch sandwiches is always convenient-ly available.
If an unexpected frost seems imminent and the vegeta-bles can’t be moved or covered, then lightly sprinkling them during the freezing hours may save the day. Since water releases heat as it turns to ice, the constant freezing of a fine spray of water may create enough heat to keep the plants undamaged. This method is used by commercial lettuce growers in California when rare winter frosts are expected, but the disadvantage is that you must keep sprinklers going all during the danger period. A timer set to start the sprinkler during the coldest hours of the night and early morning should do the trick. All in all, though, this is just an emergency method.
One of the oldest and most successful ways to raise the temperature and extend the season is by using cold frames, hotbeds, minigreenhouses, or cloches-small portable glass or plastic shelters.
The principle of the greenhouse is that light rays from the sun pass easily through the glass or plastic (although only certain plastics pass all of the spectrum most useful to plants). Once they strike the ground or other surfaces they are converted to infrared (the same as the heat waves given off by animals and plants themselves); in this form they do not pass back to the atmosphere as readily, thus are trapped inside. A useful model we devised, after seeing pictures of similar structures used in Israel, consisted of a series of wire or split bamboo arches placed over the bed to be protected and shoved into the ground far enough (six inches or so) to stay put. A plastic sheet is spread over this and a second series of arches placed over the first to hold the plastic in place. These tube-shelters axe open at both ends for ventilation so they should be placed at right angles to the wind for greatest warmth inside. Additional ventilation may be obtained very easily, if necessary, by pulling the plastic up a few inches from the ground on the north side, whenever needed. The main difficulty with all such minishelters is that they may become too moist inside and encourage the growth of disease-inducing fungi. These shelters can be as long as you like, but less than six feet does not seem to give enough of a warming effect.
That windbreaks alone will help plants survive and grow during cold weather became apparent with our use of the above-described shelter. As an experiment, we set up the shelter at right angles to the wind and then planted identical-sized broccoli plants within and on both sides. Those within the shelter rapidly became triple the size of those exposed on the side toward the wind. Those on the pro-tected side did not show the impressive growth difference of those inside, but did grow faster and larger than those to the windward. Of course, many more elaborate and lasting cloches or minishelters can be constructed. We rec-ommend ours because it is so simple and inexpensive.
With some plants, it is not having enough cold weather, or cold enough weather, that becomes a problem. Many fruit trees require a certain number of hours below 45° F. It is difficult to get them to bear fruit in areas of the country that have mild winters. Finding the best varieties of the foods you want to grow for the extremes of climate that your city experiences, as well as the length of the growing period, is an adventure we’ll talk about a little later.
What about the other extreme-hot weather? Beans, corn, cucumbers, squashes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and okra are examples of vegetables that demand the heat. This may mean pulling back the mulch and letting the soil thoroughly warm up before setting out seeds or seedlings. A dark covering on the soil-tarpaper or plastic (though we hate to recommend it because it is made from nonrenew-able fossil fuels and creates a waste problem when you are through with it because it cannot be composted)–helps to increase the heat absorption of the soil. Good drainage is important too, since wet soils take longer to warm up.
The general range of temperatures that are comfortable for man, 65° to 88° F, is comfortable for plants too. Al-though they may grow vigorously from 50° to 107°F, photosynthesis, or the making of sugar in the plant, begins to decline above 87°F. Plant tissues may be killed at 127°F, but they may show signs of heat stress well below that point. Although they take in water faster in warm weather, plants lose water more quickly then, too. The drier the air, the more the wind blows away the layer of saturated air close to the leaves, and the faster the plant will lose water, until a point may be reached when the roots can’t take it in fast enough and the plant wilts.
Besides wilting, plants may show a brown scorch along the leaf margin and the tip, or a yellowing that indicates the chlorophyll has been damaged. However, these symptoms may also be signs of mineral deficiencies (yellowing indicates lack of nitrogen or sulphur), or salt buildup (brown margins) usually associated with insufficient moisture. Obviously, you need to be sensitive to all the elements necessary to good plant growth. Although we might talk about them one by one in a book like this, in the real environment they interact.
Various plants have different ways to cope with high temperatures: the arrangement of the leaves-those held perpendicular to the sun do not absorb as much heat; through coloration-gray-green foliage is sun tolerant but cannot handle low light intensities; thick wax layers of cutin on the leaf surfaces which insulate, reflect heat, and prevent excessive water loss; and hairs on the leaf itself which offer shade. Cacti, with their many spines, carry their own lathe houses with them, so to speak.
One can provide shade for heat-sensitive plants like let-tuce and spinach by suspending shade cloth over them. This is sold in varying degrees of transparency. Lathe shel-ters give good protection-the boards should run north and south so that each spot on the plants is alternately exposed to sun and shade. Container plants can be moved under tree canopies. Heat-sensitive plants can be planted on the east side of structures so that they catch the morning sun but afternoon shade. In general, the south to southwest side of any structure is the area for your heat-loving plants.

Wind

Wind and moisture have interconnected effects that are easy to understand-the moving air replaces the more moist layer close to the leaf surface, thus having a drying effect upon the plants. The wind also reduces the temperature of the leaves. An increase in wind speed of three miles per hour may reduce air temperatures 3° F; and the windier it is, the more closely the leaf temperature will approach air temperature. Transpiration of water through the leaves is one of the important ways that plants can cool themselves.
Good air circulation is particularly important in prevent-ing the buildup of certain kinds of plant diseases. Pruning a plant so that air and light can reach the interior, and spacing plants so that air can circulate freely will help control humidity. Of course, it is partly this water vapor transpired from the plants that makes vegetation in cov-ered areas pleasant to human beings and a grassy tree-covered park a welcome relief from asphalt and cement. Soil humidity can be managed through your watering tech-niques, the use of raised beds, and the addition of organic material to the soil and on top of it as a mulch-more about all this when we get to the subject of soils.
Where wind is a problem because of its chilling or drying effects, screens may be effective. It is important that wind-breaks be partially penetrable; actually about 30 to 50 percent is best. Solid barriers tend to increase the gusts and turbulence on the leeward side. Thus a basket weave or similar style fence with open spaces is superior to a solid one, and shrubs and trees are better yet. On level ground a plant barrier will reduce winds for a distance roughly five times its height–the greatest protection being close to the barrier itself.

Light

Light intensity can be affected by pruning and spacing of plants. Walls and other structures painted white will help reflect light, too. Various urban dwellers, plagued with small spaces shaded by nearby structures, have tried many ingenious devices such as mirrors and aluminum foil reflec-tors to brighten shady areas, but none is an adequate substitute for sunlight. A rough rule of thumb is: plants from which you eat the leaves (lettuce, spinach, chard, etc.) can stand the most shade, those from which you eat the fruits (tomatoes, squashes, corn, etc.) need the most sun, and root crops fall somewhere in between.
Those areas that get no direct sun at all-the north side of a tall house or fence, the garage or basement are suit-able only for raising mushrooms, meat, earthworms for feeding chickens, or for the composting system.
Mushrooms can be, actually should be, grown without light, but we want to interject some words of caution: the directions that come along with mushroom spawn you can buy imply that it is simple to grow mushrooms at home. Not so. It is very tricky to maintain the proper humidity and temperature (a cave will do nicely), and process the compost medium on which the spawn is to be grown. It must be warm while the spawn is spreading through the beds, and cold while the mushrooms are being harvested. Before you go into it, we suggest you do some additional reading on the subject and be sure you are willing to take the time and trouble and can provide the proper environ-ments.
Rabbits and chickens can both be raised without direct sun. More about this in Chapter 9.
Light conditions may affect what you plant when, as well as where you plant it, just as temperature does. The shortening days of late summer, the lengthening days of spring, may each have a different and specific effect upon a plant. The result may be similar to the way excess heat can cause spinach or lettuce to “bolt,” that is, prematurely form flowers and seeds, becoming rather tough, sometimes bitter, and usually inedible in the process.
Want to plant Chinese cabbage in the summer, or an onion that forms large bulbs in your area? The answer is to select a variety suitable to your latitude and time of year. Some vegetables are indifferent, but others cannot be grown at just any time. A great favorite of ours, coriander, which we love raw in salads and cooked in Chinese dishes, is strictly a spring and early summer vegetable in the San Francisco area. During the late summer no sooner does it reach picking stage than it goes to seed, though the tem-peratures remain nearly the same in July as they were in June.
How to tell which varieties of onions, Chinese cabbage, or other vegetables are suitable for spring or fall? The seed catalogues are sources of information; so are your state agricultural experiment station and county farm advisor. So are others growing food in your own city. How to find and meet them? Local garden clubs or ecology centers may know who’s growing their own food. The letters to the editor section of Organic Gardening and Farming magazine may put you in touch with other urban or suburban farm-ers in your area.
So, with these observations about microclimate in mind, take a look at the areas where you hope to grow some food, and see how they stack up. Don’t forget to include in your calculations the height of the sun in the sky at different times of the year and how that will change the position of shadows from adjacent buildings. You may find, as we did, that during some parts of the year only the roof gets enough light to produce the vegetables you want. Your sunniest spot may require some wind protection.
Now, having picked where you will start your food pro-duction, and considered what modifications you may need to make for wind, frost, or sun protection, take a look at the soil.

Chapter 4

What’s So Great About Just Plain Dirt ?

Recently, in an urban food-growing class, a stu-dent who had been listening patiently to discussions about soil cultivation asked, “What’s so special about dirt? Wouldn’t it be easier for city gardeners to avoid messing with it altogether and just grow plants hydroponically?” She went on to describe a visit she had with friends who grow all their vegetables that way; that is, in water, adding nutrients as needed. This student proclaimed them as tasty as any other. Perhaps some people feel that it is cleaner, heater, more modern not to have to mess around with nasty old dirt.
Now first of all, we must point out to you that dirt, as our soil professor, Dr. Williams, was fond of saying, is something you get under your fingernails. What you grow plants in is “soil.” Why bother with soil? Well, for one thing, growing plants in water takes a great deal of energy. Artificial nutrients must be added to the water, and the synthetic fertilizers take energy to produce (especially nat-ural gas, already in short supply). Since roots need oxygen, energy may be used to pump air into the water. Should the water become stagnant, the plants will soon begin to rot.
In addition to the energy input you will need to devise some means of holding the plants up. In greenhouses, plants such as tomatoes or cucumbers may be supported on strings or trellises attached to the ceiling. Gravel, saw-dust, or sand is used in some hydroponic systems so the roots have something to hang on to. Soil, on the other hand, provides a medium in which plants can support themselves-and it has some other wonderful qualities as
well. It is a matrix for plant nutrient exchanges between the surfaces of clay particles, the soil-water solution, and plant roots; gas exchanges between air and plant roots; water storage for plants; and last but not least, an environ-ment for soil life-the decomposers and detritivores. Most important: soil contains many nutrients which would be costly to replace.
When we started our urban farm, one of our first tasks was to learn what soil is, besides something underfoot we had been taking for granted.

How Soil Happens

Before the city was built, there was the land. There was the earth-rocks, water, sun, wind, plants, animals, and microorganisms living here. These, all together, developed the soil. Then the city was started and gradually the soil was affected by the weight of heavy things being moved across it and the addition of man-made debris.
Below the soil everywhere are rocks. In some places the soil is very deep. In other areas, the parent rocks of the soil are very close to the surface. Rocks can be described in many ways.
Sometimes it is useful to classify them according to the way they were formed. There are rocks that cooled direct-ly from molten material, called “igneous” rocks. Agni was the Indo-European god of fire, and the name is still hon-ored in our words “ignition” and “ignite.”
If this molten material cooled slowly, the minerals in it formed big crystals, the way sugar crystals form slowly around a string when you make rock candy. Granite is such a rock. If the material cools quickly, for example underwater or close to the surface of the ground, the crystals will be small. Sometimes they will not even have time to form, and a glassy rock-like obsidian, much favored by the Indians for making arrowheads, will be the result.
There are other groups of rocks that are nothing more than the compressed accumulations of sediments-particles of other rocks that have been broken down by the action of wind, water, and temperature changes. These “sedi-mentary” rocks may be sandstones, for instance, if they are composed of evenly worn materials on land; shales and mudstones if they were formed of finer materials along the edges of a lake; or limestones full of the dead skeletons of marine animals if they were formed beneath oceans.
The third general classification of rocks is the “metamor-phic,” which means “changed.” When any rocks, regardless of their origin, are buried deeply in the earth and subjected to great heat and pressure, they undergo characteristic changes. They become harder, denser, and often the miner-als in the rocks will line themselves up in bands or stria-tions. Thus, granites may become shists or gneisses with lovely stripes, limestones become marbles, shales become slate, and so on.
These many varieties of rocks are composed of different minerals, most of them made up of different chemical compounds. Slowly, the surfaces of these rocks are broken down into soil through the process called weathering. Physically the rocks may be weathered through abrasion by ice or wind and water carrying sand particles, the same way the windshield of a car can become worn and pitted in a dust storm. Temperature changes will also cause the rocks to crack and split off small pieces. Chemical weather-ing is important also. Rain water, falling through the air, picks up carbon dioxide and becomes a weak acid, carbon-ic acid, which will start chemical changes in the minerals composing the rocks. Plants exude organic acids from their roots which also help in this process of soil building.
The kind of soil that results after weathering will depend on’ the original rock, or parent material, including the particular minerals it contains; the climate under which the decomposing takes place, that is, the rainfall, temperature, and wind conditions; the slope of the land where the soil is forming; the length of time the process has been going on; and most important, the kind of plants that are growing there.
For an excellent introduction to this subject, see The Soils That Support Us, by Charles E. Kellogg. In his book, Kellogg gives a description of this action of plants influenc-ing the kind of soil that is formed. He contrasts two areas of different rainfall and temperatures: places where tall grasses are native, and forests of pines and spruces. The tall grasses feed heavily on those chemicals in the soil called bases-calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Then, as the abundant grass tops die and decompose, these bases are released at the surface, preventing the soil from becoming acid, even if rainfall is plentiful. In contrast, pines and spruces feed very lightly on the bases and return very little organic matter to the soil. These more acid materials will decompose very slowly, in part because of the many com-plex resins and oils they contain. However, the rate of decomposition is always faster in warm weather. Thus the same conifers may have thick mats under them in the north, while warmer southern soils may be more quickly depleted of their organic matter.
Bacteria do not grow well in acid soils, leaving decompo-sition primarily to the fungi. Fungi produce rather soluble materials which are leached (washed down) easily from the soil by water. Bacteria, on the other hand, which do best in neutral soil, produce compounds that are less soluble. These less soluble minerals then remain in the upper soil long enough to be available to plant roots once again. So neutral soil, where abundant organic matter is decomposed by bacteria, tends to be more naturally rich in available plant nutrients.
When you take into account all these complex, varying conditions, you can see there is no such thing as a “normal” soil. There are thousands of kinds of soils in the world. Because of all the factors involved, different soil may be developed from the same parent rock and similar soils may be developed from different original materials. But if the original rocks never had a certain mineral, calci-um, for instance, as is the case with serpentine rocks com-mon along the northern California coast, then the soils will be lacking in it also. Luckily, city gardeners deal with an area so small in size they are often able to make even the poorest, most deficient soil productive, while the in-tensive care that this requires would not be economically feasible to a farmer working on a larger scale.
To sum it up: rocks are broken down by weathering, but then soil is built up by plants and microorganisms. Differ-ent proportions of minerals from different depths in the ground are deposited by plants at the surface when they die. Then different microorganisms decompose the materi-als at different rates depending upon different conditions. No wonder soils are different!
Three quarters of the earth’s surface is water. Of the one fourth that is land, a little less than half is too steep or too dry for growing crops. The little that remains is what sup-ports ail humanity. Since the best agricultural land is gen-erally the flattest land, it is also the most attractive for building. Here in California, which still produces a large percentage of the nation’s foods, the finest, deepest soils in the world are slowly disappearing under freeways, shop-ping centers, houses, and all the other structures of subur-ban sprawl. It may take more than 1,000 years to produce an inch of fertile topsoil, its fertility being in great measure dependent on the amount of life and organic matter it contains. Construction of roads or buildings usually re-moves this topsoil or mixes it with infertile subsoil and compacts it, destroying its structure. It will take more than tearing up the asphalt and adding a few synthesized fertilizers to restore those destroyed soils to productive agricul-tural use again.

Soil Character

Looked at poetically, every soil has a personality. It has a history, as we have just seen, and it also has a profile, a texture, and a structure. The personality of your soil needs to be accounted for when you cultivate, water, and fertil-ize.
The soil profile is a description of how the layers of the soil differ as you go deeper and deeper, from the surface down to the rock underneath. On top lies the undecom-posed organic matter and beneath that the materials that have been broken down already by the action of micro-organisms and larger animals. In our garden, we give a lot of attention to this layer by producing compost and laying it on top of the soil as a mulch. The idea is to copy the natural process as it would occur in a forest, prairie, or wherever plants exist.
Below this layer begins the topsoil. This is the layer with the most organic matter, oxygen, and living orga-nisms, including plant roots. This layer will often be darker than the soil below it. It is also the area from which the minerals are leached away by the action of water moving down because of the pull of gravity. The topsoil is the most fertile, valuable part of the soil profile and the one most easily destroyed by ignorance and carelessness.
Beneath the topsoil comes the subsoil. Here the minerals carried down by water may be deposited. If you dig a hole in your own yard exposing the layers of soil, or if you are studying these layers in a road cut where you can see them easily, you can often recognize this layer by poking at it with a penknife. Starting at the top, pick away at each visible layer; when you come to a hard area, you can guess that’s where the minerals have been deposited.
Sometimes, in fact, this layer may be so dense that plant roots and drainage water have a hard time making it through. This type of layer is called a “hard pan” by soil scientists. If the hard pan is severe, you may need to culti-vate deeply to break it up. Besides forming naturally through mineral deposition, hard pans may also be caused by always plowing to the same depth and destroying the structure of the soil by the shearing action of the plow blade. If your house has been built upon soil originally used for mechanized agriculture you may have inherited such a “plow pan.”
Of course, one can be fooled when reading a soil profile. In our student garden we dug a hole in the process of creating some experimental fish ponds. The top layer was the blackest, changing gradually to pale yellow subsoil. Then, surprise, there was another dark layer below that! The mystery was cleared up when we learned something of the history of that area. Apparently, the original fertile topsoil had been buried when the surrounding streets had first been laid, the entire end of the block being leveled and then topsoil from somewhere else spread over it. Top-soil may also be transported by streams and glaciers as well as man, and thus may not always be derived from the rock found below it.
How close the rock is to the surface of your land will dictate in part whether you will need to resort to building a growing medium on top or whether you are lucky enough to have many feet of rich well-drained soils, as are found in some of California’s productive agricultural val-leys.

Soil Texture

The proportion of sand, silt, and clay particles in your soil determines its texture. Classified by size, the sand par-ticles are the largest-usually easily visible to the naked eye. Silt particles are finer-like sifted cake flour. Clay particles are the smallest of all-too fine to be seen individ-ually without an electron microscope. Silts are often wind-blown materials, powdery when dry and greasy when wet. The sand and silt particles have usually been altered in little besides size, compared to the rocks from which they were derived. Clay, on the other hand, has usually under-gone chemical changes which, in addition to the very small size of the individual particles, gives it special qualities. Most of us are familiar with the nature of clay from having made things with it when we were small, or from trying to clean it off our boots when we’ve gone walking through a muddy field.
In ordinary speech, the word “loam” is used to mean any good soil. To a soil scientist the term has a very precise meaning–referring to a particular mixture of silt, sand, and clay.
Now, the two questions that came to our minds when we first learned about all this, were

  1. How can I tell what my soil texture is? and
  2. Why does it matter?

A Touch Test for Your Soil

  1. Take a bit of soil into the palm of one hand-a table-spoon full or a little less.
  2. Add a little water (you can even use spit).
  3. With the fingers of the other hand work the water into the soil so that it is thoroughly wet, but don’t use so much water that the mixture is runny. It should be quite firm.

Now try two tests.

  1. Rub the mixture out thinly against your palm. What do you feel and see? Clay gives the soil a shine when you press down firmly and spread it out. It feels slippery. If the · soil is sandy, there will be no shine. It will feel gritty-you may be able to feel individual sand grains. Take the time to mix and knead the soil thoroughly, because clay takes a while to wet through. You can be deceived into thinking you are feeling sand particles, when really they are small hard clay lumps that haven’t yet softened. Silt gives the soil a greasy quality, but will not make it plastic the way day does.
  2. Roll the wet soil into a ball, then into as long and thin a snake as possible. Let the last inch or so of the snake stick out over the edge of your palm. If you can, pick up the snake roll by one end. The sandier the soil is, the harder time you will have getting it rolled into a ball, and any snake you manage to shape will quickly fall apart. As the percentage of clay increases, you will be able to roll a thick snake that keeps its shape, but if the end protrudes beyond the edge of your hand it will be apt to crack and break off. The more clay, the thinner the snake you can roll, until with a high percentage of clay, you can roll a very thin strip that will hold together when you pick up one end. (When the amount of clay in the soil reaches approximately 35 percent or more, a snake 1/4 inch in diameter can be picked up by one end without breaking.)

Learning to tell the texture, or proportion of sand, silt, and clay of your soil by this method takes practice. It is like training your ear to recognize different notes of the scale-a comparison with other notes is helpful. You need to try this touch test with many soils and see how they differ. Wherever you go, take a bit of soil into your hand and try it out, while remembering the ones you’ve worked before. (Your friends will get used to seeing you kneading little balls of damp soil while staring reflectively off into space with a faraway look on your face.)

Why Does Texture Matter?

At this point you are probably thinking, “Why bother?” The answer is, because the amount of sand, silt, and clay influences water movement through soil, the amount of water held by the soil, and whether or not the nutrients the plants need, many of which come from decaying organic materials, will be held in the soil available to the plant roots. What it comes down to is, clay is “where the action is” in soils, in relation to water and to the minerals that plants need.
We were very surprised when we first learned this. We had been dismayed to discover the soil in our backyard was such heavy clay that when wet, it felt as if you might mold pottery out of it, and when dry, deep cracks would appear. Then we learned that the chemical weathering that clays have undergone and their very small size are responsi-ble for two valuable properties. Each tiny clay platelet is flat and thin, giving it a tremendous surface area relative to its volume. It is also negatively charged. This means that clays can attract, retain, and’ exchange the positively charged minerals that are necessary for plant growth. In a sandy soil the same plant nutrients will wash right through with every rain or irrigation. It also means that clays retain water very well on their surfaces and in the many tiny spaces between particles.
These clay platelets are like microscopic sandwiches, made up of thin layers of silica and alumina. Some clays actually absorb water between the layers, causing them to swell when wet and shrink when dry-thus the deep cracks that used to appear suddenly everywhere in our garden. (But not any more: I’ll tell you what we did when we come to considering soil structure.)
To sum it up, then, the texture, or proportion of sand, silt, and clay in your soil, determines how and when you water, fertilize, and cultivate.
What does the texture of your soil have to do with watering your garden?
In clay or heavy soils, water infiltrates very slowly after rain or irrigation because the spaces between the particles are very small. As they begin to absorb water, the clay platelets may swell and further impede water movement. Water rises very slowly by capillary action from the under-ground water table, and it may rise as high as six feet (capillary action is the upward movement of water in small spaces due to the mutual attraction of the soil and thc water).
So, with clay soils you need to water a great deal to wet the soil to a good depth, but you don’t need to water very often.
In sandy or light soils, water infiltrates very quickly, but the soil dries out quickly too, as water moves down by the pull of gravity. Water will rise very quickly from the water table, but it will not rise very high, leveling off at about eighteen inches.
So, with sandy soils you don’t need to add a lot of water each time, but you need to water frequently.
Clay soils can really hold more water than sandy ones-about one and a half gallons of water for every cubic foot of soil, compared to only half a gallon in the same amount of sandy soil. This works out to just under an inch of water to wet a foot deep in sandy soils, but almost two and a half inches of water to wet the same distance down in a clay soft.
The way we tested our sprinkler to find out how long it took to deliver an inch of water was to set out a series of one-pound coffee cans at progressively greater distances from the center to the edge of the area it watered, and we timed how long it took to fill the cans an inch deep. This method will also tell you whether your sprinkler is deliver-hag water evenly from the center out, or if some areas are getting waterlogged while others are still thirsty.
The depth from which a plant will normally extract water varies greatly with the kind of plant it is as well as the structure of the soil and how easily the roots can penetrate it. In general, though, the main root zone for lawn grasses and leafy vegetables is the top one foot; for corn, tomatoes, and small shrubs the top one to two feet; and for small trees and large shrubs the top two or three feet. Some large trees go down twenty to thirty feet. Excep-tions do occur; for example, alfalfa in loose soil could go down thirty feet.
Water is lost from this root zone when it percolates downward through the pull of gravity, and it is also lost by evaporation from the surface of the soil. How much is lost how fast depends on the wind velocity and the tempera-ture of the air. Warm air can hold more moisture than cool air, and if the saturated air is blown away from the surface of the ground, more can evaporate into the unsaturated air which takes its place. The way we handle this situation in our garden is to cover all exposed earth between plants with mulch.

Mulching

Compost is the ideal mulch. It provides a habitat for many animals that live on decaying matter. Some, such as earwigs which are also carnivorous (meaning they’ll eat some of your pest insects as well as eat plant matter) and sowbugs or pillbugs, actually cause less damage to growing plants when there is plenty of organic mulch around. Another reason for using compost on top of the soil is that it breaks the fall of raindrops, preventing them from erod-ing away the sides of raised beds, and pounding the surface of the ground, creating a hard crust. Little seedlings have no trouble poking their way through a soil surface kept soft, moist, and at an even temperature by a layer of com-post. Another advantage of using a compost mulch is that as the material decomposes, the nutrients and sometimes larger, not-completely-decomposed pieces are carried down into the ground by water and various animals, such as earthworms.
However, other mulches can be just as effective in reduc-ing water loss by evaporation from the open soil. Since Berkeley has rather cool summers by comparison with much of the rest of the country, we sometimes have trou-ble raising heat-loving vegetables such as yellow crook-neck summer squash. So one year we decided to try sheets of black plastic over the beds. First we stretched the plastic out over the prepared and soaked beds, anchoring it firmly all around with soil shoveled up over the edges. Then we made ten-inch slits in the plastic with a single edge razor wherever we intended to have our plants, and set in the seedlings (which already had the second or true leaves) through the slits. It was necessary to heap soil on top of the plastic in at least an eight-inch circle around the little seedling. If we didn’t, the wind tended to get in under the plastic through the slits, whipping the sheets right off the beds, beheading the plants. Furthermore, the heat was so great on the south side of the seedling that it tended to fry the young plants while the roots were still small and near the surface.
By comparison with beds not covered in this way, we did have very high yields on both winter and summer squashes. This must have been due to the much higher soil tempera-tures under the black plastic. We found that months, rath-er than weeks, could go by between waterings. When it was necessary to soak the ground again, we slipped a hose in through the slits and allowed it to run slowly for half an hour or so around the base of each plant. The position of the hose end has to be moved now and then. Water does not tend to spread out sideways the way it soaks down directly into the ground.
But we have a problem about using plastic. Not only is it made from nonrenewable fossil materials which are becoming scarce, but when it gets old and full of holes and tears, it creates a waste-management problem since it can’t be broken down by microorganisms. So, in spite of the good effect it had on the raised soil temperatures, once those original sheets of plastic wore out, which they did in one season, we never used any again.
Compost is a superior mulch for container-grown plants. If the surface is kept evenly moist it is less likely to shrink away from the sides of the box or can. For rooftops, where wind is a problem, cutting out a piece of burlap the shape of the top of the container and fitting it around the stem of the plant over the top of the mulch helps to keep the compost from drying out and blowing away. You can tuck the edges down into the soil around the inside edge of the container and put a few big stones on top to make sure.
Besides being lost from the open ground by evaporation, water is also lost by plants. The leaves of seed plants have many small openings, called stomata, surrounded by two guard cells. The whole structure looks rather like a dough-nut or an inner tube under the microscope. When there is plenty of water available to the plant, the plant tissues, and thus the guard cells, are plump and the hole is open. When these guard cells lose their plumpness they collapse, closing the hole and reducing water loss. However, this is really an imperfect process. In the heat of the day during midsummer, it is common to see the large leaves of squash plants wilting slightly in the sun. Watering will do no good, for the leaves are simply losing water faster than the roots can take it in. They will usually completely recover as shade or the cooler air reaches them.
There may be a problem with water loss in transplanting young seedlings. Water is absorbed by plants mostly through the small, fuzzy, white, one-cell-large root hairs which form right behind the growing tip of the root. As they are very fragile, the movement of the little seedlings from the container where they were started to the ground outdoors very often damages these root hairs, thus crip-pling the plant’s ability to take in water. The mechanism for preventing water loss being as imperfect as it is, the seedling may become irretrievably wilted before enough new root hairs have had the time to grow and the plant can start absorbing water again.
This is one of the several reasons that, were you to look at our garden during the dry warm part of the year, you would see a little forest of overturned earthen flowerpots. They make perfect protection to the newly set out seed-lings. Since increased temperature and wind velocity also influences the rate at which plants transpire water, cover-ing them for the first day or two after transplanting with an overturned flowerpot solves both conditions. The seed-lings are shaded, and the wind is prevented from blowing away the wet saturated air immediately around them.

Rules on Watering

  1. Water thoroughly but infrequently. The top eight to ten inches should be wet. To decide how often and how long to water, you need to know the texture of your soil (heavy or light) and how much water your sprinkler deliv-ers in an hour. Then adjust the time to fit how windy and warm it was in the period since you last watered. The hotter and windier, the sooner you need to water again.
  2. Water in the cool part of the day when not too windy, to avoid unnecessary evaporation.
  3. Water early in the day to allow the plants to dry off. This will help discourage the growth of disease. Contrary to myth, a drop of water on the leaf does not operate like a magnifier and produce spots.
  4. Cover seedlings with overturned pots or other protection during the first day or two after transplanting.
  5. Use mulches whenever possible.
  6. Check the depth of soil moisture in your garden with a spade.

Now, to get off a little steam, we must say something about a dreadful practice that is very common in urban areas: standing about with a hose, sprinkling by hand. To be sure, this is usually done on front lawns and for the purpose of giving the person a chance to get outdoors and see what’s happening in the neighborhood, but even if it has social justifications, it is a very poor watering practice. Too little water is delivered this way, as few people have the patience to stand in one spot for the time it takes to soak the lawn thoroughly; thus only the top inches get wet. This encourages the grass roots to grow up in the top layer of soil where they are more subject to damage from sunburn, traffic, and disease. It may encourage tree roots to become surface feeders, causing all kinds of problems as they pop up sidewalks. It is best to soak deeply, an hour or so in each spot depending upon your type of soil, and then let the surface dry out between waterings. This will en-courage the roots to seek water at greater depths.
There are some special circumstances which demand ex-ceptions from the rules just mentioned. Seedbeds must be kept moist. If they are outdoors in hot weather this may mean a watering several times a day, as seeds must not dry out during germination. Certain mature plants that origi-nate in foggy areas enjoy a daily misting, for instance, some ferns, mosses, rhododendrons, azaleas, and fuschias. On the other hand, some plants, such as cactus, will only blos-som and do their best if left entirely dry for a period of several months each year.
Containers need special watering too. More about that when we discuss container and rooftop gardening in detail (Chapter 11).
One last comment about watering. Furrow irrigation, where you dig little ditches and plant on each side as is done in irrigated agriculture, uses more water than over-head sprinkling, but is superior for some plants that are susceptible to mildew in cool climates, for example, squashes and peas. Overhead watering can also reduce some insect problems directly by washing the insects off, and indirectly by creating the proper moisture conditions for diseases.
Water carefully and not wastefully-for water is precious, purchased with energy, and if too much is used, it will wash nutrients down below the reach of plant roots.

Structure

There’s a saying among soil scientists, “You can’t do anything about soil texture, but you can improve soil structure.” When we heard that the first time, two ques-tions came to mind. First of all, what is soil “structure,” compared to texture, and secondly, is the saying true for the city gardener as well as the farmer?
The structure of a soil is the way in which the sand, silt, and clay particles are arranged. Ideally the particles are not all the same distance from each other. Rather, they are dumped together in combinations of groups of grains, or aggregates, with spaces between the clumps. This granula-tion of the soil is promoted by a number of things. For instance:

  1. freezing and thawing;
  2. expansion and con-traction of water films around the soil particles;
  3. action of plant roots growing and dying;
  4. presence of a network of fungal mycelium (those thin, white, intertwining threads that are the fungus plants) in the top eight inches or so of the soil; and
  5. mixing effects of the soil animals.
    The animals and plants secrete complex sugars (organic gums and polysaccharides), and these coat the soil particles with a slime which helps the aggregates to stay together. Unless the soil granules are stabilized by coatings of organ-ic matter or their own electrochemical properties, they will gradually coalesce into larger and larger clods.
    Have you ever seen a mature tree growing from a crack in a huge rock? Maybe you thought it was the tree root that started the crack in the first place. Not so. There has to be a space there already in which the tree root can get started. Once established, by slowly adding to its width, a plant can actually force the two halves of the rock apart along the crack. But the tiny fragile tip of a plant root can only grow longer if it can find a space to grow into.
    This is one reason a compacted soil, or a compacted layer of hard pan in your soil, can limit the growth of plants. Roots cannot penetrate where there are not already spaces to grow into. Thus, well-structured (that is, well-aggregated) soils with lots of spaces for plant roots are important in growing plants. Structure refers to the kind of characteristic sizes of spaces or pores in the soil.
    Believe it or not, a soil with a good structure will be 50 percent empty space. When Helga was in college, being an admirer of Chinese culture, she read a lot of ancient Chi-nese poetry and philosophy. She remembers being im-pressed by a Taoist text which pointed out that it was precisely the empty or “nothing” part of a cup that made the cup useful. For if it was solid, it could .not be used to contain something. So it is with a good soil. The empty spaces in the soil are just as important as the soil particles, for it is in these pores that water and air are held, and plant roots and soil organisms need both.
    Now, it is true that some plant roots can stand condi-tions with less air than others, those that grow in marshes, for instance. Cranberries, rice, celery, even broccoli and cauliflower, are plants that can stand various degrees of waterlogged soils for periods of time. On the other hand, some plants–common fruit trees are a good example-may be very sensitive to poor drainage. (See Chapter 8, on planting fruit trees.)
    When airless, or anaerobic conditions exist in the soil, different bacteria start to grow and toxic materials may be formed, hydrogen sulfide, for instance. Since carbon di-oxide is breathed out, or respired, by both living plant roots and soil animals, this can also collect around the roots and exclude oxygen. At high levels it is also toxic to plants. So, good soil structure, with plenty of spaces for the free exchange of gasses with the air, is important.
    The total amount of pore space is less important than the characteristic sizes of the spaces. From this point of view, a clay soil may have more pore space but be less suitable for plants than a sandy one. This is because the sizes of the clay particles are so small that the spaces be-tween them are small too. Thus air and water move through very slowly. It is rather like the difference in air spaces that you get when you pack sesame seeds, com-pared to walnuts, in a jar. The bigger the objects, the big-ger the spaces in between. Remember too that some clay particles have the ability to absorb water between their sandwich layers, causing them to swell and thus to further block the passage of water, air, or plant roots.
    Actually, a good soil will have large and small spaces, all held open because the soil aggregates or clumps are coated with organic slime, as mentioned before. When you water, the large pore spaces will fill and then drain by gravity, fairly rapidly. Oxygen will enter the soil where the pores have drained. The small pore spaces will absorb and retain water by capillary action.
    A good soil texture can be destroyed in a number of ways. The most common method in urban areas is by com-paction through walking or driving on the soil. Never walk on the beds or soil where you will grow plants.
    Continuous cropping without returning enough organic matter to the soil will also gradually destroy porosity. This is seen where corn, a plant that produces very little easily decomposed root material, is grown year after year in the same place. Gradually the soil structure becomes poorer and poorer, since there is little organic matter to feed soil organisms that maintain the soil aggregates.
    Tilling, or cultivating, the soil will also destroy soil aggre-gates. In the short run it may leave the soil looser, espe-cially if it is used to incorporate organic material. How-ever, over the long term it may have undesirable effects, by breaking the stable soil aggregates as well as through hastening the oxidation of organic matter by exposing it to air and sun. The worst offenders are roto-tillers. They may appear to leave the soil fluffy, but after a couple of water-ings it will be more compacted than before. The blades, in churning, actually smash the soil particles together. Your only excuse for using a roto-tlller in an urban garden is if you have a huge compacted area to cover and wish to dig in a great deal of well-composted organic matter the first time.
    It is best to use a digging fork, if you feel you must turn the soil. When you do so, mix your compost lightly into the top few inches of the beds. Organic matter buried deeply will not have enough oxygen to enable soil micro-and macro-organisms to decompose it satisfactorily.
    The easiest way to destroy the structure of the soil that has fair amounts of clay is to disturb it when it is wet. This will cause the aggregates to collapse and is called “puddl-ing.” The result of turning a clay soil when it is wet’ big, heavy, hard-to-break-up clumps of earth when it is dry. How to tell when a clay soil can be disturbed? When it has drained sufficiently so there is no longer any shine when you slice into it with a spade.
    What to do if your soil has lots of clay in it and the spring is so wet that it never does seem to dry out enough to plant? Here’s what we do in our backyard, where we have a heavy clay adobe, yet the rainy winter and spring weather are so mild that we can grow plants around the year. First, we raise the level of our beds six to eight inches higher than the pathways between them. We did this origi-nally by digging out the walks as shallow trenches and throwing the soil onto the areas that were to become beds. In some areas we held the sides up with boards. Then we heaped four to six inches of compost on top; this we re-new as fast as we can produce it.
    This has had two wonderful results. Even during the heaviest rains we can still plant out the seedlings that we start inside on the window sill. We simply part the mulch, set the seedling in, and tuck the mulch back firmly around it. That way we do not disturb the soil itself at all. In addition, this organic matter is placed just where there is the most oxygen available for the microorganisms and soil animals to decompose it. The nutrients thus released are watered down to the area of the plant roots. After four consecutive years of this treatment, the top layers of our hard adobe had become so soft and friable that one can plunge one’s hand right in up to the knuckles, even the wrist in some areas. Through the action of the larger ani-mals, such as earthworms, this improvement of the soil is continuing, deeper and deeper every year as more pore space and thus more oxygen becomes available to orga-nisms penetrating further into the ground. We tell people, “Forget turning the soil-let the worms do it for you.”

How to Improve the Structure of Your Soil

  1. Add organic matter-well-made compost is the best. In clay soil, this will increase aggregation and pore space. In sandy soils it will increase water and nutrient-holding capacities. In all soils it will provide nutrient materials for varied soil fauna, the activities of which aid in forming soil aggregates.
  2. Till the soil as little as possible–once a year or not at all–only to add organic matter, if necessary. Tillage is usually done to remove weeds, but weeding is better han-dled by mulching, because mulches smother weed seed-lings, make large weeds easier to pull by keeping the ground surface soft and moist, improve water penetration when it rains or when you irrigate, reduce erosion of the soil surface, eliminate rain compaction and mud splattering (the latter is sometimes important in transmission of plant disease), and finally, they add organic matter to the area where most of the microorganisms are that can decompose it.
  3. Rotate your crops. Alternate with legumes (peas and beans), whenever possible.

Not infrequently, at this point in a discussion of how to manage the soil, someone will wail, “I’ve just rented a house with a neglected backyard big enough to grow a little food. But the soil is impossible. It’s heavy clay, all covered with weeds-I’ve got to turn it.” Here is our sug-gestion on what to do. Cut down the weeds, cover the ground with a heavy (one foot, if possible) layer of com-post or other mulch such as decomposed manure and straw from a stable, or piles of leaves. Let the rains, regular weekly watering, or snow start decomposition. Let it be for a while. After a month or so (just time to get all settled in your new house) depending on the weather-the warmer it is the faster the material will decompose–mix the par-tially decomposed materials lightly into the top few inches of the soil. Add a little nitrogen; this can be blood meal, human urine, high nitrogen manure, or compost, and you are ready to go. Just prepare and plant one area at a time. “Start small” is a good motto for urban gardeners.
Now that you know what soil structure is, how about the answer to the other question we started with? Can you change the texture of the soil? Well, a farmer can’t, be-cause he has too much area to deal with. Even increasing the proportion of sand from 10 to 30 percent in a clay carrot bed two feet wide, ten feet long, and one foot deep takes an awful lot of sand-about five cubic feet. (Further-more, as time goes on, the sand may migrate downward through the clay.) If you are investing in several cubic yards of good “loam” for your yard, be sure to mix the lower portion of it with the less fertile subsoil beneath it. Too abrupt a transition will create drainage problems (much as a pan would).
Where you can greatly influence the texture of a soil is in container gardening. There you can have just the mixture of sand and clay you choose. More about that later.

Chapter 5

Why Compost?

All the energy that some folks put into fertilizing and weeding, we put into composting. With our methods of making and using compost, those other jobs almost take care of themselves. We’ve written so much about compost already, you must think we regard it as the cure-all for everything from weak eyesight to Aunt Mary’s lumbago!
Why should you compost? It’s an ideal way of handling the organic wastes that accumulate around an ordinary household-kitchen garbage, weeds, grass clippings, ashes, bits of paper, dust from the vacuum cleaner, etc. Since all of these materials originated from growing plants, they all contain the nutrients that plants need to grow. What could be better than recycling them back into plant life again?
What happens in a compost? Bacteria, fungi, and other organisms break down complex organic materials into the simpler compounds that plants can absorb through their plant roots. This process may be aerobic, in the presence of oxygen, or anaerobic, without oxygen, as beneath the waters of a swamp or in the tank of a methane generator. Different organisms are involved in these two processes and different by-products are the result.
The method that we use and recommend for the urban gardener is a “fast” aerobic process. If managed properly there will be no offending smells to alarm the neighbors. In fact, smell is one of the ways you can monitor the pile-bad smells mean not enough air is getting to the contents of the pile and you will want to remedy that in one of the ways we will suggest.
The finished product is useful as a mulch (we layer it three to four inches thick) to conserve moisture, modify the surface temperature changes of the soil, protect the soil from erosion by water and compaction by foot traffic, and provide habitat and food for numerous soil organisms. Compost is the ideal form in which to incorporate organic materials into the soil, for the materials have been digested by the organisms in the pile to the point where further decomposition will not deplete soil nitrogen. As we have pointed out before, organic material in the soil is essential to the development of soil aggregates and pore space for oxygen and other gas exchanges necessary for plant roots, as well as increased water and plant nutrient retention.
If you follow our directions very carefully, you will have a compost that is more than just a good soil amendment useful for improving soil structure. It can actually function as a fertilizer, providing nitrogen and the other nutrients needed for plant growth. Remember, nitrogen is frequent-ly the plant nutrient in shortest supply since it is used in large amounts by plants, is easily leached from the soil by water, and is replenished very slowly by the soil organisms under most natural conditions. To make a good compost that is high in nitrogen is somewhat like making a fine stew–it is a mixture of science and art!

Methods, Slow and Fast

If you should mention the word “compost” in a group of devoted organic gardeners, as we did at a garden club talk recently, you may suddenly find yourself in the midst of a hearty brawl. Everyone will want to tell you how he does it, what his authority says about it, and what’s wrong with the other fellow’s way. For some of us, composting is pursued with a religious fervor. We can get the attention of our students by talking about a “compost yoga,” referring to “compost gurus,” and exhorting those who have a taboo regarding waste products to rise to “turd conscious-ness.” We have become compost fanatics!
However, underneath all the claims and counter-claims regarding superior methods, you will find that there are basically two main styles: slow and fast.
The slow methods have a great deal of appeal. They are very simple to follow and do not take much time or physi-cal energy. Most of the slow methods are variations on the following’ leaves, grass clippings, and weeds are heaped in a pile, with or without occasional sprinklings of soil, and these are left to decompose by themselves. There are so many good descriptions available of these methods that we will not repeat them in detail here. These piles may heat up, particularly in the center of the heap, but most of the decomposition will be provided by fungi which thrive under cooler conditions and can survive with less oxygen and handle a more acid environment than many of the decomposer bacteria.
The slower methods proceed well in cool, moist weather. They are popular in England and wherever summer rains are frequent enough to keep the pile moist. If a windrow, or row of little piles, is begun in the early spring and completed by the late fail when the snows melt again, the material will be ready to use. The advantage, besides sim-plicity, is that one does not have to worry about a nitrogen source for the organisms in the pile. They will work very slowly, with whatever nitrogen is available.
The disadvantages of this easy method are that the re-sulting pile will be low in nitrogen, the piles take up con-siderable room, and the temperature rarely rises high enough throughout the whole pile to kill the pathogens, or disease-causing organisms, that cause plant disease. Fur-thermore, it is definitely not advisable for the city farmer to use a slow pile to recycle his kitchen garbage because this will cause fly breeding and rodent problems. Even slow piles that contain no garbage but have too high a percentage of grass dippings or become too moist may encourage fly production without the compost maker real-izing it. So, while many excellent slow-composting meth-ods, in pits, in piles covered with sod, or in open bins, are fine for the suburban family with a large lot or the rural household, they are just not suitable for the city farm. On a small lot where space is at a premium and neighbors become quickly annoyed by smells or flies, it is best to turn to a method that minimizes these problems.

The Way We Do It

There are a number of styles of fast composting. They ail take more attention, energy, and thought than the slow methods. We are going to describe the one we use and recommend to our students and other urban farmers. If you follow our directions carefully and take the time to understand the theory behind the techniques, you can learn to produce a high nitrogen compost out of materials generally regarded as waste products and a nuisance. The finished product will be available quickly, in approximate-ly three weeks, and will provide a complete plant fertilizer as well as act as a soil amendment and be useful as a mulch. You will be able to keep fly and rodent problems to a minimum.
Furthermore, all the materials in the pile will be sub-jected to temperatures high enough to kill most plant path-ogens and even take apart most pesticides (except the chlo-rinated hydrocarbons related to DDT). This means you will be able to use the pile to dispose of diseased plant material as well as to recycle ail your organic garbage. If you take the trouble to build attractive bins, your corn-posting area should appear sufficiently neat so as not to antagonize neighbors or your local public health authori-ties.

Choosing a Location and Making Bins

If possible, select a shady place so that the piles will not dry out too quickly. The north side of a garage, the house, or some shrubbery is often perfect. Ideally, you should have a spot three or four feet wide and from nine to twelve feet long. Such spaces are often found as wasted areas between two houses, where it is so shady that nothing will grow but there is not enough width to do anything else there either. The best possible situation is where you can construct three bins, each one of them approximately a cubic yard in size.
The front of the bins should be made of removable boards, allowing easy entry as the contents are emptied. The sides and floor of the bins should be as tight as possi-ble so that bits of organic matter cannot fall through and provide overlooked fly-breeding material underneath and outside of the bins. The lids should be tight enough to keep out the rain. Some people construct their bins right on the earth without a wooden or concrete floor. How-ever, this allows nutrient-filled juices to run off and be lost from the pile. We prefer to capture any run-off with a layer of sawdust at the bottom of the bin which is then turned with the rest of the pile. Our own bins are made of cinder block, with a concrete floor and painted exterior plywood tops. In the student garden we have built them of scrap and regular lumber and these have been perfectly satisfactory as long as there were no cracks between the boards. If you are using irregular salvaged lumber, you can caulk the cracks with wood putty when the bins are built.
Students of ours have made compost in large, twenty-gallon plastic garbage cans, and even small, five-gallon cans. The difficulty with using such small containers is that the pile is not large enough to hold the necessary heat and it takes longer to process completely. Starting out with about a cubic yard of material seems to give the best re-suits. As the pile decomposes, this amount will shrink quite a bit, depending on the actual contents.
Usually it takes us about a week or so to use up the compost once it is made, as we don’t have much time to devote to gardening generally. Since it takes about three weeks for a batch to be ready for use, this means we end up making one every month or so. However, there are times during the summer when both our garden needs and garden wastes demand a more rigorous attention to the system. Then, with the three-bin system, it is possible to make a compost every two weeks. That way there is one batch cooking and one being used up all the time. If that sounds like too much work, then settle for the two-bin system, but you will need at least two, since you will need to turn the materials back and forth between the bins to mix and aerate them thoroughly.

Collecting the Materials

There are two parts to the question of what to use in the compost. The first is where to find it and the second is where to store it. Sometimes the latter is the biggest prob-lem.
When Bill worked in the state public health department, he learned that they had done a study on the garbage cans in our area and came to the conclusion that the average can produced, in warm weather, about a thousand flies a week! Very few householders are aware of that. The fact is that flies are attracted to smells, can slip through an eighth of an inch space, and in warm weather a new generation may be produced in just six or seven days.
Since one of the important ingredients of the compost is your kitchen wastes–onion skins, banana peels, orange rinds, eggshells, spoiled food, and scraps from the table that don’t go to the pets, etc.-and since, if you are only making a compost once every four weeks or so, you have to store these materials for a while, it becomes necessary to find a way to-do this without producing flies. Here is a method which has proved foolproof.

  1. Obtain a number of five-gallon cans. We have about eight of the plastic ones with lids and metal snap-over handles, so they are reasonably easy to move around (plas-tic makes no noise and does not rust).
  2. Find a good source of fine grain sawdust. There is a cabinet shop not far from us that disposes of tons of it near their rear exit. If sawdust is unavailable, use ashes, soil, or dry leaves.
  3. Provide a storage area for this sawdust close to where you take out your kitchen refuse. We keep ours in a plastic barrel right on our back porch, with a smaller can inside with which to dip out the sawdust.
  4. Each time you bring out the kitchen garbage and put it into a five-gallon can, cover the material with at least an inch of sawdust. Make sure that everything is well covered and that no kitchen wastes are left exposed. If there is no smell coming from the can, the flies will not be attracted to lay eggs in it. We gave this method the ultimate test on the Antioch College West farm this last summer. A chicken had died, so we buried it in a five-gallon can of sawdust (mainly softwood) and left it for about three months dur-ing the summer. Temperatures in the California interior valleys where this farm is located often reach 100°F during midday. At the end of the summer, we uncovered the chicken, planning to put it into the center of a hot compost pile. It did not smell at all and had barely begun to visibly decompose !
  5. When you get to the top of the can, finish with a layer of sawdust. Then set the can aside to wait for when you build the next compost, and start on another can.
    What else besides kitchen garbage might go into the com-post? All organic materials can be decomposed by micro-organisms, but some break down much more quickly than others. Fats go very slowly and should be kept out of slow compost piles. However, in the method we are advocating they can be handled just fine. Nevertheless, we recommend leaving fats and meat scraps out of your piles until you are sure of the technique. Many plant resins are resistant. Eucalyptus leaves, conifer needles, and similar plant mate-rials should probably be left to decompose slowly under the trees where they drop, rather than put in the compost pile. You may need to do a little experimenting to learn which of the organic materials available to you in your area are too difficult to compost by the following method. Still, nearly everything once alive can be handled if added in small amounts.
    Grass clippings are wonderful for the compost, but we don’t have any lawn. Luckily, urban areas are filled with people who spend vast amounts of money to grade, plant, fertilize, water, and mow their lawn and then throw the harvest out. So, if you ask around among your neighbors, gardeners for school grounds, or city parks maintenance people, you should be able to locate a source of clippings. (A hired gardener of a neighbor down the street leaves a little pile of grass cuttings at our garage door on a regular basis.) When you are considering sources for grass clip-pings, keep in mind that there may be undesirable lead accumulations in lawns along busy streets and avoid those.
    The same advice applies to leaves for your compost. We have no deciduous trees to provide us with this fine com-post material. So periodically, in summer and fall, we make trips out across the town with a broom, flat shovel, and plastic garbage can to sweep up leaves from the curbsides of more fortunate folks. This causes no little amuse-ment as most people are trying to get rid of the stuff and there we are squealing with happy appreciation, shoveling it into our barrels. (Bill is always ready to explain that we are training for civil service.) But we are fairly selective because of the possibility of accumulating heavy metals in our garden soil, so we take care to hunt ours up on the quieter, less traveled streets. Of course, we are very lucky that our city has an enlightened tree management program, and we do not have to fear pesticide residues on the leaves.
    Occasionally we hit other bonanzas, too. A pet store in the suburb sells us a truckload of spoiled hay for a dollar, an empty lot wild with weeds is given a trim, and we are on the spot to pick up the dried stalks. When we have nothing else to rely on, there is always the prodigious amount of greens being thrown away at the back of every grocery store and supermarket in town, and also the saw-dust from the cabinet shops, a local lumber yard, or the high school wood shop. Those last two, combined with weeds from our garden, our kitchen wastes, and some nitrogen source, are all we need to make really fine com-posts, but the more variety of materials you can scavenge up, the better. We don’t go out to look for things each month, but rather make a big haul when we go and store the materials in various nooks and crannies around the house until we need them.
    Grass clippings, throw-aways at the market, weeds and prunings from the garden will probably be fresh and green. They along with kitchen garbage will supply nitrogen to the bacteria that will decompose the pile. You also want some dried materials–dried grass and weeds, dry leaves, hay, or sawdust. These are mostly carbon, low in nitrogen, and will absorb moisture and keep the pile from becoming compacted.

How Much Dry to How Much Green or Fresh Material?

Organic material, both fresh and dry, contains both car-bon and nitrogen, but in varying amounts. The micro-organisms that decompose the compost pile use carbon in respiration and to build their own body tissues. For every thirty parts of carbon that they assimilate, twenty goes into respiration and ten goes into body tissue. And for every ten parts of carbon they use to build their body tissue, they need one part nitrogen. So the microorganisms end up using approximately thirty parts of carbon to one part of nitrogen altogether. This is referred to as a “car-bon-nitrogen ratio” of thirty to one. This ratio must be kept in mind. It represents the ideal proportion of basic ingredients to provide the fastest microbial growth, thus the fastest decomposition of the pile without nitrogen loss.
Sawdust has a very high carbon-nitrogen ratio. This means it has a great deal of carbon and very little nitrogen. Such materials decompose very slowly just because of this nitrogen shortage. Only through the death of some of the bacteria is the nitrogen fixed in their tissues available to other microorganisms in the pile. Thus, if too much high carbon material is added to the pile, it will take a long time to compost and it will not heat up to high temperatures.
On the other hand, if materials which are high in nitrogen, such as chicken manure, are added to the pile in such quantity that there is more than one part of nitrogen to approximately thirty parts carbon, the excess nitrogen will be respired by the microorganisms as ammonia. In this case you will be able to smell the ammonia gas coming off the pile.
Kitchen garbage is usually very high in nitrogen, as are grass clippings. If the pile will contain a very high propor-tion of such materials then little or no additional sources of nitrogen may be needed. A student of ours very success-fully composted the daily kitchen garbage of an entire student housing unit by just mixing these wastes with saw-dust and proceeding as we will describe here.
In most compost piles, however, it is desirable to add some nitrogen. Some manures, such as chicken, rabbit, fresh steer and dog manure, are high in this plant nutrient. So is human urine which we recommend for this purpose. Blood meal, hoof and horn meal are good but expensive sources. The microorganisms will work happily with the cheapest source of nitrogen with which you can supply them. One of the easiest and least expensive to obtain is ammonium sulphate.
The problem with these synthesized fertilizers is that it takes fossil fuel energy to produce them. If used directly in the soil without the addition of compost as they some-times are in commercial agriculture, they are inadequate because they do not return organic material to the earth. As you realize by now, organic material incorporated in the soil has many crucial functions besides just supplying plant nutrients. However, in the compost pile such a synthetic fertilizer is acceptable if none other is available. The microbes do not seem to distinguish between the synthesized and naturally occurring forms of nitrogen, and the finished compost will be satisfactory.
We recommend building the pile in layers. Of course, the first time you turn it, all the materials will get mixed up, but layering does help you in starting the pile to keep track of how much of each material you are adding. Esti-mate the proportion of carbon to nitrogen the best you can. Some corrections can be made during the first and second turnings, based on how you judge the process to be proceeding.

Building the Pile

When you have all your materials accumulated, it’s time to build the pile.
Start with some absorbent material on the bottom of the bin. We like to use sawdust for this. (As you have discovered by now, sawdust is one of the important raw materials we use to run our urban farm: to store kitchen garbage, to collect manure under our chickens and rabbits, in pathways between the beds of plants to discourage weeds and snails and prevent compaction, and to add carbon and absorb juices in the compost pile.)
After the sawdust you can start making alternate layers of green and dry matter, and manure if you are using it. If some other nitrogen source is used, sprinkle it over the layers as you go along. (If you are using urine, do not dilute it with water.) Make a three- to five-inch layer of each of your materials until the bin is full.
The smaller the size of the materials you put in, the more surface area you expose to decomposition, the faster the pile will go. For this reason you may wish to chop up the coarse materials–melon rinds, dry weed stalks, or straw, etc. into shorter lengths (three to eight inches) with a cleaver. When we first began composting, impressed by the ads in garden magazines, we decided to get ourselves a grinder-shredder. We shopped around and finally invested in a medium-priced one ($160), and used it faithfully for many months. It made a great deal of noise, so we t used earplugs, and it would frequently get jammed, and we’d have to stop and fuss with it. It also consumed fossil fuel and needed careful use to prevent losing fingers. We were beginning to have second thoughts about American food-producing methods and the amount of fossil fuel energy used, compared to the amount of energy in food calories produced.
We stopped using the compost grinder and haven’t used it since. We found it was totally unnecessary. Since then we have made many composts successfully with a cleaver and some without.
No commercially sold materials need be added to the pile. We particularly advise against the addition of lime to the pile. Lime in the pile will promote the loss of nitrogen which will volatilize as ammonia. If your soil is too acid, if you are fertilizing regularly with an acid fertilizer such as human urine, add lime to the soil itself. If you are in an area with soils that are extremely phosphorus-deficient and are planning to use rock phosphate or bone meal as a source of this mineral, then you may want to add these to the pile to start their decomposition. But this will be a great waste of money if you don’t need phosphorus, so don’t just add it automatically because you read it in a book somewhere. If you have a mixture of vegetable ref-use, grass, weeds, and leaves in the pile, you should have all the phosphorus you need without buying rock or other powdered materials. Commercially sold compost starters have not been shown to make any difference in small piles. The spores of the organisms that decompose organic mate-rial are everywhere and need only the proper environment to germinate and begin work.
When you have finished building the pile, you should have about a cubic yard of material. A smaller pile does not hold the heat adequately, and a larger one takes longer to turn.
After the pile is built, you may need to water it. If you have been adding urine every other layer or so, it may be wet enough. It should be moist, but not too wet, as there needs to be plenty of air throughout the pile. No water should be running out at the bottom. If this should happen at any time, put a thick layer of sawdust or dry leaves into the adjoining bin and turn the pile over into that one to trap the juices that otherwise would produce flies or be lost.

Turning the Pile

After the pile is built, let it rest for a day or so. Then, with a pitchfork, turn the compost into the neighboring bin, examining it while you do so. The top, bottom, and sides of the old pile should be turned into the center of the new bin, the center of the old pile around the edges of the new. This should be done each time the pile is turned to ensure that all materials are exposed to the heat of the center, killing any fly eggs, larvae, and plant pathogens.
The turning also introduces air into the pile, which is essential for the growth of the desirable microbes. If this is not done, the bacteria will exhaust their oxygen and then a different group of organisms (anaerobic), that can live in this new environment, will start to grow and multiply. These anaerobic bacteria will not heat the pile as hot and can produce highly objectionable odors. Knowing this, var-ious people have designed bins or other containers with openings in the sides to permit better aeration. We advise against this, because it will increase heat loss and there will be fly breeding around the edges where it is cool.
The pile should be mixed and turned in this fashion at least every third day. Turning it more often (up to once a day) will speed the process of decomposition. If the pile is properly made, for the first few days the temperature in the center of the pile will rise, reading approximately 160°F by the third or fourth day. It will return to this temperature each time the pile is turned for many days and then begin to cool slowly. When it has cooled down completely, it is finished. However, it can be put out in the garden as soon as the temperature has gone below 100°F.
Reading about composting is rather like reading about cooking. There is no substitute for actually making one or two piles and learning the proper proportion of ingredients by experience. If you find that the smell of ammonia is noticeable, that means that you have too much nitrogen in the pile and the bacteria are respiring off the extra. Flies attracted to the pile are also an indication that ammonia is being lost. You don’t want to lose this valuable plant nutri-ent, so the best thing is to trap it by adding some more carbon (sawdust or leaves) to the pile to get a better ratio of the two. If the ammonia smell persists after the pile has cooled down and appears otherwise ready to use, do not place the compost close to growing plants (within four or five inches of the stems), as you risk causing nitrogen burn. This can happen with compost just as it can when you use “hot” or “fresh” (high in nitrogen) manures or the syn-thetic fertilizers. Chicken manure is so “hot” that it should never be used directly on the soil, but always put through the compost. Incidentally, fine composts for raising mush-rooms have been made using just chicken manure and sawdusts.
If the pile cools down but still contains some chunks of materials that appear to you not to be decomposed enough from their original condition, sift the compost through a coarse screen. The undecomposed pieces can go back into the next compost to go through the process again.
We don’t usually turn the compost into the soil nowa-days, although we did so the first year we grew vegetables in the backyard. Now we just let the earthworms and other soil animals do the turning for us. The soil, which is a heavy clay, has become loose and porous.
If you do decide to turn the soil, use a digging fork, never a roto-tiller, as the latter will destroy those very soil aggregates you are working hard to develop. The soil may seem fluffier right after you finish using a roto-tiller, but controlled tests have shown that after it rains, or you irri-gate, the soil will be more compacted than before you used the machine. Think about it too: the toro-tiller blades as they cut through the soil actually shear a layer of soil off every turn. This shearing action smashes the clay particles together, producing a more compacted soil. To summarize the entire process:

  1. Select and prepare the composting area.
  2. Assemble your materials.
  3. Chop as fine as possible, filling the bin with alternate layers of green matter, dry or high-carbon materials, and a source of nitrogen.
  4. At intervals while building the pile, or when finished, add a sprinkling of water.
  5. Turn the compost every second or third day into the neighboring bin, using a pitchfork. In turning, mix the materials thoroughly–former top goes to bottom, outside matter into the center. Avoid spilling material outside the bins: it may be a source of fly breeding.
  6. While turning, examine the pile for fly larvae. Center heat will kill them.
  7. Notice differences between piles as to age, particle size, moisture, odors. Does the pile smell like ammonia? Is it almost too hot to touch in the center? Is it moist?
  8. Finish turning the pile with a flat shovel, and broom if necessary. The bin should be clean when it is empty, or before introducing the next pile.
    If compost does not heat up high (160°F) within two days, the possibilities are these: a) not enough nitrogen (add some blood meal, urine, etc.); b) too dry (add water while turning); c) too much water (add a little sawdust or dry leaves while turning); or d) not enough oxygen (turn more frequently).
    If the pile is giving off a strong ammonia smell, there is too much material high in nitrogen (add a sprinkling of sawdust while turning).

Using Compost

Compost may be used on top of beds around plants as a mulch.
Finished compost may be spread out on newly harvested beds and turned in before replanting.
Finished compost may be sifted. Sifted compost can be used in seed beds or flats. In carrot beds, for instance, a good mixture is one-third each of sand, sifted dirt, and sifted compost. Coarse particles should be returned to a new compost pile to break down further.
Unfinished (still hot) compost may be spaded into the ground only if it has had at least a week of composting and if no planting in that spot is to follow immediately. The further decomposition of the material in the soil by bacte-ria requires nitrogen, just as it does in the bin. Thus, raw compost may cause a temporary deficiency of nitrogen in the soil if it is low in this nutrient. If the compost contains much manure that has not broken down sufficiently, or if there is a strong ammonia smell coming from it, this may cause damage to the plants from excessive nitrogen.
Caution: If the ammonia smell persists heavily after the compost has cooled, do not use it close to plants (within four or five inches of stems) as you risk causing nitrogen burn. Next time use proportionately less manure or more vegetable matter when making your compost pile.

Chapter 6

What Do Plants Heed ?

See Hopk n’s Cafe!

Sooner or later a student of plant nutrition may be told, “See Hopk n’s Cafe, mighty good club, Cousin Moman.” (Or written out, C’HOPK N’S Cafe MgC1B, CuZnMoMn). This is a handy way of remembering which minerals are needed for plant growth. The words stand for the chemical symbols: C(carbon), H(hydrogen), O(oxygen), P(phos-phorus), K(potassium), N(nitrogen), S(sulphur), Ca(calci-um), Fe(iron), Mg(magnesium), Cl(chlorine), B(boron), Ca(copper), Zn(zinc), Mo(molybdenum), and Mn(manga-nese). Recent research indicates that sodium (Na) should also be included.
Most of these minerals reach the plant only through its roots, while carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and some nitrogen are available from the air. Phosphorus, potassium, nitro-gen, and sulfur are referred to as macronutrients. This means they are used in large quantities. For instance, nitro-gen is needed in amounts of approximately 100 to 300 pounds per acre, phosphorus at approximately 300 pounds per acre, and potassium at about 100 to 200 pounds per acre. By comparison, calcium might be used at the rate of fifty pounds per acre. Magnesium, chlorine, and boron are regarded as micronutrients for they are required in much smaller quantities. The final minerals in the list above, cop-per, zinc, molybdenum, and manganese, are needed in still smaller, sometimes only trace, amounts. Compare the use of zinc at six to twelve pounds per acre and molybdenum at one-half pound per acre with the demand for the macronutrients, or NPKS as they are referred to.
These minerals are available to plants as very small particles, atoms or groups of atoms which bear electrical charges. Do you remember when we described in Chapter 4 the small, flat platelets that make up days? These clay surfaces carry negative charges, as do organic materials such as compost or humus, and therein lies their great value in soils. Since a number of the most important min-erals needed for plant growth are positively charged, they are attracted to the negative charges on the clays and pieces of organic matter and are thus temporarily held in the soil available to plant roots. You can visualize this by remembering the way the positive and negative poles of two magnets will attract each other.
Sands and silts do not have this ability to hold on to and exchange plant nutrients. It is said they have a low ex-change capacity. Organic matter has an even higher ex-change capacity than clay. So now, perhaps, you can begin to appreciate another way the incorporation of organic matter into the soil by earthworms and other soil animals, and its gradual decomposition into smaller and smaller par-ticles by microorganisms, is so important.
Potassium, calcium, ammonium (a form of nitrogen pres-ent in the soil in only small amounts), magnesium, and sodium are all usually present in the soil as positively charged particles and are sometimes referred to as bases. On the other hand, the common forms in which nitrogen and phosphorus are found in the soil, nitrate and phos-phate, as well as chemical compounds of carbon, sulfur, and chlorine, are all negatively charged as are the clay particles. Since two negatively charged particles will repel each other, these valuable plant nutrients may not be held long in the soil, but rather are easily leached away with every rain or irrigation. Nitrogen compounds are even more soluble in water than those with phosphorus. Since nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur are all needed by growing plants in fairy substantial amounts, the urban gardener must see to it that these are replenished regularly.

The Mysteries of pH or Soil Acidity

There is another part to this story: a water molecule (H:O) is composed of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. In the soil this molecule often splits into two parts, an atom of hydrogen, which is small and positively charged, and an O-H part, which is called the hydroxyl ion and is negative. The relative proportions of these two in the soil determines whether the soil is “acid” (more hydro-gen ions), “alkaline” (more hydroxyl ions), or “neutral” (the same of both)-sometimes referred to as “sweet.”
The free, small hydrogen ion is able to slip in close to the clay surface, knocking off the other minerals, or bases, such as calcium and magnesium. Thus in areas with high rainfall, the soils may slowly become acidic as other miner-als are replaced by hydrogen ions from the rain water. Where little water is available to wash them away, clay surfaces may be covered with calcium, magnesium, and sodium ions, thus creating the alkaline soils of arid regions.
A logarithmic scale has been developed to measure this range of acid to alkaline conditions. It is called the pH scale or Power of Hydrogen. A pH of 7 is neutral, below that is acid (pH 1 to 6), and above, alkaline (pH 8 to 14). Lemon juice has a pH of 3. Some commercial soft drinks are even more acid, which is one good reason to discourage their consumption by children. The acid eats into the soft enamel of young teeth, and the sugar in the drink feeds the bacteria of decay that live in the mouth.
Orange juice has a pH of about 4. Acid-loving plants such as blueberries, cranberries, azaleas, camellias, hydrangeas, gardenias, and rhododendrons grow well around pH 5. Po-tatoes and sweet potatoes do well around a pH of 5.5, which is still acid enough to discourage scab, a disease of potatoes which may flourish in more neutral soils. Many vegetables, for instance soybeans, corn, wheat, tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, strawberries, and squashes, do best at a pH of 6, which is the acidity of milk. Others prefer it closer to neutral. Carrots, peas, spinach, lettuce, onions, apples, cauliflower, beets, and asparagus are examples of those that do well in a pH range between 6 and 7, the latter being the equivalent of pure water. Sea water is slightly alkaline at pH 8 and soap solutions moderately so at pH 9. No common vegetables are comfortable at this end of the scale.
When the soil becomes alkaline, various minerals such as iron, manganese, and copper become tied up, or fixed in chemical compounds, and unavailable to plant roots. The plants may show symptoms of iron deficiency, or chlorosis (a yellowing). In such cases, the new leaves develop a light-yellow color which shows up first between the veins but gradually spreads to the veins as well. Similar is manga-nese deficiency where a chlorosis also appears between the veins on new leaves. With manganese deficiency, however, although this yellowing may spread to old leaves and while the chlorotic areas may turn brown or transparent, the veins usually remain green even in advanced stages.
We frequently see this chlorosis in our town on hydran-geas and rhododendrons, both of which, as we mentioned before, like slightly acid soils. These are often used as foundation plants close to stucco houses. Stucco has calci-um in it, and this flakes off into the beds below and causes them to become alkaline. Under alkaline conditions the iron and manganese in the soil, plus any added by the gardener, without something like sulfur to increase acidity becomes fixed in compounds that cannot be absorbed by the plant roots. Thus the plants show iron or manganese deficiencies, even though a test of the soil might show plenty of those minerals. The soil scientist says in such cases that they are present but unavailable.
On the other hand, in acid soils iron, manganese, and aluminum all become easily available, sometimes in such quantities that they are actually toxic to the plants. Impor-tant macronutrients such as phosphorus may become fixed in compounds unavailable to plants in either acid or alka-line conditions, being most available to plants between pH 5.5 and pH 7.
This range, slightly more acid than neutral, also provides the best conditions for the growth of the bacteria that rot plant residues and those that take nitrogen out of the air and fix it in the soft. Both processes are essential in provid-ing nutrients to plants.

What Have You Got?

How can you tell if your soil is acid or alkaline, or possesses the nutrients needed for plant growth?
Determining soil acidity is easy. Buy some Phydrion paper, make a solution of half water and half soil, dip the paper in the solution, and compare the color it turns with the chart that comes with the package. When we used such a field test in various different soils, we found it compared very favorably in accuracy with more sophisticated laboratory tests. (A good place to write for pH paper is Micro Essential Laboratory, Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11210.) The cost for a roll of pH paper is between one and two dollars.
Be sure to buy a paper with a range from pH 3 or 4 to pH 9 or 10. If you keep the package in a moisture-proof container it will last many years. You may wish to test your soil at the end and beginning of each growing season, to learn how your rainfall or irrigation and fertilizing practices are affecting it. Organic matter has a buffering or stabilizing effect upon the soil solution. So if you are in-corporating a great deal of compost into the soil, you may find the pH will change very little from time to time.
What if your soil turns out to be too acid for the plants you want to grow? Add lime-dolomite limestone is the best as it breaks down slowly and contains both magnesi-um and calcium. Roughly 25 to 50 pounds for 1,000 square feet, or 1/2 to 5 pounds for 25 square feet. (See the chart on page 68, Using Lime to Correct Soil Acidity.)
The more clay and organic matter in your soil, the more lime it will take to change the pH. Remember, the pH scale is a logarithmic one, meaning that there are ten times more hydrogen ions at a pH of 4 than one of 5. Thus, to change the acidity from a pH of 5 to one of 6 will require less lime than moving it from pH 4 to pH 5.
Do not add lime to your compost pile. Although you will find books that recommend this, we have found that it will cause the pile to lose nitrogen in the form of ammo-nia, just what you don’t want to happen.
To acidify an alkaline soil you can leach some of the salts away with water and add sulfur, which will be con-verted into acid by the sulfur-loving bacteria in the soil. Sulfur, by the way, is important for the development of plant and animal tissue. The addition of sulfur or lime to a soil may take several weeks to months to have full effect, so, if testing shows either necessary, you should make this one of the first steps in preparing your soil.
Once you are sure your soil is reasonably neutral, or in the favorable range, you can assume the nutrients already there are available to your plants. But how do you know what is there already and what is lacking? Two ways are often suggested in popular gardening books, but we have found neither one very useful for the urban gardener. Home test kits are frequently inaccurate, laboratory re-ports are very complex, and both may take sophisticated interpretation to be useful. What should you do? Here are three suggestions:

  1. Learn to make a high-quality compost and use it plen-tifully and continually. If this compost contains a mixture of kitchen garbage, grass, weeds, and leaves, you can as-sume it will provide a balance of nutrients for your plants through the decomposing action of soil macro- and micro-organisms.
  2. Assume that nitrogen, because it is easily used by plants and easily leached away by water, will be in shortest supply. Add nitrogen to your compost and to your soil.
  3. Learn to recognize symptoms of mineral deficiencies in your plants.

USING LIME TO CORRECT SOIL ACIDITY
Approximate amounts of finely ground limestone needed to raise the pH of a 7-inch layer of soil*

Pounds of Limestone Added per 25 Square Feet
Soil Regions and From pH From pH From pH
Textural Classes 3.5 to 4.5 4.5 to 5.5 5.5 to 6.5
Soils of Warm Temperate
and Tropical Regions:
Sand and loamy sand .4 .4 .5
Sandy loam — .6 .8
Loam — 1.0 1.3
Silt loam — 1.5 1.8
Clay loam — 1.9 2.5
Muck 3.0 4.0 4.8
Soils of Cool Temperate
and Temperate Regions:
Sand and loamy sand .5 .6 .8
Sandy loam — 1.0 1.7
Loam — 1.5 2.1
Silt loam — 1.9 2.5
Clay loam — 2.4 2.9
Muck 3.6 4.8 5.4
*Calculated from U.S.D.A. Farmers’ Bulletin No. 2124, Liming Soils, An Aid to Better
Farming; 1.25 lbs. limestone/25 sq. ft. = 1 ton/acre.
NOTE: If you use quicklime instead of limestone, use 1/2 the amounts indicated, for hydrated lime about 3/4. These suggestions are based on soils of average organic matter content. For soils low in organic matter, reduce rccom-mcndations by 114; if high in organic matter, incrcnse by 25%. Suggestions for muck soils are basically those free of sand and clay.

Nitrogen

Can you have too much nitrogen? Yes, you can. The plants will become large, weak, succulent-looking, and par-ticularly attractive to aphids. There is more danger from too much nitrogen if you are adding it in inorganic, quickly-available compounds without adequate organic material in the soil, than if you are using organic sources as we are recommending in this book.
What is the cheapest and best source of nitrogen? Hold on to your hats, now.., it’s urine. That’s right. That very stuff we and other animals produce every day in consider-able quantities and flush away to cause waste management problems somewhere else–“Out of sight, out of mind.”
Human urine is perfectly safe to use in the garden in the manner we are suggesting here. You need not fear that there is some pathogenic bacteria in the urine that could spread disease to another person, as can happen in the use of human feces for fertilizer. We checked this out very carefully before recommending our method to you. (Sterling Bunnell, M.D., personal communication; see also: Holprich, P.D., ed., Infectious Diseases, New York, Harper and Row, 1972, and Kaye, D., ed., Urinary Tract Infection and its Management, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1972.)
The average daily output of urine is one to one and a half liters (1-3/4 to 2-7/8 pints) per day. In dry weight this is about forty to sixty grams (.09 to .13 pounds), and this contains 46.7 percent nitrogen. That means approxi-mately fifteen grams of nitrogen in every liter of urine, or about twelve pounds of nitrogen per year per person. Enough to fertilize about 3,000 square feet at a rate of 200 pounds per acre.
The farmer commonly adds nitrogen in amounts of 100 to 300 pounds per acre. To add 200 pounds per acre by using your own urine, spread two quarts of urine for every twenty-seven square feet (three feet by nine feet) twice month. If possible, dilute the urine five times with water in a sprinkling can. Urine is low in calcium but has a fair amount of salt which may be left in the soil. To help leach this away, once a year add approximately a quarter pound of lime or gypsum to every twenty-five square feet of soil. Dust it on the soil and water it in.
Now, we know perfectly well that confronting your own wastes is something our society finds very difficult. How-ever, we are trying very faithfully to describe our own actual techniques and practices of growing food in the city. Hopefully we have not lost too many readers at this point by venturing into a taboo area.
Animal manures, as everyone knows, are a source of nitrogen. Poultry droppings are the highest in nitrogen, about 6 percent, since they contain urine and feces to-gether. Fresh steer manure is good, usually about 2 per-cent. Horse manure may be very low because of the way it is obtained from many racing stables, mixed with so much bedding. It may use more nitrogen to decompose the mix-ture than the manure itself contributes. Rabbit manure may be sprinkled directly on the beds around the growing plants. We have seen a remarkably productive urban food garden that was fertilized this way almost exclusively, It could be called a “cold” manure because its nitrogen con-tent is so Low it will not burn plants as others can.
Two hundred pounds of nitrogen per acre is a little more than 1/10 of a pound per square foot. If a hundred-pound bag of steer manure is 2 percent nitrogen, that means, whether you haul or buy it, a hundred pounds of manure will contain only two pounds of nitrogen. That means you will need about five pounds for an area of twenty-five square feet (five feet by five feet). If you are buying nitro-gen, be sure to take into account the percentage of each substance that you are actually paying for. A recent trip to the store showed nitrogen selling for anywhere from $.82 So $6.90 a pound. You will need to do some figuring to determine what is the best buy.
However, the best management system for all manures in the urban garden is to pass them through a fast compost pile. This will kill weed seeds as well as pathogenic or disease-causing organisms. This is a good way to handle dog manure and the contents of the kitty box.
For the rich and fastidious there axe always blood meal and fish emulsions. Such substances are good sources of nitrogen and won’t break the bank if you are using them in just a small area in the yard, or for a few houseplants. For the farmer, a good way to obtain nitrogen is to plant each field in clover, alfalfa, or other legumes every third or fourth year and turn it into the soil. This provides bacteria that are able to take nitrogen out of the air and fix it in the soil so that it is available to the plants that live in association with the roots of legume plants. But the aver-age city gardener does not have the room to spare for this kind of crop rotation.

Recognizing Deficiencies

A book that may help you recognize symptoms of min-eral deficiencies in your plants is Hunger Signs in Crops (a symposium, ed. Howard B. Sprague, New York: David McKay Co., 1964). This book has good pictures and a key for identifying symptoms. To understand the key they provide, it helps to realize that the minerals behave differ-ently once they get inside the plants.
Potassium, for instance, is highly mobile. What little is available for the plant to use in building new tissues will be moved out of the old leaves and into the new. So potassi-um deficiencies show up first in the old leaves. To para-phrase the key in the book mentioned, these old leaves may turn an ashy gray, then develop a bronze or yellowish bronze color. The leaf margins may become brown and cup downward.
As mentioned earlier, iron and manganese deficiencies show up first in the new leaves. This is true of calcium also. This is because they are not very mobile nutrients when they are in the plant. Once fixed in the tissues they are not easily moved to new areas, even if the growing plant should later find itself in short supply. Calcium lack may show up as a yellowing or chlorosis of the new leaves, as do iron and manganese deficiencies. In addition, the tissues may break down at the blossom end of fruits. This can be seen on bell peppers rather easily. Vegetative growth may be retarded generally.
Lack of nitrogen and phosphorus may also retard the vegetative growth of the plant. But while nitrogen deficien-cy will cause a general paling and yellowing of the leaves (including veins), a lack of phosphorus may cause the leaves to be darker green than normal. In some vegetables the undersides of the leaves will develop a decided red-dish-purplish hue. We realize all too well that these symptoms of plant deficiencies can easily be confused by the novice with equally colorful signs of plant disease and air pollution. When we first began studying the subject, we were able to muddle ourselves thoroughly in this respect!
Bill, with confidence, pointing to a plant actually suffer-ing from a virus disease, “Ahh, this must be a sign of lack of nitrogen.” Helga, uncertainly, “No, dear, don’t you think it’s an iron deficiency?’; Bill, starting to feel a little shaky, “Let me see, that shows up in the old leaves first, doesn’t it? Or.. · is it the new ones?”
We found that color pictures were a great help in learn-ing to recognize what was what, as well as listening careful-ly to experts at the university and agricultural extension advisers, as they pointed out symptoms in actual plants that we brought in for them to diagnose. Another good way to learn symptoms of plant nutrient deficiencies is to purposely grow pots of plants where first one, and then another, of the major nutrients are deliberately eliminated from the soil mixture. The characteristic appearance of the various symptoms can then be memorized fairly easily.
The best information that we can give you about plant nutrients comes from discussions we’ve had with scientists in the ~soils and plant nutrition department of the Universi-ty of California, Berkeley. Their advice: if you are using lots of well-made compost, plus some additional nitrogen, don’t worry. On most soils, in most parts of the country, you should not need to add another single thing. Only a very small number of soils are so deficient in phosphorus that you need to worry about adding bone meal, or so short of potassium that kelp meal would be a good buy. Compost alone should provide enough of those minerals.
To sum it up then, compost, nitrogen-either from some animal manure or your own urine-and once a year the addition of a little lime should be all you ever need to grow good, healthy plants.

Chapter 7

Carrots or Bok Choy.

Deciding What To Grow

“Let’s start with staples,” Bill said, surveying our first nearly cleared area-a generous expanse, six by six feet. “This is going to be a ‘survival’ food garden.”
“You mean wheat?” was my astonished response.
For what should we use our precious little spot of ground? Poring over the seed catalogs left us more uncer-tain than before. The wealth of possibilities was greater than the ordinary supermarket shelves had led us to real-ize. Besides endless kinds of vegetables, there were varieties of each kind-dozens of squashes, loose-leaf and head let-tuces, long and short carrots, etc. How were we to choose?
We needed to consider our purpose in growing some small part of our own diet.
Should we really grow staples? But potatoes, dry beans, and such were relatively cheap and available, even in organ-ic food stores. Should we grow delicacies that are expen-sive to buy? Leeks, which sit in the ground a long time, forcing chicory, which takes a lot of handling, sugar peas, which must be picked as they mature to keep the plant producing, are some examples. Should we grow exotic veg-etables because they’re difficult or impossible to buy in the store? There are catalogs that offer Chinese, Japanese, and European vegetables and spices. Maybe freshness should be a consideration. The flavor of sweet corn, un-cooked, eaten right off the stalk, beets pulled then cooked a few seconds later, and tomatoes ripened on the vine are infinitely more delicious than the same vegetables after they’ve traveled the long road from the farm to you, and their sugars have begun to change to starches.
One of our own reasons for raising food was to avoid consuming so much pesticide. Thus, heavily sprayed vege-tables such as strawberries and lettuce, and those that ab-sorb pesticides from the ground, such as carrots, were among our first choices. How about nutrition? The dark green leaf lettuces have more vitamins and minerals, but my son likes only crispy head lettuce. What about growing something during the warm part of the year that you can eat in the winter? Winter squash, Jerusalem artichokes, string beans for freezing, and tomatoes for canning all sounded great.
The truth is, over the years, whether on the rooftop or in miscellaneous spaces around the house, we’ve tried raising nearly everything at least once. This way we learned first-hand what suited our taste, our miniclimate, soil, space, methods of gardening, and the amount of time we were willing to spare.
Taste is a personal matter and one not easily influenced. People tend to accept foods they grew up with, but may be very conservative about trying or liking something new. Eating too much of a thing for a while, no matter how much you liked it originally, may influence your feelings about it for a long time. During the first years of our urban farm we ate so much chard, because it grew so lusti-ly in our unimproved clay soil, that we don’t feel much enthusiasm for it any more. Yet it takes up a dispropor-tionate amount of the yard just because it seeds itself so readily. If you hope to enlist the hearty participation of other members of your household in your urban gardening venture, it would be best if you start out growing things they actually like to eat!
We have already discussed how miniclimate and soils will affect your plantings. NOW let’s take a closer look at those other constraints of the urban gardener-space and time.

Not Much Space?

Here are some approaches to making the best use of whatever small amount of space you may have.

  1. Start your seedlings indoors, if possible. Chapter 8 tells you how. That way, space will not be taken up in the garden by plants during their first weeks of life when they can do just fine on the window sill. This is particularly important in those parts of the country where a long grow-ing season means that several crops can be harvested in a single season.
  2. Plant “cut and come again” vegetables. Once the plant has become established, loose-leaf lettuce and sprout-ing broccoli will continue to furnish small amounts of har-vest every few days over a long period of time. In the same amount of ground space pole beans or peas will many times out-produce their bush-type relatives. Jerusalem arti-chokes, besides being generally more indestructible than potatoes as plants, will yield many times the amount of tubers in the same depth of soil. They can be prepared in all the ways that potatoes can, besides being edible raw in salads and a nice substitute for crisp water chestnuts in Chinese dishes. They are also good for the dieter who is avoiding extra calorie intake. Compact varieties of winter squash (grown in the summer and, because of their thick water-repelling skins, stored for winter eating) form a bush that will give you the same amount of food close to the main stem that older varieties will produce while sprawling over many square feet of precious ground. Golden Nugget is one such variety. A careful reading of the seed catalogs will alert you to the most compact varieties of the vegeta-bles you have chosen to grow.
  3. Make use of or build structures that take advantage of vertical space. Cucumbers, squashes, tomatoes, peas, and beans can all be made to grow up if they are adequately supported. As large, heavy winter squashes form, they may need additional support.
    Strawberries can be grown in “step” containers. This makes it possible to set many plants in the same ground area while still providing adequate root space. The berries are kept drier and are less subject to rot and attack by pests. Harvest is easy and the runners can be managed very well in this arrangement.
  4. Where you have no open ground, use containers on patios or the roof, on unused walks or driveways, in win-dow boxes, on shelves or tables inside the house in a sunny window. Some plants will do particularly well this way. Summer squashes, for instance, seem to thrive under con-ditions that simulate the arid Southwest where bitter wild squashes still live. Give them a roomy container so that their roots can enjoy moisture at the same time the vines trail over a hot, dry surface. A friend’s bumper crop of zucchini was grown in an old double washtub set in one comer of a cement parking area.
  5. Interplant slow-growing vegetables with those that will be harvested in a short time. Radishes, turnips, and lettuce will be gone before corn or cabbage becomes large enough to use all the ground space it ultimately needs. The seed catalogs usually tell you the approximate time to maturity of each variety. Although the actual number of days to harvest will depend largely on the weather, the relative times between varieties will be a good guide to learning which vegetables to interplant with which.
  6. Plant tall things at the north side of your spot so that you do not lose growing space to unnecessary shading.
  7. Make large beds with few walkways. Remember, you’re not setting up an area to be cultivated with a trac-tor! This is the main reason that a small urban garden can be so productive if calculated in terms of yield per acre. No space needs to be wasted for, or destroyed by, vehicle traffic. The beds should be just the width that makes it possible to reach comfortably to the center from each side; the walkways or stepping areas just frequent enough and wide enough to make everything convenient and acces-sible.

In our garden, we follow the “jungle” style of garden layout. Since more than half of our vegetables are left to seed themselves in, they naturally tend to ignore human conveniences such as paths. So, to maneuver about, you must clamp your sun hat firmly to your head, clasp your picking basket tightly, and take flying leaps, or, often, circle half-way round the yard to reach a succulent some-thing. Horribly disorderly, but heavenly productive!

Time: A Big Villain

The other major constraint of the urban gardener is time. This has several dimensions. It’s very unlikely that, if you live in the city, you can devote most of your time to agriculture. How much time you want to give to raising some of your own food is one aspect of the time question. The others are: how much of the year can you grow food in, which, as we saw in Chapter 3, is only partly a function of climate, and how much of the year can you grow food for, which is a matter of food preservation.
Certain gardening techniques we use are great time sav-ers. Some have already been mentioned.

  1. Use compost mulches to keep down weeds, decrease frequency of watering, and keep soil soft.
  2. Start seedlings indoors on the window sill or a sunny table. This way, when you come home from work and you are tired and it’s getting dark, you will not have to drag yourself outside to water your seedlings. Also, you get a head start on wildlife that might wipe them out in a single gulp. (More about this later.)
    However, perhaps it’s best to interject one comment about bug problems here, since it deals with time. If you
    don’t want to use pesticides you will have to spend time on alternate methods of pest management. They may be just as successful as pesticides or more so, but they will take more time, attention, and information. Remember, the appeal of the push-button poisons was that they seemed to promise a quick and easy method of controlling bugs!
  3. Use overhead water methods. Get a large rectangular sprinkler that can cover the whole area you are planting all at once. When you have determined its pattern, amount of coverage, and allowed for prevailing winds, leave it in one place with the hose connected. As your plants grow taller, you may wish to elevate it on a box.

The weekly watering, when necessary, is then a simple chore. Go out, turn on the hose, set your timer, and when it rings, turn the water off. If each planting area is arranged with its own watering system, you can save a great deal of time. The water draining from our rooftop containers flows down a drainpipe to soak a raised bed below. Extra moisture lovers, such as chives, mint, or celery, can be planted beneath faucets and by hose connections, so as to take advantage of the extra drips that are bound to be available.
We talked about extending the growing season with mini-greenhouses and other devices in Chapter 3. Let’s consider here how to extend the use of the food you grow by preserving it.

Preserving Food While Preserving the Planet

The question is, how can you preserve food while pre-serving the planet too?
Let’s consider first those methods that don’t depend heavily on artificial sources of energy.
Drying is one of the old successful ways of keeping food. Without the moisture necessary to all life, even the bacte-ria that cause spoilage cannot grow. Herbs should be cut before they go to flower and stored in a cool shady place inside paper bags to dry. When they are dry and crumbly, brush off the leaves and keep in tightly covered jars away from light.
Fruit-apricots, apples, pears, plums, grapes, figs, domes-tic and wild berries-can all be dried in the sun if your days are dry and hot enough. Spread the fruit out in one layer on a tray; window screens are perfect for this. When pos-sible we elevate the screens so that air can flow under as well as over the drying food. You may want to cover the fruit with cheesecloth if you seem to be attracting flies or birds. See Chapter 10 for ideas about excluding ants.
Once you have stored dried fruits, grains, and nuts, pro-tecting them from insects is another problem. From the booklet Common Pantry Pests and theft Control, pub-lished by the University of California Agricultural Exten-sion Service, comes the following advice:
Both Low and high temperatures can control food pests. Insect activity ceases at temperatures of 40° to 50°F. Prolonged exposure to a temperature of 40° F will kill most food insects, and even the most resistant are killed within three weeks, if placed in a deep freeze. An exposure of two to three days will kill the more susceptible species which make up the greatest number that attack stored prod-ucts. Food materials stored at this temperature will remain free of infestation.
To kill all stages of insect life in stored products, expose to. temperatures of 120° to 130°F for two hours. However, the insect itself must be subjected to the heat for the required time. Be sure to reach and maintain the proper temperature at the center of the material being treated. To insure rapid heat penetration, spread the material in as thin a layer as possible and stir it from time to time. (Heat may be injurious to protein quality, so this method should be reserved for luxury items that are used for reasons other than the nutrition they offer-pine nuts would be an example.)
You can sterilize (disinfect) small quantities in an oven, but be careful not to scorch the product. In many cases you can obtain the desired temperature by merely turning up the pilot light in a gas oven. A longer exposure may be necessary for sufficient heat penetration.
If you use the oven, keep the temperature as low as possible; the usual resulting temperature of 180°F will cause a rapid kill. You may open the oven door slightly to keep the temperature from rising too high. Use a thermometer to check the temperature increase.
To kill insects infesting dried fruits, drop the fruit in boiling water for about one minute. Spread the fruit to dry before storing.
Carbon dioxide can be used to treat and preserve walnut and other nut meats. You can obtain it as dry ice (solid carbon dioxide). See classified sec-tion in telephone book.
Crack out the nut kernels. If they are not fully dried, spread them out in a thin layer (not in the sun) until dry and brittle. The drier they are the better their quality after storage.
Put a single layer of kernels in the bottom of the jars.
Cut one-inch cubes of dry ice. A common wood saw is satisfactory for this purpose. A five-pound dry ice slab, ten inches by ten inches by one inch will make 100 pieces.
Put a dry ice cube on the layer of kernels a short distance from the side of the jar where it can be
seen after the jar is full. (Jars may crack if the dry ice is against the glass.) Use about one-half cubic inch of dry ice for pint jars, one cubic inch for one-quart jars, and two cubic inches for two-quart jars.
Fill with kernels, shake down-fill as full as pos-sible. A quart jar will hold twelve to fourteen ounces.
Put on the lids and screw them down until they begin to tighten. Then turn them back until slight-ly loose. Lids must be loose to allow the air and excess gas to escape and to prevent explosion of the jars.
Allow jars to stand undisturbed until all dry ice is gone.
Screw lids down tightly.
Store in as cool a place as possible.
Caution: Do not handle dry ice with bare hands-it will freeze the skin quickly. Wear gloves.
Do not seal the jars until all dry ice has disap-peared.

Waxing the stem ends of squashes may help them store for a longer period without drying or rotting. In frontier northern California, vegetables such as cabbages, carrots, and beets were stored in sawdust-sometimes in sheds especially constructed for the purpose. Eggs were stored in waterglass or concentrated sodium silicate. A close friend, describing her childhood experiences with this tech-nique on her parent’s ranch, told how in summer, freshly laid eggs would be stored away in large covered crocks in a cool room to be used for baking in the winter. She empha-sized, though, that waterglassed eggs were not flavorful enough to use scrambled or in similar dishes where a fresh egg taste was desirable.
The important thing in storing food is to keep it at the correct temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Two excel-lent booklets which give you detailed information on this are available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 20250. They are: Storing Vegetables and Fruits in Basements, Cellars, Outbuildings and Pits, and Storing Perishable Foods in the Home, Home and Gar-den Bulletins #119 and #78, respectively.
Salting and pickling are two other old-time methods of storing food. The latter requires vinegar as well as salt. So many pamphlets on pickling are available from govern-ment, university extension, and private sources that we will not take space to give recipes here. Our favorites are published by the University of California Agricultural Ex-tension Service, available free from Public Service, 90 Uni-versity Hall, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720. They are: Pickles, Relishes and Chutneys and Home Pickling of Olives. We have found that making and keeping pickles in an open crock is fairly exacting-it is much easier to get good results in following the recipes for canned pickles.
Canning is a method that urban gardeners can use to advantage to handle extra tomatoes and fruits. In our town, there are many cherry plum trees, the fruit of which goes to waste every year. There are neighbors who have surplus fruit. Canning is also a fine way to take advantage of commercially available produce during the harvest when it is plentiful and cheap.
A note of caution is necessary. There is a real danger of causing sickness or death through improper canning of food, particularly food that is low in acid. This is because of a common bacteria, Clostridium botulinum, which is found in dust, soil, and nearly everywhere. The bacteria itself is not a problem to man. Most of us have probably eaten it. The growing or vegetative form is killed by moist heat below 212°F, but the spores or resting stage must be heated for at least three minutes at 250°F before they are destroyed. (A pressure cooker has to be used to get the temperature this high.) When these spores are not killed, and they find themselves in an atmosphere without oxy-gen, such as in food inside a sealed canning jar, and the acidity of the food is low (meats and all vegetables, except red tomatoes and pickled vegetables), they will germinate or start to grow. In the process they produce a lethal toxin, one drop of which can kill a person. In fact, there are people killed every year in the United States by eating food not properly canned.
The answer is to follow reliable canning directions exact-ly. If you don’t use a pressure canner, then plan to stick to canning high acid foods (tomatoes, pickled foods, like sauerkraut, and most fruits-if they don’t seem acid enough, add a teaspoonful of lemon juice to each quart jar). Even with acid foods, boil any doubtful-looking or smelling foods for ten minutes before tasting, and even boil suspicious-looking nonacid food without tasting be-fore disposal because it could come in contact with people or other animals when composted or disposed of.
Some canning booklets we have used with pleasure: Home Canning of Meat and Poultry, Home Canning of Fruits and Vegetables, and How to Make Jellies, Jams and Preserves at Home, Home and Garden Bulletins #8, #106, and #56, from the USDA. From the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of California: Home Canning of Fruits, Home Canning of Vegetables, and Making Jellies, Jams and Preserves.
Freezing makes the most energy demands upon the plan-et, yet it is certainly an easy way to preserve food and protect it from insect or other pest damage. If properly frozen, kept cold enough and not kept too long a time, the foods will also retain more of their original nutrients than foods preserved in other ways. Essential points to remem-ber for good results are to wrap foods adequately to prevent moisture burns and exclude oxygen, freeze quickly, and keep at 0° F or lower. With many vegetables it is desirable to blanch briefly (dip into boiling water) to stop enzyme action before freezing. Others can be frozen directly; particularly good results can be obtained with tomatoes, green peppers, and blueberries.
Even frozen foods cannot be kept in good condition forever. You need to keep track of what you’ve got and eat the oldest foods first. Most freezers come with direc-tions on freezing foods. The USDA puts out some good booklets on this also. Maybe right here we should suggest you write for the List of Available Publications from the USDA. You will find plenty of information as useful for the urban gardener as for the rural homesteader.
Some last words about freezing. The bin-type freezer uses a lot less energy than the upright cabinet. That’s be-cause every time you open the door of the upright, the cold air, which is heavy, flows out and sinks to the floor, while it pretty much stays put in a bin. Keeping the freezer in a cool place is a good idea also. Then it won’t have to work so hard keeping the contents cold. If you want an upright refrigerator-freezer combination, choose one with-out automatic defrosting equipment-this latter uses a lot more energy than the other kinds.
Eventually we had to ask ourselves some hard questions about our urban farm. We didn’t have much space, much of the space we did have didn’t have much light with only half-day sun, and we had very little time to give to our food raising. What part of our diet could we realistically hope to supply through growing our own food?
This question really breaks down into two parts-quantity and quality.

Quantity, or Counting Calories

Quantity in our diet is best looked at in terms of calo-ries. Again, we depend heavily on government booklets for our information. The National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences has published tables that show the dally calorie input they recommend for children, men, and women of different ages. These cannot be taken as absolutes, for they do not include individual variations in metabolism, physical labor, physique, etc. But they are very valuable as a general framework for putting your gar-den produce in perspective. For women the recommenda-tions range from a peak consumption of 2,400 calories per day for 14 to 16 year olds, to 1,700 per day for those over 55 years. For men, from 3,000 calories per day to 2,400 are suggested for roughly the same age spans.
Armed with this perspective, we turned to a very infor-mative book, Composition of Foods, Agricultural Hand-book #4, published by the USDA. We learned some inter-esting things. For instance, a hundred grams (or 4 ounces) of the following foods yielded very different amounts of calories. (All but the first two were among the foods we raised around our house.)

Hard red spring wheat, cooked   168 cal./100 gms.
Brown rice, cooked  119 cal./   "
Lima beans, cooked  111 cal./   "   
Fava or broad beans, immature, raw  105 cal./   "   
Potatoes, baked 93 cal./    "   
boiled  73 cal./    "
Sweet corn, boiled on the cob   91 cal./    "   
Green peas, raw 84 cal./    "   
cooked, boiled, drained 71 cal./    "
Jerusalem artichokes, just harvested    7 cal./ "
stored for a week   75 cal./    "
Squash, (all varieties, acorn highest) baked    63 cal./    "
boiled  38 cal./    "
Beets, boiled   32 cal./    "   
Broccoli, boiled    26 cal./    "
Green beans, boiled 25 cal./    "

We could go on with a complete list, but since it is already available in the book just mentioned, we suggest you get a copy for yourself and look up the foods you are, or intend to be, growing.
The missing information, and this we cannot supply you with at this time, is how many grams or ounces of each food can be grown in a given amount of space in a back-yard garden. While yield figures are available for agricultur-al crops, they have not been computed for backyard gardeners. We suspect that on a per-acre basis they could very well be higher than that achieved in commercial agricul-ture. This seems likely because of the intensive care and more complete utilization of the harvest in a small garden than can be economically accomplished on a large scale. We don’t need to leave space for tractor wheels and we harvest every tomato, for instance. On the other hand, backyard gardens may have less than perfect light condi-tions and city gardeners may be ignorant of plant nutri-tional needs, both of which may severely limit production.
It is plain from the above table, however, that next to grains, it is the beans, potatoes, peas, and corn that are real winners, with winter squashes not too far behind. In fact, beans, corn, and squash formed the basis of many Ameri-can Indian diets on this continent long before western Europeans arrived.

Quality

But quantity is only part of the nutrition story. It is also necessary to consider quality. You may think first of pro-tein, but quality can also be applied to vitamins and minerals.
All of us have been impressed with the importance of protein by teachers anal breakfast cereal manufacturers alike. But knowing how much protein a given food contains tells you little about how much of the protein is usable by your body. There are eight amino acids (building blocks of protein) we must consume because the human body cannot synthesize them, and they must be present in specific proportions in relation to each other to be totally usable. Thus, though a given amount of milk may have much less protein in it than the same amount of soybeans, more of the milk protein is usable because the pattern of those eight necessary amino acids more nearly approxi-mates the ideal for human consumption. A chicken egg is considered to have the ideal proportion of amino acids; most useful to humans, but dairy products are not fax behind, and after that comes meat. (We will discuss the raising of chickens and rabbits in a later chapter.)
At this point in our own inquiry into garden sources of protein, we encountered Frances Moore Lappe’s excellent book, Diet for a Small Planet (New York: Friends of the Earth Ballantine Books, 1971). We recommend that you read this book if you wish to make the best use of your garden-produced plant protein. The story is a complicated one, and we will not take the space to repeat it here. In sum, we eventually realized that the way to make the best use of the fairly large quantity of low-quality protein avail-able to us in the beans and peas we could produce would be to combine them with the dairy products that we buy. While grains and nuts also contain some protein, these might be difficult for urban gardeners to produce.
Our conclusion: unless you are raising your own rabbits or chickens (both entirely possible for many urban gar-deners, but themselves partially dependent on outside sources of feed), or producing a lot of soybeans and lima beans, the protein contribution to your diet by your urban garden will have to be heavily supplemented with dairy products and grains to provide the necessary nutritional balance.
Vitamins and minerals are another matter, however. Veg-etables are major contributors in this area. Since vitamins can be lost through careless storage, handling, or cooking, observe these rules:

  1. Eat your vegetables as soon as possible after cooking.
  2. Eat as many vegetables raw, or barely cooked, as you can learn to enjoy in that form.
  3. Do not soak or excessively rinse vegetables ahead of cooking.
  4. Cook in as little water as possible.
  5. Expose to the air as little as possible during cooking. (Don’t keep lifting the pot lid to peek in.)
  6. Use the liquid in which you cooked the vegetables.
    We found Chinese-style stir-fried foods have much to recommend them besides a low consumption of fuel ener-gy for cooking. The vegetables are pre-cut, then heated quickly in a small amount of oil and eaten while still crisp. A variety of vegetables can go in the pot at once, enabling the home gardener to make use of whatever is ready for harvest at the moment. Few vitamins are lost from over-cooking or wasted juices, and, if you are using meat, a small amount goes a very long way.
    Even shady gardens or shallow containers can produce excellent greens for stir-frying (and the weeds can feed meat rabbits). We have used many varieties of Chinese cab-bage (Chinese celery cabbage or Petsai, Wong-bok, Chinese cabbage Hirasuka, Pac-choy-all available from Nichols Garden Nursery, 1190 N. Pacific Hwy., Albany, Oregon 97321). Spinach, lettuce, regular green and rhubarb chard, mustard greens, kale and collards, upland cress, New Zealand spinach, parsley, coriander, and green onions have all gone into lovely stir-fried dishes. We have grown them all successfully in less than perfect light conditions and in containers from eight inches to one foot deep. Of course, this style of cooking also lends itself well to incorporating the many vegetables that require sun and deeper soils to produce.
    Thus, by buying only brown rice and a few additions like sesame seeds, soy sauce, peanut oil, and ginger (and a little alfalfa supplement for the rabbits), we found that within three months of starting our urban farm we could proudly and truthfully say that a goodly portion of the food on the table we had produced ourselves.

Chapter 8

Starting with Seeds

You’ve planned your urban garden to make best use of your miniclimate, decided what you want to grow, learned about your soil and how to improve it, and, hope-fully, started your first batch of compost with which to prepare the beds. Now you are ready to order seeds and plant.
When we started our urban garden we went to a local supermarket and picked up a handful of seed packages-carrots, beets, lettuce, broccoli. If we thought about vari-eties we assumed that the store would naturally be carry-ing the kinds most suitable for our climate, and this is generally true. Then we discovered seed catalogs (they are usually free), and our real education began.
There are seed companies in Wisconsin and some in Georgia, as well as what seems like every other state in the union. Some specialize in trees, some in herbs, some in Japanese vegetables, some in honey plants to feed bees. There are English catalogs which carry many varieties par-ticularly suited to our West Coast climate and American catalogs with vegetables from Europe and the Orient. Be-cause peas, beans, and some other seeds are very suscepti-ble to fungus attacks, some companies treat their seeds with fungicide. If you follow our method of starting plants, you will not need this precaution. If you do not wish to use treated seed, you must specify that with your order. There are catalogs with color photos or etchings which are so beautiful you could hang them on the wall, and there are others with no pictures at all where the same seeds are half the price or less, but you need to have a picture in your mind of what you want.
Perhaps the biggest surprise for us was the discovery that there are so many varieties of most common types of vegetables. Many of these we had never seen in the stores because they just don’t pack and ship well, or for some other reason they have not become popular with growers or dis-tributors. For instance, we learned there were not only head lettuces and loose-leaf lettuces, but types in between, with many more leaf shapes and colors than we had ever imagined.

How To Study Seed Catalogs

There are several things to keep in mind when reading a seed catalog. First, notice how many days are listed as “days to maturity.” This figure refers to approximately the number of days from planting to harvest (unless the catalog specifies otherwise). Of course this number is not absolute, because weather will vary from year to year as well as in different parts of the country, but by comparing one variety with another, you will get a good impression of the relative speed with which the different ones mature. Beans, for instance, may vary in time from planting to harvest from fifty-five days for some bush beans, seventy days for some varieties of pole beans, to ninety days for some limas. Radishes, from twenty-two days for the early round red ones to sixty days for the Chinese long white ones, and so on.
Knowing this is valuable. If you live in areas with a short season, it is obviously essential to plant varieties that will mature before your first fall frosts. Secondly, in areas with longer seasons, by planting both early and late varieties you are able to stretch out your harvest period for that particular vegetable.
This is also the reason for making careful choices be-tween those seeds described as “market” varieties, meaning they will mature their fruits all at the same time (so that you can take a load to sell in the market), and “home garden” or “old fashioned” varieties which ripen fruits every few days over a long period. You probably do want to eat salad cucumbers morning, night, and noon. On the other hand, it might be desirable to have a lot of pickling cucumbers ready all at once so that when you get out the canning equipment, you can put up a big batch of pickles at one time.
Check the description to find out if the vegetable is a bush variety, climber, or this is particularly important with squashes in a small garden-whether it is a compact type. Also consider disease resistance. If this is the first time you are planting any vegetables in a particular soil, you may escape some of the fungus and virus diseases which tend to build up slowly over the years in each locali-ty before problems become noticeable. But sometimes it’s good to check with vegetable-growing neighbors regarding disease problems they might have observed in your area.
Another factor to consider is storing qualities. Onions and winter squashes are two vegetables you may wish to grow and keep for months during the winter without re-frigeration, and the varieties differ in their ability to keep well. Potatoes are another vegetable you may wish to store if you have the space in which to produce them. Before modem refrigeration was available, root crops such as car-rots, beets, and parsnips, as well as cabbages, were all stored for the winter in root cellars, tucked away in leaves or sawdust. It would be a very unusual inner-city gardener who could produce enough extra to take advantage of this possibility. However, for suburban gardeners whose lots and energies are great enough, it would be worthwhile to check the seed catalogs for the keeping qualities of these vegetables.
Notice also whether the vegetable is a hybrid. These specially fertilized seeds will combine the best qualities of both parent plants, but usually cannot be relied upon to pass on all their good traits in the same proportions to their offspring. So, plant hybrids where you want the spe-cial characteristics of vigor, color, taste, yields, disease re-sistance, etc., and plan to give them the careful fertiliza-tion and care that they will demand to produce the results for which they are noted.
Members of the brassica or cabbage family (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, collards, mustard greens, radishes, turnips, rutabagas, Chinese or Napa cabbage, etc.) and the cucurbits (cucumbers, squashes, and melons) are difficult to raise from home-produced seed in any case, since they tend to interbreed with-in their own family. So they would be good choices for hybrid varieties. But for those vegetables you will not have much time to fuss over, or from which you plan to save the seed (and this can be done profitably with nearly all seeds, except for cucurbits and brassicas), it is best to choose non hybrid or old fashioned varieties. So many of these will even seed themselves in, if you keep a mulched garden as we do.

Saving Your Own Seeds

We have had particular luck with saving our own seeds from peas, beans, carrots, onions (they will flower the sec-ond season), lettuce, coriander, New Zealand spinach, chard, cooking celery, parsley, upland cress, and tomato.
With most of the above you can either collect the seed from the dried flower head, or, as in the case of chard, keep the entire branchlet of seed pods stored for the winter. With tomatoes you’ll need to mash away the pulp from the seeds. Then dry them thoroughly, spread out on a paper towel or screen, before you store them away.
All seeds, whether bought or saved from your own garden, should be kept in a cool, dry place. This is essential as you want seeds that will germinate with vigor the follow-ing season.
If you plan to save some of your own seeds, be attentive to which plants you are choosing for this purpose. Always select the best individual plant with the specific character-istics you desire, as the one from which to save the seeds. Mark it with a stake or red ribbon or something, early in the season, so that it will get good care and not be har-vested by mistake.
There is great genetic variation among the seeds of each variety of plant. By selecting year after year the individuals that most satisfy your particular desires, you will gradually develop a type that is particularly well suited to your cli-mate, soil, care, and palate.

Planting Indoors

When we began our urban garden we started all our seeds directly in the ground. It was very exciting to rush home after work to give the seedbeds a watering and go out again in the morning to make sure they stayed moist enough for the day. However, we began to suffer some losses almost at once. During the day, birds flocked to our lettuce, carrot, and corn seedlings. At night cutworms cut the slender stalks at ground level and left the entire seed-ling lying there to betray their presence. Slugs and snails are tremendous pests in our area and they would mow down several feet of row in a single evening.
We were putting so much attention on our new venture that every bite by a wild animal seemed like a large-scale tragedy. We took to building screens to keep out birds, using collars against cutworms, putting down sawdust, and night handpicking with a flashlight to foil our wildlife visi-tors.
After a while, the novelty wore off. Hovering over the seedlings became another chore to attend to in the midst of an already too demanding schedule of jobs and volun-teer activities. There had to be an easier way!
We started raising our seedlings indoors and putting them outside when they were large enough to go without atten-tion for a couple of days at a stretch. We used commercial-ly sold peat pots, but they were expensive. We tried eggshells–too small. That is, they were all right if you planted the seedling as soon as it was ready to go into the ground, but for busy persons like us, it was not uncommon for several weeks to go by, and by that time the seedling was either dead or permanently stunted by being in such cramped quarters. Then we tried miscellaneous cartons, such as those that cottage cheese comes in, but it was too hard to get the seedlings out without damaging the root hairs.
Finally, after considerable experimentation, we devel-oped the method we shall describe here step by step. We’ve taught this technique to hundreds of people. It’s just about fool-proof, even for children.
We have started every type of vegetable this way, even those that supposedly don’t like transplanting, and we’ve had good luck moving them to the garden later. This meth-od has many advantages. It uses seed economically, the little trays fit neatly on the window sill, the young seed-lings are not exposed to drying by winds or attack by wild animals (though we have had a few catastrophes with a kitten learning to climb), they are easy to check on morn-ing and night, and you will have a jump on the season as you would with a greenhouse or a cold frame.

Materials

  1. A sunny window.
  2. Quart-sized milk cartons-one carton will make
    three cube-shaped containers which can hold a total of four seedlings each. Thus, a total of twelve plants can be raised in a one-quart milk carton.
  3. Half-gallon-sized milk cartons–one carton will make two trays. Each tray will hold two cube-shaped containers.
  4. Soil-if your soil is Very loose and sandy, mix it with a little peat moss or compost. If your soil is a heavy clay, you’ll need to add sand and peat moss or compost. A good mixture is: 1/3 sand, 1/3 soil, and 1/3 peat moss or com-post. You can use peat moss, but sifted compost is best. Peat moss and sand can be bought in a plant nursery. (Beach sand is too salty.) Compost can be made out of your kitchen wastes, grass clippings, leaves, sawdust, etc.
  5. Seeds-if the vegetables you are growing now are not hybrids, you can save and use the seeds of lettuce, onions, carrots, Swiss Chard, New Zealand spinach, leeks, parsley, coriander, upland cress, tomatoes, celery, asparagus, peas, and beans. Do not attempt to save the seeds from members of the cabbage family (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kohlrabi, radish, turnips, rutabaga, Brussels sprouts, col-lards, kale, mustard greens, etc.) or the cucurbits (melons, squash, cucumbers). Store all seeds in a cool, dry place. Don’t try to save them more than one season.
  6. Scissors and a sharp knife for cutting cartons; tooth-picks and scraps of paper for labels; a stapler (optional); and a container for mixing soil. A flexible plastic bowl is good.

Procedure

  1. Cut each quart-sized milk carton into three open-ended cubes. Cut off the top and bottom of carton. Cut twice through the carton to get thirds.
  2. Cut each half-gallon milk carton in half the long way, to make two trays. On the half where the end has been opened to make a pouring spout, staple it closed. Or, if you have plenty of cartons, just discard the opened side (it will leak).
  3. Mix sand, soil, and peat moss or compost together thoroughly.
  4. Set two open-ended cube-shaped containers into each tray. Fill almost up to the top with the dry soil mixture. (By squeezing the plastic bowl you can form a pouring spout for the soil.)
  5. Pack down the soil firmly, using the back of fingers and knuckles-there should be a half-inch of space between soil surface and top of carton.
  6. Soak soil by pouring water into center of soil sur-face. This should create a little depression in center. Add enough water so that cartons are standing in about 1/4 inch of water.
  7. Let soil stand and soak up the water.
  8. Make a depression with your finger in each comer of the wet soil surface.
  9. Drop two or three seeds into each comer depression. 10. Cover with clean sand, just enough to exclude light but no deeper. (Disregard what the seed package says. Seeds started indoors are in an environment that is darker and warmer than outdoors, and thus more subject to fungus disease.) Lettuce seeds may be left uncovered.
  10. Write out a label on a scrap of paper and mount it on a toothpick.
  11. Check the containers every morning and night. If the surface dries out, add a little water by pouring it into center depression-just enough to wet the surface. Seeds must be kept damp while germinating, but too much moisture will encourage disease.
  12. When seedlings appear, move the carton to a sunny window.
  13. If more than one seedling appears in a comer, wait until the first leaves appear. Then choose the best looking seedling (biggest leaves, toughest stem, best color green) and cut off (don’t pull out) other seedlings competing with it.
  14. Keep seedlings damp as they grow.
  15. They are ready to transplant outdoors or to a larger container when they get their second or “true” leaves. However, if compost has been used in the soil mixture, there should be enough nutrients present to continue let-ting the seedlings grow in the same container another week or two before moving them.

Note–How often you need to water will depend on the kind of organic material you use and on how warm and dry your house is. If the soil mixture contains a good sifted compost, the house is kept fairly cool (68° F), and the planting mix was thoroughly soaked to begin with, watering once a week may be all that is necessary.
These are the advantages to the urban gardener of starting seedlings indoors: It is easy to protect seedlings from bugs, birds, and other wildlife, while they are young and tender. It is easy to keep them damp enough. The plants won’t take up space in the garden during the three to six weeks or so that they are very tiny. You can start the plants earlier in the year, if the weather outdoors is still pretty cold at night. You can transplant the seedlings to the exact distance apart desired and they won’t need to go through a thinning process. It is fun to watch closely as the seedlings grow-if you come home late and tired from work and it may be dark and cold outside, your seedlings are still easily accessible to you on your window sill. And finally, it uses seeds economically.

Outdoors

Eventually, after a couple of years of starting everything indoors, we began to modify our routine somewhat. We found that starting seeds outdoors and then thinning out what we didn’t want was in some cases easier than starting them inside. We learned to let some vegetables just seed themselves in by themselves.
We now plant our carrots outdoors right away. First we prepared, with wooden boards for sides, a raised bed of 1/3 sifted dirt (ours is a heavy clay), 1/3 sand we bought at a sand and gravel company (specify fresh water sand), and 1/3 sifted compost. (We also originally added bone meal as a number of books pointed out how important phosphorus was for carrots. Then we learned that our soil was not deficient in that mineral and the compost was providing plenty anyway.) Then we scattered the seeds as evenly as possible all over the bed.
Since we save our old carrot flower heads when they are full of mature (dry) seeds, this means crushing these in our hands and letting the pieces of stalks fall with the seeds themselves. Next we cover everything with a thin layer of sifted compost and water it down thoroughly. Finally, we stretch strips of burlap tightly over the beds, securing them with tacks into the board sides. The burlap does not touch the surface of the beds, leaving a space of at least two inches for the growth of the little seedlings. This way we shade the beds and prevent them from drying out, so that watering is only necessary every other day or less. The thin compost mulch on top of the seeds helps to keep them moist also.
When the seedlings appear, we start periodic thinning. The baby carrots are good to eat if you have the patience to wash off the soil. In any case, the rabbits love them. Eventually, we give each carrot at least an inch and a half all around, by thinning out the largest ones as the carrots grow. We protect the beds from birds by chicken-wire tun-nels that we have made until the seedlings are large enough not to be so attractive. Our cats help us in this respect also.
We also start peas and beans outside, first soaking them overnight to get them started. (The quicker you can get them above the ground and growing, the less likely you are to lose them to the fungus disease to which they are very susceptible.) Each time we plant these legumes where to our knowledge there have been no members of that family growing before, we inoculate them with a mix of bacteria, commonly sold by nurseries and seed catalogs as “legume aid.”
There is a group of bacteria, each particular to different members of the legume family, that live in close associa-tion with the roots of the plants and are able to take nitrogen out of the air and change it to make it available to plants as a fertilizer. This is the reason that clover, vetches, and other legumes are planted by farmers as a green “ma-nure.” For the soil to receive the full benefit of this nitro-gen production, it is necessary to turn the entire plant into the soil at the end of the season. When the plant and bacteria associated with it die and decompose, their bodies release the nitrogen for other plants to use. However, while it is alive, the plant receives benefits from these bacteria, and the results are visible in the greater yields produced by those plants that were inoculated compared to those that were not treated.
The spores, or resting stages, of these bacteria tend to remain for years in the soil where they were introduced, so it is not necessary to inoculate legumes going into soil where they were grown once before. In fact, it is possible to build up a soil bank of these bacteria and simply mix each batch of legume seeds that will go into a new area with soil from where inoculated beans or peas were grown the year before. You can tell if your soil has the bacteria present in any quantity already by pulling up a legume plant and inspecting it for the conspicuous nodules, or lumps, that the plant creates to house these “nitrogen-fixers.”
Loose-leaf lettuce seeds are another group we grow di-rectly in the ground outdoors. Some seeds itself in each year. New varieties we sow by scattering the seeds thinly over the mulch in one or another of our big planter boxes and watering them in. Since lettuce will germinate in the light, there is no need to cover them over.
Corn we also seed directly in the ground and protect with chicken wire when it is small. This is one plant that demands a great deal of nitrogen. Regular monthly urine waterings, high-quality steer manure or blood meal, plus a well-made compost, are absolute musts for getting a good crop.
If your preference is for starting other seeds outdoors, you can find ample directions for doing so on seed pack-ages and in government pamphlets and garden books; therefore we will not take the space here for a description of the planting requirements of each vegetable. All the other vegetables we start inside and transplant outdoors when they are large enough.

When and How to Transplant

If you are following our methods of starting seedlings indoors in milk cartons, you will usually have a space of several weeks’ leeway in getting seedlings into the ground. They must not be disturbed until they have gotten their second pair of leaves, or first pair of “true” leaves. These usually look different from the leaves that emerge from the seed. The trick is to transplant the seedling sometime between that point and the time they get too large for the container, thus running out of root space and nutrients.
A few days to a week before you plan to set them in the ground outside, the seedlings need to be “hardened off.” This means getting them used to the different outdoor temperatures, wind, and moisture conditions. We do this by moving the entire carton tray with its containers of seedlings to the porch for a few days where they are in a light shade and somewhat protected from the low night temperatures. Members of the cabbage family can be grad-ually hardened off to the point where they can withstand light late spring frosts. Tomatoes and other heat lovers like peppers can never be adapted to cool temperatures in this manner, however.
Take a look at your seedlings. There are two general growing types, so to speak. Some plants form a rosette of leaves low on the ground with the growing point deep in the center. An example would be lettuce. Others elongate with the growing point ever higher above the ground-broccoli is an example of this. Of course, some of the latter have weak stems characteristic of vines and grow out laterally along the ground unless staked or otherwise propped up-for instance, cucumbers and some tomatoes and squashes-but for purposes of transplanting this varia-tion doesn’t matter. The important thing is: avoid getting the growing point covered with soil or mulch.
This means careful planning in setting out the low-growing types because you want their centers to be slightly higher than the level of the bed. Achieve this by planting them in a tiny hill or mound with a depression around it to hold water. The long type of seedling, on the other hand, can actually be planted deeper than it stood in its first container. Tomatoes particularly will benefit from this treatment and will produce extra roots along the sides of the stem where it is buried. This type of seedling must also have a depression around it to hold water. When you move the seedlings, do so very gently. Remember, the water-absorbing rootlets are only one cell large and very fragile. If they are damaged, the seedlings’ ability to take in water and minerals will be temporarily reduced.
Moving the seedlings out of the milk cartons is simple. When the cube container is lifted out of the tray and set on the ground, a slight wiggling of the paper sides will allow you to lift the carton shell right off, leaving a perfect cube behind with a seedling in each comer.
Now, with two hands, break the cube in half, and then in quarters. Each quarter can then be slipped into the ground wherever you desire. If you cover your beds with a thick mulch, as we do, the surface of the ground will be very soft and crumbly. All you will need to do is pull back the mulch and the top half-inch or so of soil with your fingers, set the little seedling down in the slight depression you’ve created, pull the mulch back around the cube of soil and press it down very firmly all around so that the roots make a good contact with the soil. Then water.
If you have made a slight depression around the seedling with the pressure of your hands, the water will soak in right around the transplant instead of running off the bed. We have spoken before about the importance of not dis-turbing the soil when it is wet. If you use compost mulches as we do, you will be able to do your planting in the middle of a rainstorm since you never have to disturb the soil at all with this method.
After the water has soaked in, check to make sure no mud or mulch has washed into the center growing point. If it has, remove it gently with your fingers or with a little twig so that the center will dry out.
If soil should fall away from the seedling as you are moving it from its original container, don’t despair. Be sure to hold it by the leaves, not the roots, and plant it the same as suggested above, firming the soil well around it so the roots have good earth contact. When this does happen, or if you feel your handling of the seedling has been rough enough to destroy a number of the root hairs that absorb water, cover the seedling for a day or two with an over-turned flowerpot. This is done to reduce water loss in transplanted seedlings.
When it is time to remove these flowerpots, we do riot take them away entirely, but rather leave them setting upside down in between the seedlings for a while. This reduces air movement over the beds and also discourages our cats from digging in the soft earth and destroying the young seedlings, as they dearly love to do. These over-turned flowerpots also provide a habitat for a number of beneficial insects-more about that later.
It is wise to consider weather conditions when trans-planting seedlings. They will dry out quickly on hot windy days. Early evening is often a good time to set them out. In any case, if possible keep those you’re transplanting in the shade of your body and the ones waiting to be planted out of the hot sun too.
If you suspect the seedlings are about to wilt, either because of rough handling or the heat of the day, it is wise to remove at least one big leaf to reduce water loss. Pinch it off with your thumb and fingernails. If the plant is already quite large and wilting badly, take off more than one leaf. As long as you leave one leaf and do not harm the center growing point, the plant will survive. As a matter of fact, our guess is that more transplantings are lost because their sentimental owners felt it was too cruel to cut them back, than have ever been harmed by being pruned too severely !

Transplanting Trees: An Aside

While we are talking about transplanting, let us point out that the most popular way to kill transplanted trees in our area is by setting them in a depression so that water col-lects around the trunk. Fruit trees particularly, but many other trees also, are susceptible to a variety of plant-disease-causing fungi that can attack right through the bark where the trunk joins the main roots, if that area is al-lowed to remain damp.
Usually a hole is dug first, then the tree seedling set in so that the point where the main roots diverge from the trunk appears to be at the same level or sometimes slightly deeper than the ground around the hole. Then the soil is packed in around the tree, leaving a depression which is promptly watered and which fills with water every time it rains or the area is sprinkled. What happens is that the newly fluffed-up soil in the hole begins to subside, settling the tree down even deeper. Furthermore, ground water from the surrounding soil may tend to flow into the some-what more porous earth in the hole. The end result is ideal for the growth of pathogenic, or disease-producing, fungi.
What you should do: plant your tree seedling so that the point where the main roots join the trunk is at least several inches above the surrounding soil level. The earth should slant away from the trunk so that water will drain off the soil immediately adjacent to it. Then locate a ditch for water outside that immediate area. A tree can only absorb water through its smallest feeder roots and these tend to be out near the edge of the leaf canopy under what is called the drip line. So watering or fertilizing closer to the trunk will not be of much benefit in any case, and exces-sive moisture there is likely to cause you to lose the tree.

Garlic Cloves, Tubers, and Other Possibilities

Occasionally you may wish to propagate plants vegeta-tively, rather than with seeds. When you take a piece of the plant itself and replant it, you have an exact duplica-tion of the genetic material of the mother plant. With seeds, the offspring often exhibits some genetic variation from the parent plant as new combinations of characteris-tics may occur when the seed is fertilized.
Of the vegetables that the urban gardener is likely to be dealing with, potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, garlic, leeks, onions, asparagus, rhubarb, and horseradish are all usually propagated by planting a piece of tuber, bulblet, or root of the plant.
Perhaps easiest are those where you simply separate the clump of bulblets and plant each separately. Garlic and shallots are the most common example. Set each clove in the ground so that the pointed end just reaches ground level. Leeks will also form bulblets around the mother stalk when it goes to seed. Separate and plant in the same way. In our mild winter climates, we have a saying, “Plant on the shortest day, harvest on the longest.” In colder climates it will have to be either in late fall and covered with a thick mulch, or in early spring.
Some leeks will also form little bulblets in their flower heads, as will some onions, sometimes called multiplier onions. These can be broken off and planted, just like bulbs that form at the roots. Onions can be bought as “sets” rather than seed. These are little onion bulbs all ready to grow. Since it takes a long season to mature a bulb onion, this is a fairly foolproof method which provides a head start. Onions form their bulbs in response to day length. Find out from your local agricultural extension people the best varieties for your area.
Jerusalem artichokes can be planted whole, or just a few left where they were grown, but potatoes should be cut, rather than planted whole, to produce good yields. Select firm tubers and cut the pieces so that each contains one undamaged “eye” or bud. Then let the cut surfaces dry for at least twenty-four hours before planting. We set ours out on top of the ground in the early spring and cover with a loose straw mulch. As the tuber begins to form, we reach in and detach them without disturbing the plant which goes on producing more.
Rhubarb, asparagus, and horseradish roots can all be bought through seed catalogs and all thrive best in deep loose soil with lots of organic material. Asparagus is a very satisfying crop if you have the permanent space for it. You cannot harvest it the first two years because the shoots you eat are the plant itself. They are needed to grow up, produce food, and develop vigorous roots so that the plant can stand cropping in future years. From the third year on you can harvest for six or more weeks in the spring, snap-ping the roots off at ground level with your fingers. The rest of the year, shoots are left to grow up and produce high feathery foliage which is a delight to view and is like the feathery, fern-like foliage frequently included with florists’ roses.

Chapter 9

Making Friends with the Neighbours.
or Adventures with Chickens. Rabbits, Bees and Worms

One way to become acquainted with the neigh-bors is to raise a rooster that crows at four in the morning (and every five minutes after that for several hours). You might think that delightful sound would produce senti-mental reveries about our lost rural past. Not so. What it may produce is an irate phone call, “Get rid of that- rooster,” and a knock on the door by the local police.
What are the laws in your community regarding the keeping of livestock within the city limits? In our town chickens are legal if they are kept more than twenty-five feet from the neighbor’s residence, and even goats are per-mitted. But whatever the statutes in your community read, there is only one true law: Don’t annoy the neighbors/It is only when someone complains that you will get into trou-ble, and then it won’t really matter if you are obeying the letter of the law or not.
This means the urban gardener must give particular at-tention to animal noises and smel/s. The following descrip-tions of our various animal systems are written with these problems in mind.

Chickens or Manure, Eggs and Thoughts

Neither of us can remember which came first, the chick-ens or the vegetables. We think the way it happened was: first we put in the plants, then we realized the great value of and need for compost. Next we discovered a need for a steady, reliable source of nitrogen for the compost. So we used to go down to the racing stables and beg them to let us in to get some of the manure. We would sort through the piles of discarded bedding until we located a catch of nuggets. “I found some,” Helga would holler excitedly, holding up a batch of the treasure. “Pure gold,” I would shout back appreciatively, and all the stablehands would give us peculiar looks.
My father told me the way to pick a true woman was to take her out to the stables and see if she would collect manure with you. Helga passed the test without a doubt. I had found a real woman, but we still hadn’t solved our nitrogen problem. Going to the stables required gasoline expenditures, begging from usually hostile or unfriendly people (I wear a beard and that frequently sets the stage without a spoken word), and it turns out after all that horse manure is not very high in nitrogen. The solution was chickens which provide ample supplies, and this chap-ter is about some lessons well learned that would be of use to others who want to solve their fertilizer problems and get eggs and meat along the way.
Since deciding to get chickens, we’ve had some experi-ences with two different basic ways to keep the cackling fowl: in individual cages on wire and in a group on the ground with a coop. In order to help you decide which kind of system to start with, we’ll discuss both, indicating advantages and disadvantages. First, the wire floor method.

Having the Birds on Wire

The cages we used were once commercial cages sold as a unit with six compartments, sliding doors, and a slanted floor for the eggs to roll down to the front where they could be easily collected. We got ours by driving out to a chicken-producing area and calling around until we found a man who had extra cages. We paid five dollars back in ’69. With this system, a trough is mounted along the front of the unit so each bird has access to feed. A water trough is similarly mounted on the back. Since we were interested in harvesting the manure, arrangements were made for it to accumulate beneath the cages for regular removal, using a small hand shovel (actually an old-fashioned coal shovel) and a bucket. For ease of removal about a one-foot space between the cage and the floor should be provided. The manure removal system is probably the most important part of any of these animal systems, because how the ma-nure is managed will influence the fly population, and this in turn can affect the neighbors and even public authori-ties.
The secret ingredient needed for all plant and animal life is nitrogen, and the best animal source, other than man, is chickens because 6 percent of their fecal material is nitro-gen. Horse or cow manure, in comparison, doesn’t go over 2 percent because their urine is seldom collectible. Chick-ens, on the contrary, have both fecal and urinary tracts combined, which explains why their nitrogen content is higher. Flies already know this secret, and you will have to manage the nitrogen sources to show people that you are responsible members of the community.
A useful point to help your case along is the fact that the major source of flies in urban areas is garbage cans. Some studies, where traps for the larvae (which are the young or feeding stages of flies-between the egg and pupa or cocoon-also called maggots) were placed beneath garbage cans to capture the larvae as they migrated out of the cans looking for dryer areas to change to the fly stage, showed that about 1,000 flies per can every week were produced. Multiplying this number by the number of such cans in any particular area will indicate that a tremendous popula-tion of flies exists in urban areas. If you keep chickens, you will become aware of flies because even a well-managed system will still emit a little ammonia which will attract the adult flies. It would be a good idea to obtain a fly trap. The catches make excellent chicken feed!
A most important way to manage flies besides trapping is to release certain beneficial insects that attack the flies in the pupal stage by boring in and eating the flies out. The insects can be obtained by writing Rincon Vitova Insectaries, Inc., P.O. Box 95, Oakview, California 93022. A shipment of fly parasites every month in hot weather at about three to five dollars per shipment would help pro-vide a major reduction in the fly population.
The last important way to keep flies to a minimum is to manage the manure according to a regular schedule of re-moval and compost making. The most important thing to remember about manure removal is to leave a good portion of it to provide habitat and food sources for the beneficial parasitic and predacious insects already living in the ma-nure. Just the other day I saw a beautiful new scarab (dung) beetle that I’ve never seen before. Lots of rove beetles also call dung “home.”
The combined system of trapping, releases of beneficial insects, manure removal, and composting will easily keep any fly population under control and will surely pass the scrutiny of any official that may drop by to have a look. By carefully explaining your purpose and techniques you may even convince him that home food raising is the only way to go.
The wire cage method is best for manure harvesting, ease of egg removal, and reducing feed losses. Disadvantages include more maintenance, greater chances of lice because the birds do not have a chance to “wash” in the dust, and less entertainment possibilities since you miss seeing the pecking order and other shenanigans of a flock on the ground. The “on wire” system has enough disadvantages that, depending upon circumstances, we would probably recommend building a system where the birds are on the ground.

Having the Birds on the Ground

This system allows the birds to walk around a great deal more, hence they are usually tougher when placed in the pressure cooker after their egg-laying days are over. Still, they taste better than store-bought birds, have no hor-mones or other concoctions commercial producers are forced into using, and they take less care. The on-wire method we used meant someone had to go out and open and close the chickens each day.
This task, probably ominous at first, is not really that bad. I actually timed myself and could in two minutes in the morning feed and water both the rabbits and chickens. People watching this activity probably thought, “I wonder what that crazy man is doing now, jogging around the house.” Of course, I’d have to run to do it in two minutes, but walking is permitted if you want to use a little more time. It’s probably better on your own system to learn to go slower (but think faster). It’s easy to lapse off into philosophy. I guess it’s really a matter of not doing what the neighbors are doing but inwardly knowing that they will come around when they see your fun and success, especially after a few crises (like food and gas).
The basic idea with the on-the-ground system is to only collect the eggs each day and provide feed and water about once a week. This requires different kinds of feeders and waterers. We bought both of ours from Sears (which you can do through the catalog) for about five dollars each. Both could probably be made from five-gallon cans. A small coop should be provided for shelter in rainy and cold weather. Three to five birds per nest box is adequate. Smart systems we have seen and tested with a student project have a movable outside door that allows you to
check the nests even while birds are sitting on the eggs. Oh yes, watch out about giving your eggs to young city kids; they actually try sitting on them, and, contrary to the success of the mother hen, they do not hatch into chicks.
Two other things are useful to know about if you use this method. One is litter management, the other is rac-coons. Having the birds on the ground means they will have access to their droppings. Thus, whatever fly breeding occurs will shortly be controlled by the birds themselves, if there are no small areas inaccessible to the birds where manure will pile up. For the urban food producer inter-ested in harvesting manure, creating a roost (where the birds can congregate at night) over an area that can be shoveled will probably provide enough nitrogen for composting. This way, a coop with roost, nest box, and a small walking, scratching area with the feed and water containers-all designed for ease of maintenance and harvest-ing manure and eggs-can easily be fit into the smallest backyard or rooftop.
Raccoons like to kill chickens. For this reason adequate structures should be created. On wire the coop should be dosed during dark hours to prevent contact between rac-coons and chickens. On the ground, burying some of the chicken wire beneath the soil out to about a foot can prevent the raccoons from digging under the edge of the cage. All of our little hints that we are passing on to you cost us something-this one about the raccoons cost us seven brand new layers (it takes six months of feed to get the first eggs). If we have saved you even one problem, this book would be worthwhile.

Feeds and Foods

Before actually installing your birds, you need to consid-er feeds, their sources and composition. Feeds can be bought commercially, or the ingredients bought, then mixed yourself. Possibly feed can be produced completely at home (more about this later). Commercial feeds can be purchased at a feed store or a pet store. When you start it is probably best to get “complete mash” (usually sold by the pound or in 100-pound sacks) which will be good for both developing chicks, laying hens, or even meat chick-ens, but is usually more expensive. Possibly, if adequate pest-free storage space is available, you can get two kinds of feeds, the complete mash and a “laying mash” for the layers. Meat chickens can be fed scraps and many things which the others cannot because their requirements are not so delicate.
You can begin mixing your own feed by first shifting away from complete mash to a mixture like 1/3 complete mash, 1/3 recleaned wheat, and 1/3 fine cracked corn. A similar mixture is 1/4 each of complete mash, wheat, corn, and scratch. If your feed source (look in the phone book) sells them in fifty-pound bags, make batches of 150 pounds up and store it in a large (thirty-two gallon) plastic garbage can; the best ones have metal handles that snap over the lid. We keep ours on the back porch. Avoid spill-ing any feed, as it brings mice around. Once mixed, feed can be easily metered to the chickens. Using the first mix-ture, one of our students has determined that it takes about 25 cents per day to feed eight layers who give us six or seven eggs. If a dozen eggs costs 80 cents, you can easily see a savings, without considering the value of the bird and manure and without changing the feed in any way.
If you are willing to experiment a little, you can easily cut into the feed costs. The first experiment is to locate a good clean source of fresh grass clippings. Chickens will eat up to 1/3 of their diet in grass or greens. Chickens will eat lots of other things too, including insects, snails and slugs, dog food, and other foods. With the help of our students, we have embarked on a program to discover how much of their feed can be produced right here in the city. The directions we are exploring involve producing eatable foods from various cultures set up for that purpose. Earth-worm cultures are a good example. Others which we have planned to explore include snails and slugs, sowbugs, crick-ets, flies, midges, and other insects. I should stress that flies can be trapped very simply and are gobbled up by our birds. We will soon evaluate how much of the diet can be made up of other organisms that can be easily and cheaply raised.
Before discussing selecting breeds and rearing chicks, two last bits of information about feeding chickens are impor-tant. All chickens need small stones, or grit, fed in their food. These really act as chicken teeth, for they are used to grind up the grains. They can be purchased, sifted from stony soils, or picked up when chickens forage. The other important feed ingredient critical for egg production is a supply of calcium. We use oyster shells and crushed eggshells. The former can be purchased while the latter can be collected in the kitchen. If you collect the eggshells, be sure to keep using them up quickly because some small residue of the eggs remains when you remove the ingredi-ents and it starts to decompose after a week or so. Even if you use eggshells, some source of calcium should be added periodically to keep egg production up. I cannot see why lime cannot be added to the feed.

Selecting Breeds

Breeds can be selected for egg production, meat, or show, depending on your purpose. We have studied at least three different breeds in our systems: White Leghorns, Reds (Rhode Island and New Hampshire), and Plymouth Rocks. White Leghorns are usually chosen by the large grower for egg production. They start to lay early (twenty to twenty-four weeks) and lay up to 300 eggs per year. However, for the home grower they are a bit too fierce and nervous. The Plymouth Rocks are smaller birds with more meat, very calm and adaptable, but lay fewer eggs. The Reds appear best for all-around qualities: they lay well, up to 250 eggs per year, are large and meaty enough to make a good meal, and are relatively adaptable. New Hampshire Reds appear easy to obtain. Sears sells them, but local breeders can usually be found in most areas. If you want the more exotic breeds, wish to experiment, or merely want to look at a nice catalog, try writing to Murry McMurry Hatchery, Webster City, Lowa 50595.

Baby Chicks

If you get a chance to buy chicks that you pick out yourself, check their feet, bills, and vent (combination anus, vagina, urethra, and egg passageway) for abnormali-ties. Pick vigorous, healthy looking birds and see if you can get all females if you want only egg layers. You can mail order (usually along with another grower) only females if you want to pay extra. If you get both sexes, you can raise the roosters to eating size and bring them to the plate before they crow so that you don’t annoy sensitive neigh-bors. You should leave one rooster to fertilize your eggs in order to raise chickens from eggs, but you do not need a rooster to get eggs. We recommend a flock without a roost-er for crowded urbanites so as to avoid losing the flock altogether due to an unhappy neighbor.
Before obtaining the chicks, however, it is best to set up their living quarters. We have explored both wire and on-the-floor systems just as with the larger birds. We recom-mend an on-the-floor system that is at least a foot high, with a sawdust floor and a waterer and feeder bought at pet or feed shops. The waterer should be elevated so as to minimize fecal contamination of the drinking water. We use a sawdust litter to catch and dry the feces, and we change it about every one to two weeks, depending upon the number of birds and their age. The neat metal tray with head holes to allow the chicks access to the food without scratching in it is probably ideal because it reduces feed losses.
The last thing needed is a source of heat. We built our incubator from an old box, and installed a light socket inside it. When we first get the chicks, we use a 100-watt bulb and gradually over about a six-week period reduce the wattage to fifteen. Then it’s outside to a cage with a light for similar adaptation and then into the final cage.
We have new chicks around our house about every month and they are a delight to watch grow. We have an incubator set up in the living room where we can peek in and enjoy the action. Since we have no television, it pro-vides a source of entertainment when we are weary of the hurried world.

Other Details

Even though I’m approaching raising chicks in a “how to solve or go around the problems” way, do not think chick-ens are all problems. They are a delight to be near and really give your home a big survival advantage. Then again, much has already been written about how to do it all, but most of the literature requires interpreting since it has usually been researched for the large or commercial pro-ducer without considering the special circumstances of the small-scale home producer, much less the urbanite.
A good example is the one-sheet answer published by the University of California Agricultural Extension Service, called “Precision Debeaking of Week-Old Chicks.” The sheet tells how to use a debeaking machine. Debeaking is a process designed to just take the points of a chicken bill off so as to prevent them from killing or otherwise damag-ing each other. The fact that the chickens actually will kill certain members of their flock may have to be experienced to be understood. Since chickens peck each other in order to establish a social order in which the head chicken pecks the most and gets pecked the least, if their bills are point-ed, a wound will frequently be opened. Once blood has been exposed, they all start to peck at the poor thing, and before long a dead chicken will result. But rest assured that debeaking will reduce the losses from pecking.
Now if you could simply get a bit of information about how to do it with a pen knife or razor blade, it would be nice. Since I know of nowhere to get it, I’ll make it up for you. The whole trick is to cut the beak as you cut your own nails: cut the excess without cutting any living tissue. The skin part of the beak should be avoided. For people who have never done it before, try a little bit first. It’s good to start on an older bird, but best to do it on younger birds about a week old. My complaint about the extension service’s information is that it’s all mostly geared to the big farmers and not the home producer. Keep this in mind when you read all information about food production. It will provide a good approach to interpreting a lot. of useful research.

Harvesting

Usually it is important to inform people who have never grown their own food before that death is necessary if there is to be life. Killing a chicken humanely and quickly can result in a deeper appreciation of life. It is also surpris-ing how many people do not know how to accomplish the task of taking a bird to the plate. My own views on the subject lead me to muse on how little real knowledge exists in a modern industrialized society with its compart-mentalized functions. People, it seems, know how to reproduce, eat, make war, and die, but miss the joys of growing their food. The harvest of a chicken is a time when I also think of the day I too will join the earth.
The process for killing a chicken, plucking and dressing it, is a series of techniques that has been our pleasure to teach to hundreds of people. Before we die, perhaps thou-sands more will relearn a dying art.
After starting a large kettle of water boiling and after selecting the bird (usually a young rooster), I take it to a location where I can hang it upside down by its feet. It is best to restrain the wings because they frequently flap after the animal has been killed. By holding the neck down with the left-hand thumb under the beak and the rest of the hand behind the head; the neck can be stretched down. With a deep slice of a sharp knife, the large veins in the neck can be severed. Be sure to push the knife to the spinal column. The bird will die quickly, and the blood collected in sawdust is valuable as a source of nitrogen.
After a short waiting period, the bird can be dunked into boiling water for 1½ to 2 minutes to loosen the skin, lifted for drip draining, and placed on a cutting board for pluck-ing. With two people plucking, the feathers can be easily removed in fifteen minutes, and the bird is ready to clean, cook, and eat.

Meat Rabbits

The ideal meat animals for urban areas are rabbits. Compared to chickens, rabbits are quieter, less expensive to raise, and provide something chickens can’t: fur or skin. Chickens require grains which humans could eat directly, but rabbits can be largely raised on market scraps or green plants produced in the backyard. We easily raised a litter on alfalfa, harvested from a plot approximately ten by twenty feet, to prove it to ourselves. (This was in the student garden where we could devote that much space to alfalfa.) The meat that rabbits provide is extremely low in fat. Chickens, including their eggs, are well known for fat content, particularly cholesterol. Rabbits are likeable be-cause they respond to contact (petting). Of course, if you can have both, do so, but if you have to start with just one type of animal start with rabbits; it will be easier.

Hutches
We learned a great deal about adapting a rabbit system to a crowded urban area. Our first hutch, for instance, built largely from wood, was great for about two years and then problems started. The problems concerned the taboo area in the American psyche: wastes. The steady exposure of urine on wood creates a smell. This is how we met our neighbor on the north side of the house. A bachelor, he complained that the smell drifted into his windows when he was entertaining. Because of a lack of room beneath the wire floor, the manure built up to unacceptable levels. This combination of problems forced us to consider other hous-ing. Today’s hutches have evolved a great deal from the “ole” days.
The disadvantages of the first design were eliminated by using all-wire cages surrounded by urine guards, suspended about ten inches above deep, eight- to nine-inch metal ma-nure pans with open ends for easy access with a shovel. The urine guards are particularly important. These are wide strips of sheet metal attached to the cage so as to cover the first five inches around the base of the cage and hang down about five inches. These guards prevent the wooden hutch structures from becoming contaminated with urine. By positioning the hutch close to the compost bins, the problems of moving the manure any great dis-tance can be reduced.
If you make your own wire cages be sure to get strong wire and build them with sturdy fasteners. We recently bought special wire clips and clinchers from the Crown Iron Works Company (1205 Central Ave., N.E., Minne-apolis, Minnesota 55413). It is definitely a sad thing to wake up one morning to find your hutches torn apart and your rabbits dead from a dog attack. The best way to prevent such occurrences is to build a dog-proof cage. Other predatory animals should also be built out. A friend of ours had trouble with a large gopher snake which discovered that baby rabbits were tasty snacks. No greater than one-half-inch wire spaces will probably be enough to screen out such visitors.
The size of the cage is important. Our decision was to allow a greater area for movement than is normally al-lotted in a commercial situation. The commercial cages we obtained (very cheaply) were thirty inches wide, seventy-two inches long, and eighteen inches high. This cage was divided into four compartments, with presumably one rab-bit per compartment. Anything larger would certainly be an improvement in living for the rabbits. Since the rabbits are to be placed in one’s body eventually, it is important to understand that the better the rabbits are treated, the better one ultimately treats oneself.

Feeders and Waterers
When we started we made our own. We chose ¼ inch plywood and made the proportions to fit the rabbits. We learned a lot from this experiment and not just how high a rabbit’s chin was. The feeder was also built so we could fill it up and let the rabbits eat; we thought this would reduce the time needed for frequent feedings. The whole thing turned out to be a disaster. We learned that it is bad to provide food continuously. Overfed rabbits get fat. Fat rabbits are not healthy and besides it is a waste of feed. We also learned that rabbits like to eat wood. It was easy for them to take some alfalfa pellets, then a bite of the feeder, then some more alfalfa, etc. The result was a holey feeder. Holey feeders don’t hold feed.
We learned another thing about feeders besides not to make them of wood. If the feeders are placed so the pellets are accessible to the rabbits but can be loaded from the outside, time can be saved. This and more still we learned when Bill discovered fabricated sheet metal feeders at a local feed store. The price was right, and he tra-la-la-ed home and mounted them from the outside. Hurrah for some technology! Some humans before us had already made the same discovery. We had not done our research but now we appreciate what it takes to pioneer.
Our latest feeder discovery concerns what are called “fines.” Fines are the small particles of alfalfa that build up in the feeder. When they build up to a considerable pile, some smart aleck rabbit decides to dig out the food dish, resulting in loss of feed. One day while looking through Countryside Small Stock Journal (subscriptions axe available from Rt. 1, Box 239, Waterloo, Wisconsin 53594) we saw feeders with wire screen bottoms. The idea behind these devices is easy enough to figure out so we went outside with hammer and nail and fixed all the feed-ers to let the fines through. No feed loss now, except the fines.
Many Antioch College West students helped us with these projects. One student suggested we build mangers so that the rabbits could be fed greens without opening the cages. The mangers also keep the greens off the floor of the cage; once rabbits start to walk on their food they often lose interest in eating it.
Waterers went through a similar evolution. We started with the galvanized sheet metal ones that Bill fabricated, which leaked. We turned to aluminum and even plastic but these needed to be tied down to resist being dumped, chewed, or otherwise destroyed. The solution was at the local feed store: ceramic bowls. We did learn one winter that frozen ceramic water bowls crack, but they can be glued back together. Only one of about ten bowls decided to express itself in this way so the bowls should be useful in cold areas too. Fill the bowls with a watering can.
Bill can feed and water the rabbits in less than two min-utes if he rushes, but it takes longer to feed them fresh greens and pet each one. More realistically, five to ten minutes a day to feed and water and about one hour a week for cleaning, repair, and butchering could provide one’s family with a cheap and friendly meat supply that produces fertilizer for the garden and leather for clothing. Obviously we like rabbits and rabbit meat. Before you can consider how to accomplish getting the bunnies to the plate, you should first get some bunnies.

Buying and Sexing
Some people give away their pet rabbits while others sell them. Either way, check them out for obvious signs of bad health. Watch how they move around; look for jaw, limb, or other bone disfigurements; check out the ears and feet. If you have a choice, choose animals without ear sores (due to an ear mite) and without sores on the feet. Pet the prospect and feel how sturdy he or she is. Compare with other rabbits. Stunted rabbits, from improper feeding, axe not healthy, and may have small litters.
Usually, when buying new rabbits to set up a home system, you will want at least two or three females and one male, and thus you will need to be able to tell the sexes apart. Being able to sex the rabbits can save you money and time because if you want three females and one male and get two females and two males, you will need another female ($) and need to butcher the extra male. Oh yes, the higher price you pay for a ready-to-breed female is related to the time and feed it took to get her to reproducing age (about six months).
Young rabbits are difficult to sex but after two or three months it is easier. First, however, you need to know how to hold and move the rabbits around. Basically there are two ways:

  1. Behind the neck or by holding and moving them by the scruff of the neck with one hand while the other supports the greater weight under the back-best for large rabbits; or
  2. The “loin” grip: by the lower region with the heel of the hand toward the tail of the animal-better for the smaller animals. Whatever the method, be careful. Rabbits can give you some good scratches.
    Once you have handled a few rabbits both ways you are ready for the next step in the process. Starting with loin grip, lower the animal quickly and steadily to where its head can be held firmly between your knees. This should immobilize the rabbit’s front legs leaving you with both hands to keep the hind legs from scratching you with one hand, while leaving the other hand free to inspect the geni-tals. By blowing on the fur around the genitals you can begin to see where you can press gently to expose the penis which is contained in a tubular sheath. Obviously no penis means a female, but sometimes with young animals it is difficult to distinguish the protruding vaginal area from an immature male organ. A little experience always helps to clear up the muddle. The technique can be quickly learned and is important.
    We should add here a bit about the educational value of learning and showing others the skills associated with rais-ing rabbits. Not only are the “facts of life” easy to illus-trate but nutrition, health and disease, the wonders of na-ture, confronting death, and other complexities all can be easily understood, learned, taught, and discussed through raising rabbits, or for that matter by caring for any form of living being. Once you appreciate such things it is also easy to see how far urban-suburban people have gone away from “the good life.”

Breeding
Rabbits are notorious for their quick and easy breeding capabilities. Here is our technique for telling when a suc-cessful mating has been accomplished.
When the male mounts the female and goes through the motions of insemination, that mating is usually successful if, at the end, the male’s bottom tucks under the female’s and he flops over on the side. When you first start breeding, see if you can observe this. Most books recommend that three to five days later the male be placed back in with the female (always move the male to the female or move both to neutral or new quarters) to see if she refuses the male. If she does, she is pregnant and will drop her young between the thirtieth and thirty-third day, counting from the successful mating.
Once you know a female is pregnant, make a note on the calendar to put a nest box in on the twenty-seventh day. Earlier, the female will use the box as a defecation station, but if too late she will have her young on the floor of the cage where they usually die from exposure and lack of care (rabbits will not, like cats, carry their young around). You can tell a female is ready to drop when she starts pulling hair from her body and making a nest.
Another important point to keep in mind with pregnant or new mothers: they are extremely skittish or nervous during the gestation period, and if disturbed by noises, animals, food changes, etc., they may respond by eating their young. However, usually with a little care, having rabbits is like falling off a log. A burlap sack hung over the front of the cage may provide seclusion for a new, or about-to-be, mother if your yard gets a lot of visitors.

Feeding
Feeding is easy. One rule will do: don’t overfeed. The way we learned this was to try different schedules and amounts, then compare the size of the fat deposits at slaughter time. Too much fat means a waste of feed and unhealthy rabbits. When we teach people how to kill and butcher a rabbit we always point this out. The lesson takes a while to learn sometimes, because we all like to eat and rabbits are no exception. For a full grown “California” breed rabbit, five ounces of alfalfa pellets each day is plenty. This amount can be decreased if greens are given. In cold weather they may need more feed.
Feed can be purchased, obtained as waste products, or produced. Alfalfa pellets are available at pet and feed stores in fifty and 100 pound sacks. Growing your own feed alfalfa is best, if you have the space. You can raise rabbits all the way with alfalfa except during the first weeks when they need mother’s milk.
The supermarkets and grocery stores throw all sorts of greens and vegetable scraps away. While shopping, you can bring home a box or regularly stop by, make friends, and get such goodies as carrot tops, outer leaves of lettuce, cabbage, celery, etc. In fact, you can experiment and bring home salads with parsley, onions, radishes, etc.
Other waste products that you can start experimenting with are ornamental plants. Grass clippings are readily available, nutritious, and usually thrown away. Be careful about your sources, though, because lawns are heavily treated with herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. Check about this first, and look further if the people look at you oddly. But if you explain that you want the grass for rabbit feed (chickens also love it), you may have a convert on your hands, especially in these times of high meat prices.
Over the last few years we’ve been trying various other ornamentals as foods and you can do likewise. Fresh leaves and twigs of many shade and fruit trees are gobbled up. It’s a good game to learn which ones they like or don’t like. They love linden leaves, but eucalyptus, pines, and acacia are largely refused. They eat bamboo and ivy.
A few common weeds and ornamentals are poisonous. A book called Poisonous Plants of the United States by Walter Muenscher (Macmillan, 1962) may be useful to you. The University of Califomia Agricultural Extension Service has published a useful list of poisonous ornamen-tals. Why bother to learn which wild and ornamental plants in your area are good for feeding rabbits? Because not only is it cheaper to feed them on things others throw away, but also you become less dependent on materials that must be trucked into the city from somewhere else.
Other plants that we eat have also turned out to be good rabbit foods. Besides the obvious vegetables, we’ve fed them Jerusalem artichokes, miner’s lettuce, and nasturti-ums, all of which we have plenty of since they are almost like weeds. Fresh water must always be available.
Rabbits can stand very cold weather if they are kept dry and draft-free. But they are sensitive to heat. If your sum-mer temperatures go above 95°F regularly, then avoid breeding the rabbits during this time and locate their cages in a shady spot. During real heat waves, a fine spray of water over the cages, or wet burlap cloths hung over the wire, will help reduce the heat stress they may suffer from. We prefer to breed and butcher our rabbits in the winter, although our town has a rather cool summer, because the pelts are so much thicker when it’s cold.

Butchering
There’s lots more to learn about the furry little chewers, but to start you off right, you need to know how to get the rabbits from the hutch to the plate. The steps in the process are slaughter, butchering, packaging, storage, prep-aration, and eating.
The best, cleanest, and easiest way to render a rabbit unconscious is by dislocating its neck, or by stunning it with a sharp blow at the base of the skull. An excellent description comes from Farmers Bulletin No. 2131, called Raising Rabbits (it can be purchased for less than twenty-five cents by writing the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 2O4O2).
“To dislocate the neck, hold the animal by its hind legs with the left hand. Place the thumb of the right hand on the neck just back of the ears and place the fingers under the chin. Stretch the animal quickly by pushing down on the neck with the right hand. Press down with the thumb, then raise the animal’s head with a quick movement to dislocate the neck.” This method is instantaneous and painless when done correctly. I always make sure by using a stout stick to crack the skull.
Suspend the carcass by inserting a hook between the tendon and bone of the right leg. Insert the hook just above the hock. Cut into the skin just below the hock of the suspended leg, then slit open the skin on the inside of the leg to the base of the tail. Continue the incision to the hock of the left leg. Separate the edges of the skin from the carcass and pull the skin down over the animal. Leave as much fat on the carcass as possible. Remove the head, cut off the tail, the front feet, and the free rear leg at the hock joint.
After skinning, make a slit along the median line of the belly. Remove the entrails and gall bladder, but leave the liver and kidneys in place. Be careful to avoid spilling the bladder contents on the meat. Unhook the suspended rab-bit and remove the right hind leg at the hock.
Wash the carcass in cold water. Chill the carcass in a refrigerated cooler.
An excellent pictorial description of dressing or butcher-ing a rabbit is contained in the 4-H Club Rabbit Project Manual (4-H-Ag51) and can be obtained by writing to Co-operative Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Uni-versity of California, Berkeley, California. Essentially the rabbit is hung upside down by the hind legs, skinned, dressed (much like a chicken), cut into various portions–ribs, legs, and back-to be used in different dishes, packed so as not to push holes in a plastic bag, labeled, and put into the freezer for preparation at a later date-or eaten that night for supper.
Most of the recipe books that mention rabbit at all usual-ly say to prepare it like chicken. This is generally true, but actually a still greater variety is available because portions of the back can be ground into rabbit burgers or sliced into small pieces for incorporation into many Chinese dishes. There is also rabbit stew, sweet and sour rabbit, and many others.

Tanning
A friend of ours, who lived with us for a while, taught us how to tan our rabbit skins. This is the method he uses very successfully:

  1. Take care of the skin when it is first removed from the animal-slip it over a hanger and let it dry in a cool, shady place. Leather should always be kept out of the sun! Originally we immediately salted the skins heavily, but more recently, having read a government booklet that says one should never do so, we have just let them dry as they came from the animal. Since rabbit skins are so small, it seems desirable to accumulate several before beginning the tanning process, and then do them up all at one time.
  2. When you are ready to begin the process, cut the pelts through one hind leg so that they will lay out flat.
  3. Soak the skins in a bucket of cold water for about six hours. Les would do six pelts at a time, thus the recipe here is for that number. Keep the pelts submerged under the water with a brick.
  4. Remove skins from water and “flesh.” This means pulling off the thin membrane and any clinging fat that might adhere to the inside of the skin. This is done with a sharp skinning or jack knife, usually holding the skin over the edge of a board. How well the skin comes out at the end of the process depends on how thoroughly and skill-fully the fleshing is done. It does take experience, as the skins are thin and it is all too easy to poke through the pelt accidentally. It used to take Les about fifteen to twenty minutes to do each skin, but if you’ve never fleshed a pelt before, allow more time in the beginning.
  5. As soon as each pelt is fleshed, return it to the cold water. Do not leave the pelts exposed to the air any longer than you can help it.
  6. Make the tanning solution. Commercial tanning companies have a variety of formulas, usually kept secret, and many contain caustic chemicals. The solution used contains materials fairly easy to obtain.
    For 6 rabbit pelts:
    1 pound of potassium alum, dissolved in I gallon of cold water.
    8 ounces of salt, and 4 ounces of washing soda, dissolved together in 1/2 gallon of water.
    Important-first put alum solution in a plastic barrel, porcelain crock, or glass container. Do not use metal. Then, add soda-salt solution to alum water.
  7. Put wet, fleshed pelts into a container of the tanning solution. Les used to emphasize that soaking, fleshing, and putting in the tanning solution all should be done in quick succession.
  8. Leave in tanning solution for four to seven days. Keep the container in a cool, shaded place.
  9. Stir the tanning pelts at least twice a day. Keep them submerged in solution at all times.
  10. After four to seven days, remove pelts and rinse thoroughly in cold water. Les recommended doing this several times.
  11. In the next to last rinse, use one ounce of borax for every one gallon of water and leave skins in water for about five minutes, agitating them occasionally.
  12. Give them a final rinse in plain cold water.
  13. Squeeze out excess water from the pelts, gently. Do not wring–treat as you would a fine woolen garment.
  14. Stretch on a board to full size, fur side down, and pin down the edges with thumb tacks.
  15. Rub a bar of Ivory soap into the skin side, working up a good, thick lather with the moisture that remains in the skin.
  16. Let dry in a cool, shaded place. This may take from one to several days, depending on the weather.
  17. When thoroughly dry, you can rub in a little neat’s foot oil, and work the skin back and forth between your hands, if you wish them to be very soft. This step is not absolutely necessary. If you get oil on the fur side, dean with cornmeal.
  18. Sew into garments, either fur or skin side out, de-pending on your desire. Mittens, vests, and bed spreads are all good possibilities for these useful, pretty little skins. Ten to twelve skins, from medium-sized rabbits, will make a man’s large, warm, wind- and drizzle-proof vest.
    Excellent booklets on the entire process, including gar-ment making, can be obtained from Mr. and Mrs. Devereaux, 724 N. Verlinda Ave., Lansing, Michigan 48915.

Sources of Information

Rabbits
American Rabbit Breeders Association, Inc., 4323 Murray Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15217, pub-lishes a basic guide book which is an excellent source of information. Available with membership, $5/year (as of 1974).
Countryside Small Stock Journal. Rt. 1, Box 239, Waterloo, Wisconsin 53594. Usually has something about rabbits, also good advertisements for supplies. $5/year (as of 1974).
Domestic Rabbits, official publication of American Rab-bit Breeders Association, Inc., had its first issue Janu-ary, 1973. Good for the larger breeder. A few dollars/ year. Write Bill Dom Associates, Inc., 5350 W. 78 Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55435.
Meck, M.W. Rabbit Raising For Profit. New York: Greenberg Publisher, 1947, 356 pp. Loaded with all sorts of good stuff not available elsewhere, including recipes, anatomy, parasitology, genetics, and how to process angora wool. Meck also wrote about eight other books you may be able to find in used book stores.
Templeton, G. S. Domestic Rabbit Production. Danville, Illinois: The Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., 1968, 213 pp. An excellent all-purpose book for the rabbit raiser, but still geared to the commercial rab-bitry. The book costs about $6.
U.S.D.A. Selecting and Raising Rabbits. U.S. Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 358, 1972, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, DoC. 20402. 15¢. The pic-tures are especially good.

Bees

Bees were probably the earliest domesticated animals. The process of first raiding a wild hive and then learning to move the hive, say in an old tree trunk, when the tribe moved seems to be what may have occurred when man followed wild herds in their migrations, or when he sought new lands after the older areas filled up with people. What-ever the origin, bees can provide both sugar and protein, the two major food sources which sustain the body.
Most people know bees can produce honey and that was our reason to start raising them. Our first hive was installed in the teaching garden we and our students created in the middle of Berkeley. The ulterior motive behind setting up the hive was to demonstrate that a sugar source could be created close to major concentrations of people that would require no pesticides and antibiotics to support. This could then offer an alternative to the system required to make the white sugar most people eat. If you actually look be-hind the scenes of sugar beet production, you will find that great amounts of herbicides, fungicides, and insecti-cides, besides large expenditures of fossil fuels, are used to produce white sugar. Even if you are suspicious about the value of this white sugar and have heard stories about its contribution to tooth decay and ill health, knowing what it takes to produce sugar from the sugar beet could leave a bad taste in your mouth.
It is, however, a long way from this bad taste to developing a wholesome sugar source. This chapter is a look back-ward at our adventure with the busy bees and some hints about how to adapt them to city life.
Our first bees were a gift from a fellow entomologist, Dr. Dudley Pinnock, who was studying the diseases of bees at the University of California. He gave us a docile strain that was not a heavy producer but still gave enough honey to make keeping them worthwhile.
Bees are social insects and many people become fasci-nated with the parallels between human communities and insect societies. Some direct parallels include the hive and house, guard bees and soldiers, and nurses and teachers. Within a colony the actual tasks performed by workers could be construed by some to be beauticians, masons, cooks and bakers, pathfinders, and even morticians. One author goes a step further in using analogies to describe a colony of social insects; he thinks the parallels between the social insect colony and the human body are remarkably dose. In his view, the workers and soldiers are the blood cells of the body-the workers being the red blood cells that do the major work while the white blood cells are the soldiers that keep out invaders. The queen is the equivalent of the brain and the sex cells, and the sperm and egg in the human species find their equals in the nuptial flight when the many males or drones mate with the queen.
Ail analogies break down eventually, and the actual won-der of bees should be appreciated directly. A healthy hive can contain up to 50,000 workers, and during the peak honey harvesting season, as many as 1,000 workers die every day. The queen, being the principal source of new workers, is busy replacing them. She can lay in excess of 1,000 eggs per day, and can five for many years. Workers, also females, have traded the monotony of only laying eggs for a diverse but much shorter fife. The basis of this trade-off may even be the secret of the hive. It is instructive to follow the life of a bee starting from when the egg is laid.
The queen starts the process by parking her elongated abdomen down into a cell and depositing a whitish egg on the bottom. Three days later the egg hatches and the devel-oping grub or larva starts to be fed by nurse bees. For the first three days of their fives, all bees are fed royal jelly. Only the queen is fed this richer food for her entire life. Royal jelly, also called brood food, is a protein-rich secre-tion from the glands of certain, mainly young, worker bees.
If the workers stop feeding royal jelly, the larva will turn into a fellow worker. Once this change has occurred, no special diet added later will turn the developing bees into a queen. For the next five or six days the workers-to-be are fed a mixture of honey and pollen. After this feeding peri-od, the larvae are sealed in their cells by wax caps placed over the cell by workers. Each larva spins a cocoon and changes into a pupa. During the pupal stage, larval organs axe replaced by adult-like organs-a most remarkable pro-cess.
Twenty-one days after being deposited by the queen, a young bee chews her way out of her cell. She looks wet and bedraggled but soon tidies herself up and begins to beg food from older sisters. She also takes pollen which helps her to produce royal jelly which she will soon yield. Her first few days are occupied in cleaning out ceils and keep-hag the brood warm.
From about the third to sixth days she feeds older lar-vae. After that her glands produce the royal jelly which is fed to the young larvae and queen. About two weeks later she starts secreting wax from abdominal glands which is used to build the cells and comb. Soon after this she starts making a few play flights to familiarize herself with the hive surroundings. Then she becomes a forager who col-lects nectar and pollen, guards the hive, collects water, and accomplishes the chores of the hive.
She also collects propolis, a sticky resinous substance obtained from many sources-poplar buds, resin from pine trees, and elsewhere. This is used for sealing cracks and gaps in the hive. The California Indians learned to use this substance to waterproof their baskets.
After we installed our bees, it was all Bill could do to take his eyes off them. He just sat for a long while and watched them landing and heading into the dark interior of the hive. Others would walk out of the darkness and fly out of sight. By sitting next to a hive and watching this action, you can learn to move slowly and tune in on their hum. You will also notice that certain numbers of incoming bees will have whitish or yellowish balls attached to their rear legs. These are pollen balls, gathered from flow-ers to be fed to larvae. Pollen is a rich source of protein which can be harvested, actually stolen from the bees as honey is, by building a pollen trap that forces the incoming bees to pass through small spaces that knock the pollen off their hind legs. Good beekeepers know how much pol-len to take without setting the hive back too much.
Bee lore-business, hobby, and biology-is large, deep, and important in the lives of us all, though few people realize it. Most urbanites fear bees as they fear most in-sects. By having and learning how to keep a hive, you can obtain a source of food and a source of pleasure for a lifetime. Some of the literature at the end of this chapter could be useful if you are interested in pursuing some of these ideas further.

An Ant-Proof Hive Stand
Beehives and human homes both are subject to invasions by various species of ants. Exclusion as a management strategy can work effectively in both cases. In homes, the technique is to trace ant columns back to points of entry and plug the holes permanently with putty or other crack sealers. The idea is to force the ants to go greater distances for their food until the food energy harvested is not worth the energy expended to obtain it. Repeated efforts using this approach result in permanent alteration to the home environment. A similar approach with beehives can save the continual efforts and costs necessary to poison ants, contaminating the environment in the process. This is a story about how an ant-free and pesticide-free beehive was developed.
Over the last 100 years the Argentine ant appears to have taken advantage of man’s methods of moving materials around the globe. Originally native to South America, it is now known on every continent but Asia, and even there it may be discovered or will occur once widespread trade opens with China. In California the species is best known because of its house-invading habits and because it protects many honeydew-producing insects (e.g., aphids, scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, etc.).
In Berkeley the insect is virtually ubiquitous-in the gar-den the ant was everywhere! This at first was disturbing. Its numbers were extremely high, and we, like most others, had our share of insect fear (entomophobia). After time and much observation the ant became regarded as benefi-cial because of its role as a soil aerator and mixer, as a scavenger, and an insect predator. Where the ant was a problem, i.e., with aphids and other honeydew producers, a band of Stickem®, a sticky nontoxic material (available from Michel and Pelton, Emeryville, California), applied to the plant stems excluded them. Where such an application was excessively time consuming, a high-pressure stream of water directed at the aphids reduced the population below damage levels.
When a few ants were observed trying to get into the hive through the entrance, we studied the situation. Appar-ently guard bees were occupied in buzzing the unwelcome guests away. This activity went on for weeks without a successful invasion. Bill thought then that the widespread use of various pesticides (e.g., chlordane, arsenic, and mirex) had no foundation. An observation one day changed his mind. One afternoon, about two years ago in the spring, during honey flow (this is a term which indi-cates peak honey production), he passed by the bees and noticed to his surprise that the entire hive was literally covered with ants, all three supers! (Supers, in case you don’t know, are the wooden boxes that make up the hive.) The bees were obviously upset. Their hum was intense and flight activity around the hive excessive, even for that time of year. The ants were streaming in the entrance and had found another opening where the cover had warped. The bees had formed a concentrated mass at one side of the entrance and were frantically buzzing ants away from their side. Swarming seemed to be their next move. Bill quickly began an attack to save the hive.
He began by running his hands over the masses of ants on the outside of the hive, crushing hundreds with each pass. Remembering that the ants disliked water, he called someone to quickly bring the hose. With the hose he began to soak the area around the base of the platform upon which the hive rested. Then he saw that the ants were avoiding the water and swarming from subterranean areas onto the mat of morning glory vines under and around the base of the platform. Bill quickly weeded around the hive, throwing the ant-covered vegetation away. This and the water now had stopped the major ant access to the hive. The hum of the hive and circling bees dropped perceptibly. About ten minutes had passed, but it seemed like an hour.
Obviously the bees liked the help, but more still had to be done. Now with the help of a student, who was directed to crush the ants on the outside of the hive, we removed the cover. Inside the ants had virtual control of the top super. Only sporadic worker bees were interacting with one small group of ants. Occasionally a bee would move to the top edge of the super, interact with an ant or two, and fly off. One bee flew off with an ant locked to its leg by the jaws. Each frame was systematically removed and the
ants eliminated one by one. On one frame a queen ant was discovered coming out of an empty, partially filled honey cell. Possibly the ants were making ready to set up a colo-ny in the hive. This seems probable since the species is known to reproduce colonies by budding, where one of its many queens moves off with a group of workers and sets up house. Throughout this careful mopping up activity, the hum of the bees continued dropping, the potential swarm disappeared, and foraging activity returned to nor-mal. A total time lapse of about thirty to forty minutes had occurred.
With a sense of relief and new-found respect for the ant, we removed ants from ourselves, rested, and began plan-ning a protective device for the hive. After a brief search for materials, a crude hive stand was fashioned using wood-en legs and oil-filled milk cartons. A student volunteered to evaluate this first stand. In the next few days an unac-ceptable number of bees were being killed and otherwise damaged by landings and explorations in the oil con-tainers. Another stand was made without oil but with Stickem barriers. This was effective for months until weeds, dust, and water made the barrier passable. Another design incorporated upside down cat food cans with Stickem on the inside walls protected from rain and dust. To everyone’s consternation this design also proved inef-fective when the weight and excessive leg height (about one foot) combined to topple the hive. Today’s hive stand has six-inch-long by one-half-inch threaded steel rods.
Throughout this adventure, as the stand evolved we first sought to develop a nontoxic method that worked. This stand is our best effort to date. At this stage, the cost per hive appears prohibitive for large commercial operations but feasible for the hobbyist or other small-scale producers who want their own honey. However, if pesticide costs increase because of shortages of raw materials, such stands may become widespread. In the future we hope to develop other hive stands.
Speculations about similar adaptations for human habi-tats suggest a construction technique to exclude ants from homes without using insecticides, while simultaneously leaving ants to prey on other insects and fill their niche as decomposers and scavengers.

Bees and Diseases
Little honey produced in this country is poison free. Most beekeepers that make a significant portion of their income from bees, which means hundreds and sometimes thousands of hives, use antibiotics to suppress particular bee diseases. Reading the literature about these problems appears most foreboding. It also seems that legally a bee-keeper is required to report his hive(s) to local authorities and county agricultural officers. The trouble starts when your hive is inspected. Although our hive was never in-spected, some beekeepers indicate that subtle and other pressures are brought to bear which force people to begin using antibiotics as a preventive treatment.
First, using antibiotics routinely as a preventive, without any sign or warning of disease, will lead toward destroying the antibiotic tool because resistance will develop and then it will be no help. Second, because the beekeepers dust the hive with the antibiotic, it means the honey produced is laced with the stuff. Since we eat the honey, we also eat the antibiotics. Of course, we are all assured that the amount we eat has not been shown to be detrimental. But from our viewpoint, it is a bad idea to eat antibiotics, especially ones that are also used to treat humans. For example, one of the common bee antibiotics is Terramycin which is also used in managing human ailments. This is important because if one needs an antibiotic but has been ingesting it for some time in honey, there is a possibility that resistance to the antibiotic has already developed, and it will be of no use. Multiply this by millions of cases, and you get to understand the scope of such a problem.
From the standpoint of an urban gardener who wants to manage his or her hive(s) without antibiotics, it will proba-bly take more knowledge, attention, work, and cost be-cause you will have to do it all yourself. First, you will need to read up on the diseases and learn how to recognize them (see literature at end of chapter), and then learn how to treat for each without resorting to an antibiotic. To do all this, you will probably need to like bees and learn about their lives in detail. Start there, then maybe find a beekeeper who can tell you how he does it, or find a teacher who can start you off right. Correspondence courses are very inexpensive (see end of chapter). Agricul-tural extension people are easy to connect up with, and bee societies can be contacted. Writing experts is also pos-sible. Starting at a library is a good idea. Our approach to learning anything is twofold: “the idea side” and “the do side.” The approaches for the idea side concern thinking, reading, writing, and listening. The approaches for the do side involve learning the actual tasks. We jump into projects, planning to learn on the way. Our advice to others usually is a mixture of both important ideas and how to start. We hope this is what we’ve given you with this chap-ter.
There are some precautions you can take to avoid stings from bees, wasps, and hornets, when you are outside where these insects are most populous:
Don’t wear perfumed material, such as hair spray, sun-tan oils, after-shave lotion, etc.
Wear white or very light clothing rather than bright colors.
Walk around, rather than through, wild and other flow-er masses.
Avoid areas where food and cooking odors are attract-ing wasps, such as outdoor barbecues and open ref-use containers.
On picnics, take a chunk of meat (chicken, tuna, or liver are good) and set it off to the side. This will serve to attract wasps away from the picnic table. Wasps also like highly sugared liquids such as soft drinks and sweet juices (especially Hawaiian Punch).
If you are extremely sensitive to wasp or hornet stings consider having yourself immunized rather than dousing your entire area with insecticides. (Remember the story of the king who was so delighted with the feel of leather under his bare feet, he ordered the entire country paved with leather from border to border. Whereupon a wise man suggested he tie a piece of leather under each of his feet to achieve the same effect!)
Immunization has proved very successful in helping aller-gic people. “Progression to more serious reactions was halted for over 97 percent of treated persons and, in most instances, responses were noticeably lessened or reduced to that of a normal person.” This information comes from the Allergy Foundation of America, 801 Second Avenue, New York, New York 10017. You can contact them for literature and general information on desensitizing treat-ments for insect stings.

Raising Earthworms

Why do we raise earthworms? To put into our garden soil to improve it? No. The earthworms that can be raised in manure, kitchen garbage, or compost are a different species from those that live in the soil. They need a richer medium in which to grow and reproduce, and will not thrive in the quite different environment of your back-yard.
Do we raise them to decompose our compost, improving its plant nutrient qualities before it is added to our soil? No. Each time food is passed through another animal, some energy is lost. Just as you get more energy from a given amount of corn or wheat when you eat it yourself, compared to the amount of food you get by feeding it to a chicken and then eating the meat, so also do you waste energy by passing your compost through earthworms be-fore putting it out on the soil.
If you put the finished (cool) compost directly on the soil it will nourish the types of earthworms that naturally live there. These will then multiply and do their work of breaking down the compost material, incorporating it into the soil and creating good soil structure while they do so. However, if we didn’t have the space or inclination to maintain a compost system we probably would use earth-worms to decompose our kitchen wastes and rabbit ma-nure.
Why do we raise earthworms, then? To feed chickens, fish, and other animals.
You will need:

  1. Earthworms-the species called “manure” worms. They are frequently sold in bait shops or through magazine ads urging you to develop a business selling them.
  2. A box, preferably at least eight inches or a foot deep. Fruit lug boxes work well and are easy to move.
  3. Bedding material. Peat moss or sawdust is good. Torn paper strips can also be used.
  4. Some organic material for the worms to eat. Rabbit manure and kitchen garbage are both excellent. You can also use compost.
  5. Agricultural lime. Sprinkle a very small amount over the beds once a month or so, and water it in. This will prevent the cultures from becoming too acid.

Our most successful earthworm culture was started right in the manure pans under the rabbits on our roof. First we put down three inches of thoroughly dampened peat moss. Then we added the manure worms and gave them an inch covering of coarse compost. Soon the rabbit droppings provided all the food they needed. In the warm spring and summer temperatures they multiply rapidly. In cool weather (below 70° F) they will breed very slowly.
There is always a danger of the culture getting too dry, particularly on the roof where it is windy and hot. The rabbit urine provides some moisture, but we add additional water occasionally-usually just rinsing out the rabbits’ water dishes over the beds takes care of it.
When you have plenty of big adult worms, you can start removing them for chicken feed. Put the culture, bedding and all, through the coarse screen to remove the large worms, always leaving some breeders to keep your culture going along.

Chapter 10

Managing Wildlife in the Urban Garden

Wildlife in the City

Our town stretches from the shores of the San Francisco Bay up to the top of the Berkeley hills. On the inland side of this rise lie many miles of regional parks. In even the most densely built part of the city it is not uncommon for deer from the parks to wander down into backyards. Deer can be pretty destructive. Many ornamental plants as well as vegetables suit their palate. Yet hardly anyone thinks of reaching for a rifle. Local camera club enthusiasts wait eagerly for a chance to catch them cropping the roses.
Raccoons are frequent visitors to many homes in town. In spite of the danger of dogs, entire families of them-mama, papa, with babies in tow-can be seen climbing along the fence tops in the late spring and summer when the cherry plums are ripe. Out of the first batch of hens we raised from chicks, seven were wiped out in one evening by raccoons–their necks wrung. We felt terrible. Our response was to build strong doors to cover the chickens at night, and we haven’t lost one since.
Then our egg production went down. We couldn’t under-stand it. One day Bill went out to close the chickens up a little later than usual and, in the beam of his flashlight, he caught sight of a young possum, his gleaming teeth cra-dling an egg. We borrowed two wildlife traps, the kind that drop a lid when an animal goes inside. After that, each morning we would go out to find one or the other of our cats in prison. “What I’ve got to put up with, living with you folks? was the expression plainly written on the face of our old tom. Finally, Bill managed to capture the pos-sum in a fish net-we carried him off to a new home in the country.
Birds come after the strawberries and other vegetables. Friends of ours developed an ingenious chicken-wire enclo-sure for their garden, approximately ten by fifteen feet, with a mechanism to lift the roof effortlessly so that one could step inside to plant, weed, or harvest. When our cherry plums were disappearing we were ready to buy a large nylon net to throw over the tree. Then we discovered the culprits in jeans and sneakers.
Deer, raccoons, possums, birds–for most city dwellers it is a thrill to be so close to wildlife. Unless the damage gets intolerable, they delight in these visitors from the “natural world.” When the destruction becomes severe, they find various mechanical or physical ways of dealing with it, traps and barriers being first choice. But insects, ugh! That’s a different matter.

Entomophobia

People are afraid of insects and other creepy crawly things. We’ve all been brought up on a diet of comic-book insect monsters, movie and T.V. horror insects, with pesti-cide manufacturers and pest control operators doing their bit to encourage this revulsion. No one looks at an insect on a plant and asks, Is it doing intolerable damage? The reaction is, see it, kill it.
Fear of insects and insect-like creatures is called entomophobia. Most humans in our culture share this to some degree. Once, when Bill worked for the state public health department, a woman called him up in hysterics about a spider. “I’ve emptied the whole bug bomb on him and he’s still moving,” she screamed. Spiders are very valuable in controlling pest insects. Helga knows that now, but as a child was irrationally afraid of them. A movie seen at an impressionable age, in which a little boy was bitten and made sick by a large tropical spider (the entire sequence a very Hollywood concoction), made an indelible impression.
Embarrassment over an incident in her teens (in which, in front of people whose respect she valued, she jumped up and screamed when a little grass spider ran over her leg) finally did it. A determined effort devoted to looking at and reading about spiders finally proved a cure.

Natural Controls

If two flies were to breed without restraint and all of their offspring to do so as well, their breeding potential would be so great that in a single summer they would cover the earth thousands of feet deep in flies. But this has never happened. Why not?
Many conditions control insect populations without any interference by man. Temperature is an obvious one and so is humidity. Different kinds of insects have different toler-ances, but for any one population it can get too cold or hot, too wet or dry. Availability of food will affect popula-tion size. Squash bugs cannot live on ash trees nor ash bugs on squash plants. Endless acres of carrots or cabbage obvi-ously can support larger populations of insects associated with those crops than a few specimens of the same plant in a planter box. The right habitat is essential for any animal. Overturned flowerpots in our yard, though not originally put there for that purpose, have provided habitat for pre-dacious ground beetles and spiders, both of which are wel-come. Boards for walking on when the ground is muddy have encouraged the most unwelcome proliferation of slugs and snails, whose numbers appeared to be determined not only by food but by the shade the place offered during the day.
Availability of fertile mates is important, too. Certain insect populations in some areas have been reduced by purposely releasing sterilized males reared in the laborato-ry. Every female mating with a sterile rather than a fertile male will have lost the opportunity to give birth to another generation of her kind.
Another important aspect of natural controls is disease. Insects get sick, of course, just as other animals do. Find-ing a sick insect in the crop, mashing it up with water, and spraying the mixture around on the other insects to infect them with the same disease is a valuable biological control method which has led to the refinement and marketing of several commercially available products.
Perhaps best known, since it has been used in this coun-try for the longest time (about 15 years), is a bacterial prep-aration of Bacillus thuringiensis, sold under trade names such as Biotrol,® Dipel,® and Thuricide,® and sometimes referred to as B.T.
Insect diseases tend to be specific to certain groups of insects (B.T., for instance, is effective in controlling only certain caterpillars). The insects, their diseases, and man have evolved over millions of years in the natural environ-ment together; man has not been adversely affected, and the insects have not become resistant to the diseases (in contrast to many pesticides containing materials never present in biological systems before they were synthesized by man in the laboratory). Thus, insect diseases are a particularly effective and environmentally safe means of re-ducing the insect population.

Carnivorous Insects: Parasites and Predators

Among the most important controls on any herbivorous or plant-eating population are the carnivorous insects that feed upon them. These are parasites and predators. Para-sites are usually quite “host specific”-that is, able to live in or on only one particular kind of insect or very re-stricted groups of insects. The little mini wasps which we work with that parasitize certain aphids are an example. Predatory insects are more easily recognized by most peo-ple, the best known and liked being ladybird beetles and lacewings.
One tends to think rather simplistically of these carnivo-rous insects as being the “good guys” and herbivorous plant-eating insects as being evil. It is good to remember that many plant-specific insects help to keep potentially serious weeds in check. By taking advantage of this knowl-edge some noxious weed invaders of range and waterways have been controlled by bringing in the insects that feed only upon them. St. John’s wort, prickly pear, puncture vine, and alligator weed are examples of such exotic weeds controlled by deliberately introduced specific herbivores.
Also, let us not forget the herbivorous silkworms and bees. Most people do not realize how dependent we are on these latter plant-feeding insects; some of them directly pollinate the crops we eat, and others are eaten by the animals that provide us with meat and milk. Beneficial insects have their parasites and predators, too, and in gen-eral it is safe to say that insects are very important in the natural control of other insects.

Another Look at Insecticides

When the modern insecticide era was ushered in with DDT during World War II, all us insect-fearing and insect-hating people thought a miracle had come. Just push the button and they fall over dead! Some of the older insecti-cides were really dangerous to people, for example, Paris green (arsenic) and nicotine sprays. DDT didn’t seem to hurt people and other mammals at all. Hurray! We poured it all over ourselves and our planet. (As recently as 1972 it was still being used to routinely douse prisoners in the California prisons as a protection against lice–for all we know it is still being done.) Hurray, we were to end all diseases caused by insects, all damage to food and fiber. DDT was thought to be a panacea.
It has taken a very long time for the whole story to become clear. Not all is known and understood yet, and even where the facts are in, many people have too much at stake economically or in terms of status to admit they might have been wrong.

Three R’s and an S

The first effect that began to emerge, regarding the use of DDT and related “miracle” insecticides, is called the “residue” problem.

The First R = Residue

When you spray an insect poison you cannot avoid hit-ting more than the target organism. What you are really spraying is an entire environment or ecosystem. Some but not all of the older poisons were derived from plants. Such poisons, or “botanicals,” as they are called, can be rather quickly decomposed by microorganisms. The new materi-als, of which DDT was an example (other common mem-bers of this group still in use are chlordane, lindane, dieldrin, endrin-called chlorinated hydrocarbons), are persistent. They did not seem to cause mammals much problem, but they were soon seen to accumulate in body fat. Most important, they move up the food chain, or “bio-magnify.”
An example of biomagnification: you spray a tree and each leaf receives only a small dose of poison. The leaves fall and the earthworms work on them and each earth-worm eats more than one leaf, so he gets a bigger dose. The birds feeding in that area each eat more than one earthworm, so they get even a bigger dose. The cat that patrols the yard and catches birds there may get enough of a dose to noticeably harm him. It may not kill him out-right, but it may make him more susceptible to some dis-ease organism, affect his reproductive system, or cause pre-mature failure of some organ under other stresses to which he may be subject.
Damage and death due to pesticide poisoning of this sort have two characteristics that should be borne in mind: they may not show up for a long time, and the effects may be indirect, involving other stresses in the person or ani-mals involved, such as poor nutrition, weight loss, expo-sure to other specific toxicants or agents of disease, etc.
As this problem with the first group of miracle insecti-cides became visible, they began to lose some of their charm. People read Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring, and for the first time began to realize that global contami-nation caused inadvertently by man could destroy the planet for us.
Over the last few years a general switch began to another group of poisons which were less persistent in the environ-ment: the organo-phosphates. But the organo-phosphates have the disadvantage that they are much more obviously and immediately toxic to humans and other mammals. An example would be parathion, a few drops of which on the skin can kill a man. (Malathion is a member of the group much used by city dwellers because it is not so obviously toxic, but it is still a poison.) Then farm workers began to get sick.
In California we have struggled for a number of years to get legislation passed that would offer greater protection to the large numbers of poor farm laborers who must han-dle these materials and the plants on which they have been sprayed. Since many of these people cannot read or speak English fluently, we tried to get different colored con-tainers to indicate different degrees of toxicity. Because the labels often fall off or become illegible we wanted the label to be stamped into the material of the container itself so that it became an integral part of it. Needless to say, all such changes failed to be passed, largely because of efforts by the pesticide company lobbyists.
Growers have resisted offering hand washing facilities to the workers or marking the fields that have been sprayed with these materials so that people will know it is not safe to enter. Even when pesticide containers appear empty they often still hold enough poison to harm people, ani-mals, or water supplies. Yet they axe commonly aban-doned in a dump somewhere to rust away or are thrown by the roadside to threaten the curious or ignorant. We wanted to see them returned to the manufacturers to be decontaminated-after all, they originally devised and then made a profit on the materials. But the growers and pesti-cide companies either defeat or find ways to get around this kind of legislation.
As the disadvantages of this second group of pesticides became clear, a third group was developed-the carbamates. A common one is Sevin, which we have seen adver-tised in garden magazines as the “ecological” or “environ-mentally safe” insecticide. This supposedly refers to the fact that carbamates are not too persistent, are not thought to accumulate in food chains, and do not seem to be very toxic to humans.
However, several other serious problems relating to the use of insecticides have begun to be understood. We are taking the trouble to spell them out here because we believe that some of the homemade concoctions to control insects in the garden may be just as troublesome as the more toxic commercial products.

The Second R = Resurgence

“Resurgence” refers to the fact that some time after you use an insecticide you may find that your insects are back but now in higher numbers than before. Plant-eating in-sects, as we have mentioned before, have carnivorous or meat-eating insects that prey upon them. Unfortunately, the poisons are often more detrimental to the populations of those carnivorous insects than they are to the pests. How can this be?
For one thing, some materials are selectively toxic to the large family of insects to which many of these beneficial insects belong. Sevin, for instance, is particularly deadly to honeybees and possibly to other members of that insect family, such as the little mini wasps or parasites that con-trol aphids, scales, caterpillars, and other pests.
Other reasons for these beneficial insects being selec-tively more damaged by the poisons have to do with their greater mobility and slower reproductive rates. They en-counter more poison as they hunt around to find their prey, while a stationary aphid, perhaps protected by a leaf part, may avoid getting sprayed altogether. Besides, there are many fewer carnivores out there to begin with. It is rather similar to the situation with other animals. For ex-ample, you may have a large number of rabbits which reproduce themselves rather quickly and stay pretty close to home. These may be preyed on by just a few far-ranging coyotes that have only one litter a year.
The result of spraying poisons that kill the predators is that the prey population is left completely without controls. The few that survive the pesticide application, or those new pests that fly in from outside, are able to repro-duce relatively unhampered by predation or parasitism. By constantly using poisons you may so reduce the natural controls on the pest insect that you need to keep spraying. You are caught on the “pesticide treadmill.”
Lest you think that this disaster is caused only by com-mercial synthetic poisons, let me warn you that we have seen resurgence of pest insect populations, in this particu-lar case aphids, by the excessive ill-timed use of water sprays alone. By knocking off, causing diseases in, or otherwise discouraging ladybird beetles, lacewings, spiders, and other important predators on these particular trees, the aphids remaining were able to resurge to even more damaging population numbers. We shuddered to read, in the letters-to-the-editor column of one garden magazine, of a lady who was spraying garlic on her plants every three weeks. No wonder she was having to do it repeatedly; she was probably indiscriminately causing all kinds of ecosys-tem disruptions. This would hardly lead to a stable situa-tion.

S for “Secondary Pest Outbreak”

There is another problem related to this ability of pesti-cides to cause a resurgence of the pest, and this is called “secondary pest outbreak.” The farmer, whether urban or rural, usually is only aware of those insects that are present in large numbers. He or she doesn’t realize that every plant is the habitat for literally dozens of other kinds of insects besides the ones he calls pests. An alfalfa field, for in-stance, generally regarded as a monoculture, upon investi-gation yielded up a thousand different kinds of insects. The farmer was really only concerned with one or two.
Why are the other insects not noticed? Because their natural enemies, the carnivorous insects, are keeping them under control. Now what happens when insecticides (pos-sibly even garlic sprays) are used? Some of the carnivorous insects controlling these other insects are killed off, releas-ing these potential pests from their controls. The result–entirely new bugs appear in great numbers and become a problem. These are called secondary pests.
In the San Francisco Bay area a local newspaper runs a gardening column written by an older gentleman who has highly respected horticultural skills. Alas, in his own gar-den, or so he claims in his column, he is constantly trou-bled with one insect plague after another for which he recommends poison after poison. Little does he realize that a goodly number of what he thinks are invasions of new insects are merely problems with bugs that were there all along and which he is responsible for making into sec-ondary pests.

The Third R = Resistance

Another serious result of the exclusive reliance on pesticides on a world-wide scale is the problem of insect resis-tance. This is not similar to the situation in humans, when
you build up an immunity to measles or some disease you’ve had before; it refers to selecting out a population for those individuals who already have an inborn ability to detoxify the poison. It is remarkable that these creatures who evolved on the earth before the development of man should have carried with them into the twentieth century the genetic ability to survive poisons that man has only recently dreamt up in the laboratory.
The genetic diversity of insects is so great that in every insect population that has been studied, besides those indi-viduals that survive because they manage not to be in con-tact with the poison, some are exposed to it and yet sur-vive to breed another day. Of course, when they do breed they find very little competition for food or habitat be-cause most of the susceptible members of the population have been killed off. So, the more a poison is used, the more quickly an insect population becomes filled with in-dividuals that are resistant to it.
This problem of insect resistance first became noticeable among the insects that were most vigorously attacked by modern insecticides, for example, mosquitoes that carry malaria, and the insects that eat cotton. In some areas of Texas and northern Mexico, cotton farmers drove them-selves bankrupt by spraying so often that the bugs eventu-ally became totally resistant and ate everything in sight. In California, where the mosquito control districts abandoned promising research on alternate ways Of controlling these pests and turned to exclusively chemical controls, a serious condition now exists with resistant mosquitoes that carry encephalitis, a disease fatal to humans. Hopefully, funds will once more become available for more environmentally sound methods of controlling these insects. Some of this is already being supported in a small way through the labora-tories at University of California at Berkeley where we work.
When we are out giving a talk on this subject we summarize all these insecticide-caused difficulties with the mne-monic: “3 R’s and an S,” which stands for Residue, Resur-gence, Resistance, and Secondary pest outbreaks. Now that you are aware of these problems, doesn’t it seem wise to reserve the use of all insecticides, even garlic or others that are relatively nontoxic to humans, for use only as a last resort, when the damage caused by the insect is intol-erable, after you decide it is essential that the plant be maintained, and after trying all other techniques without effect? Even then there are still other methods.

What the City of Berkeley Did

One spring day several years ago, in the city of Berkeley, the truck was spraying pesticides on the linden trees as they had every year for many years previously. A young woman, Ms. G. Hilsman, who was gardening out in her side yard, saw the truck coming. She grabbed her child off the porch and, babe in arms, went out to halt it bodily. “Stop, I won’t let you spray my organic garden? Thus began the development of a pest management program for the city that has reduced costs as well as the use of pesticides.
Probably, if making a scene on the street was all that Ms. Hilsman was prepared to do, the city would have simply left her block alone and gone about their business as usual elsewhere. But she was determined to find a better way to manage the insect problems on the trees and she sought help from other interested individuals and groups through the Berkeley Ecology Center. There she was referred to a group of scientists and other citizens called The Northern California Committee for Environmental Information, which was in turn an affiliate of a national group called Scientists Institute for Public Information, the publishers of Environment magazine. We happened to be members of that group, interested in taking scientific information and making it generally available to the public. The most active members of their pesticide subcommittee were professors, researchers, and graduate students at the Division of Bio-logical Control, U.C. Berkeley. It was a lucky connection for everyone concerned.
The city of Berkeley is generally extremely sensitive to citizen demands. Phone calls complaining about the exces-sive honeydew drip from the trees got them started spray-ing in the first place. Using pesticides was the only tech-nique they knew about. With citizen encouragement, city officials in the Parks and Recreation Department made a cooperative agreement with the Division of Biological Con-trol at U.C. Something new had definitely happened in the history of urban pest management!
Since the whole affair had started with the linden trees, this seemed to be a logical place to begin working on the problem of reducing pesticide use. People are nostalgic for the landscapes of their youth. The first settlers from the old country began immediate importation of plants to the new land, and pioneers moving west brought eastern spe-cies with them. The linden (Tilia) is a lovely shade tree, and the varieties usually planted in American cities were originally brought over from Europe.
As had happened many times, along with the plant came the herbivore, or plant-eating insect that fed upon it in its native land, but the parasites and predators of the insect were left behind. It is easy to see how this happens. The herbivore is stationary, often well disguised. Sometimes it may slip into the country in the egg stage when even care-ful inspection may not reveal it.
In the case of the linden, the accidentally imported her-bivore was an aphid specific to that tree. In the absence of its natural controls it quickly grew to a population size of pest proportions. It is true that some native predators, which tend to be much less host-specific than parasites, did feed upon the newly introduced aphid. But with crucial components of its natural ecosystem missing, the aphid managed to keep way ahead of the less well-adapted local natural enemies.
The ironic part of the situation was that the aphids did not really seem to visibly harm the tree, although very high populations may have retarded its growth a little. (This may be a boon to some city maintenance personnel who use hormone growth regulators to avoid having to prune the trees.) The problem is that aphids, like scales, leafhoppers, and some other insects, produce a sticky excretion called honeydew. It is a high-protein sugar solution which is delicious to eat and from which an expensive honey is made that is sometimes available in specialty stores. Alas, this honeydew, if present in large amounts, may thorough-ly coat the leaves of the trees and invite the growth of a black fungus called sooty mold, much like mold that some-times grows on the sugar in a jelly jar. This mold seems not to harm the tree either; when the honeydew and mold are rubbed off, the leaf appears a healthy green beneath. But unfortunately, the honeydew may also fall from the tree like rain.
Beneath the trees are parked that all-American symbol of wealth, status, fertility, and sexuality-the automobile. That’s where the trouble starts. People call city hall to complain that the tree is “sick” and they want to have the city cure it with some “medicine”-in this case a pesticide. We live in a society with absolute belief in the chemical cure. We also like our cars bright and shiny!
Dr. van den Bosch, chairman of the Division of Biological Control at U.C. Berkeley, remembered seeing linden trees in Rome and parts of France that had the natural enemies of the aphid. Supported by a small grant from the city, research was begun on bringing in the specific para-sites that controlled the linden aphid in Europe, in hopes that the cool Mediterranean climate of our town would be similar enough to allow the little mini-wasps to survive.
These little miniwasps are as tiny as their name implies and can be seen clearly only under a microscope. The one that Dr. van den Bosch went after, Trioxy curvicaudus, lives only on the linden aphid and has a very interesting way of fife. The mother parasite inserts her eggs deep in-side the living aphid. The miniwasp egg hatches into a little grub and begins to eat out the insides of its host, eventual-ly killing the aphid and turning it into what entomologists call a “mummy”-a hard, shiny, round shell of an aphid with the living parasite inside. A careful look at any com-mon aphid population, for instance, the one on cabbage, corn, or beans, will usually disclose the presence of several or more of these miniwasp mummies. But whether on the particular aphid population you happen to look at there will be a sufficient number of a well-adapted species of parasite is another matter. Many of these other pest aphids are also introduced from foreign countries and are thus without their natural enemies.
Inside the mummy the miniwasp pupates, or forms a cocoon, from which eventually emerges a full-grown adult. This, then, searches out another aphid in which to lay eggs and begins the cycle all over again.
These parasites never kill all the aphids in a population. As the number of aphids goes down it is harder for the parasites to find them, fewer parasite eggs are laid, and fewer parasites develop. As the parasite population goes down, fewer aphids are killed, and as the aphid population begins to expand there is more food for the parasites and their numbers also grow. And so it goes, neither eliminat-ing the other, but each population keeping the other in control in a natural fashion, the way it has gone on in the wilds as long as these insects have been on earth. The critical difference is that the aphid population attacked by the parasite never gets as large as it did before the parasite was established.
These miniwasps are so locked into the life cycle of their aphid hosts that they cannot live on any other kind of insect. Usually they cannot even live on other closely re-lated groups of aphids! So you see, they are really the “silver bullets” of pest management, since they control only populations of a specific insect and do not harm any-thing else in the environment.
One must be very careful in introducing a beneficial in-sect not to bring in one that is not wanted. The truth is that the food chain of these insects is even more compli-cated than we have mentioned so far. For in fact, these little carnivorous insects that control the herbivorous aphids also have carnivores that live on them. These are often called secondary or hyper-parasites. It is not desir-able to bring foreign hyper-parasites into this country. For one thing, they may prevent a high mortality to the aphid population; for another, they tend to be less host-specific and may move over to other beneficial miniwasps as well. Therefore all introductions are done very carefully, the insects being passed through a strict quarantine procedure which removes hyper-parasites, before being released in the field.
This point in the story is where we came in on the scene. We were also very concerned about pesticide use in the city and Bill was looking for a good project on which to do his PhD thesis. After all, we were growing our vegetables here too. For the next three years, with the encourage-ment and assistance of the many entomologists at the lab, and the intelligent cooperation of the city of Berkeley parks and recreation personnel, we were able to reduce the populations of the linden aphids as well as a couple of other aphids, and best of all, institute a pest management program for ail the city trees. The biological control techniques mentioned above are only one component of this overall program.

An Integrated Control Program

In every city where we have looked, we have found a situation that has led to unnecessary costs and undesirable pesticide use, namely, pesticides are used when there are no pest problems present. People spray by the calendar or because they’ve read or been told by pesticide company salesmen or other “advisors,” that it’s “that time of the year” to spray. This is similar to an organic gardener throwing around expensive rock powders, kelp meal, and such when their soils are not even deficient in those partic-ular minerals, just because they read it in a book some-where. Only, using pesticides unnecessarily is worse be-cause they are poisons!
In Berkeley we asked the maintenance people to report all tree bug problems to us to inspect and advise on before they did anything-and not to do any “routine” spraying at all.
In other cases in other cities, we have found pesticides being used where there were high insect populations, but less toxic materials could be substituted for the sprays they were using. Water sprays have been used effectively in a number of situations; sometimes soap is added as a wet-ting agent. The important thing is to monitor the insect population and time the sprays so they will do the least damage when they are used.
On other occasions it was found that cultural or physical controls could be substituted for sprays. Sticky barriers were put around a number of trees to prevent ants (specif-ically the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis), which are attracted to the honeydew, from climbing up and protecting the aphids by keeping away their predators and para-sites. With other trees, pruning of the most affected areas reduced the habitat favored by the insects, thus making the problem manageable.
These techniques, all of which are useful to the backyard gardener, helped to bring them down the pest management costs to the city and eliminated the need for maintenance people to handle dangerous materials.
In any case, a large part of a good integrated control program should involve education. In a city this means reaching the people who manage the plants as well as the citizens. In your own home this means educating yourself and your family. Insects don’t exist in a vacuum. You need to know about soils, climate, and good horticultural prac-tices, as they all influence pest problems.
You have no doubt heard the myth that insects are less likely to attack a healthy plant. That’s nonsense. Insects love healthy plants. Insects need good nutrition, too; in fact, they will usually go after the healthiest part of the plant, the young, vigorously growing buds and branchlets, like aphids clustered on the end of a broccoli stem. What is true, however, is that healthy plants can outgrow insect damage more easily, as well as combat plant disease more effectively.
Furthermore a complex, “healthy” environment that provides food and habitat for a wide variety of insects will also promote the development of insect parasites and pred-ators that will help control pest insect populations. Flow-ers, for instance, provide nectar and pollen to feed some beneficial insects. Mulches provide prey and habitat for ground predators. A “wait and see” attitude towards an insect population, where the “see” part means really ob-serving what’s happening, may be all that’s needed to allow the natural enemies of the insects to catch up with and control them. Lots of populations are sprayed because people don’t know that the natural enemies always lag behind their prey; many people cannot recognize the bene-ficial insects and are afraid to wait for natural controls.
Learn to recognize the wildlife in your garden and never kill an insect outdoors just because it is there! (Guess we’ll modify that to-except mosquitoes!) What good is an aphid? It is necessary to keep the beneficial insects around, if for no other reason, so that the next aphid that flies into the area will find natural enemies ready and waiting.
A year ago, flushed with our success in the city of Berkeley, we vigorously attempted to interest other cities in supporting a similar program. We pointed out the con-siderable savings to the taxpayer, and the human health and environmental advantages of not using unnecessary poisons on city trees. After almost a year of trying to get such support, we are quite discouraged. We have talked to city governments, written popular articles, and published in scientific journals all over our part of California. Perhaps it will take a really large-scale citizen movement, or a great increase in the cost of pesticides, or both, before city gov-ernments will listen.

Biological Control in the Urban Garden

Two questions we are most often asked are: Should I import beneficial insects? What about companion planting?
Regarding the first, although bringing in beneficial in-sects has been a useful component of our integrated con-trol program for cities, it is only rarely worthwhile for the home gardener. We would advise against importing the two predators most widely promoted for this purpose.
Ladybird beetles with winter fat deposits still in their bodies are often collected where they are hibernating in the mountains and sold to gardeners. Unless you mark the ones you release, as we did in a local experiment, you will not realize they fly away to burn off this fat before they can eat. Furthermore, so many beetles are killed in the process of collecting, storing, and shipping, that it is best to leave them alone to fly into your area of their own accord. These companies also help distribute the lady-beetle parasites, which could be very damaging in the long run.
Preying mantids are fascinating creatures and make good pets. However, importing them for pest management pur-poses is not advisable. They are only rarely able to survive outside of their native area. They are also totally unselective as predators, not discriminating between the beneficial insects and the pests.
Lacewings are beautiful insects that will remain in your area as larvae if they are introduced in the egg stage. They are general predators and feed on many pest insects. If you are interested in learning about beneficial insects, these might be good ones with which to begin. A twenty-minute color movie that shows the life cycle of the green lacewing and identifies many other important beneficial insects is called “Biological Control of Insect Pests” and can be rented from the University of California Extension Media Center, Berkeley, California 94720. It makes an absorbing and educational addition to a garden club meeting.
If you are keeping chickens in an enclosed area where their manure is allowed to pile up, you might be interested in importing miniwasps to control flies that may breed under such conditions. Both these parasites and lacewings are available from Rincon Vitova Insectaries, P.O. Box 95, Oakview, California 93022. They will send information on how to use the insects that you order.
Companion planting is another story. We’ve promised ourselves that in writing this book we would stick to the truth and nothing but-so we will have to come right out and say that all that stuff you’ve been reading about planting one plant to repel insects from another is about 95 percent or more wishful fancy. How come it is printed in so many places?
Authors copy from one another as well as truthfully report their own and others’ real experiences. Unfortunate-ly, just because you planted a certain plant and then found you either did not have a certain insect or didn’t find it in the numbers that previously occurred doesn’t really tell you what caused what.
You need carefully controlled experiments to find out if what you are doing is really having the effect you are observing. It is true, for instance, that marigolds give off a root exudate that will discourage nematodes. All nema-todes? The answer is not known. There are more beneficial than harmful nematodes, in any case. How far away from the individual marigold plant will the effect reach? No one knows for sure. Are nematodes a problem in your soil? Many people worry about insect damage without correctly identifying the insects involved.
One man wrote us because he was worried about needing to fumigate his soils for wireworms, which he said were getting worse year after year in spite of his religious use of compost. When we asked for samples, what arrived were not wireworms but millipedes, which generally function as harmless decomposers which eat dead and dying materials. Naturally one would have lots of them with the constant use of compost, and they are desirable.
It is said that mint keeps away ants. But which ants? Which mint? The world over there are many varieties of mints and thousands of species of ants, all different in their biologies. When you find an ant colony making a nest in your mint patch you become a skeptic.
Insect populations vary widely from season to season. Other conditions, such as soil and climate, vary too from year to year and place to place. Just introducing new plants into the environment of a garden may provide habi-tats for insect predators and parasites that were not abun-dant before. The question is, which exact plant species has which effect on which precise insect? Only a very few cases of this have so far been worked out, in spite of authoritative-sounding lists you may have read that confi-dently tell you to plant one plant with another to receive a certain result.
The California Highway Landscaping Department is quite progressive in its pest management methods. Through their funding of a biological control project on specific insect pests in certain landscape plants in one part of the state, they have discovered a species of California myrtle that flowers at just the right time of the year to provide nectar and pollen to feed a beneficial insect that will control one of these pest insects. By interplanting Cali-fornia myrtle in strategic areas they solved one of their problems. That is a true case of companion planting being a valid pest management technique. Does that mean that we should recommend the use of California myrtle to you? That would be nonsense, as your insects, soils, climate, and other plants are not the same. However, the idea of provid-ing season-long pollen sources for beneficial insects is an idea probably worth pursuing.
There are unquestionably some plant materials that make effective insect poisons or repellents. Pyrethrins, rotenone (very toxic to fish, by the way), sabadilla, and nicotine (very toxic to man and other mammals) are well-known examples. Catnip seems to have a repellent effect on some insects, and garlic definitely kills larvae of flies and mosquitoes, though little is known about its effects on beneficial insects. We hope to study the effect of these two plant-derived pesticides this coming year.
The point is, however, none of these plants have their effect just by being present in the garden as companion plants. All must be ground up and sprayed on the plants to be effective and all may have some of the same disastrous effect on insect populations mentioned earlier in the dis-cussion on pesticides.

Resistant Plants

Many wild plants do contain materials discouraging to insects. These are precisely those bitter oils and alkaloids we have bred out of our cultivated vegetables to obtain the succulent varieties modern consumers tend to prize. Thus many of our cultivated plants are more valuable than their ancestors. Nevertheless, occasionally a variety more resis-tant to a specific pest insect will be discovered and these can form the basis for a valuable new strain.
Selective breeding like this may be more useful among ornamentals which are not required to be so succulent. When choosing plants from which you plan to save seeds, look for those that might show greater resistance to insect attack than their neighbors.
Resistance to disease has proved a very important charac-teristic. Many plant varieties have been bred just for this purpose and these axe usually well marked in the seed catalogs.

What Should You Do?

When you see wildlife in the garden, enjoy it. If it is an insect, don’t worry about whether it is a “good” one or a “bad” one. Ask yourself, “Is it causing intolerable dam-age?” The same animal may cause problems one year, or in one part of the garden, and may not in another time or place. For example, ants in the soil help to aerate it by making their tunnels and nests. They also kill some soil organisms that can become harmful (like termites). On the other hand, ants running up and down the trunk of a tree protecting aphids or scales from their natural enemies may need to be excluded.
If you do see intolerable damage on a plant, ask yourself, “What is causing it?” It is really easy to be fooled! We found holes in our tomatoes during one season. This be-came intolerable when every one was damaged just as it was starting to ripen. Then it would shortly begin to rot around the holes. A close look showed a cutworm curled up inside. Nearby, tomato holes housed earwigs and sowbugs. However, a nighttime check with a flashlight showed that slugs were creating the holes and the other animals were merely hiding in them during the day.
Tomatoes have so much foliage, we could easily spare some to a few cutworms. Sowbugs were attracted to the decomposing surface tissues where the tomato had been damaged. Light-shy earwigs, which may nibble on seed-lings, are also usefully predacious on plant-eating animals and may cease to be a problem in the vegetable patch once a heavy compost mulch is used.
There were no new holes in the tomatoes once we had handled the slugs with a program of handpicking at night, trapping during the day under overturned flowerpots, de-stroying their habitat (they were breeding under the boards we had set out to walk on, and in a bed of ivy), and surrounding the beds with walks of dry sawdust after every watering or rain. If we hadn’t made real efforts to find out the true cause of the holes in the tomatoes we could never have designed an effective management system that would reduce the damage.
When our early spring lettuce was reduced to little nubs, we blamed the slugs. But careful observance at odd hours of the day showed that birds were doing the damage. A series of screen protectors solved that. They stack conveni-ently out of the way when they aren’t needed.
Many animals, including insects, do their damage at night. Flashlight investigations are sometimes the only way to find out what is really going on. Evening checks will also give you glimpses of beneficial insects, like green and brown lacewings.
When you discover how the damage is occurring, then design a program to modify the environment and reduce the population size to the point where you can handle it. Adding flowering plants to the garden so there is a pollen and nectar source for beneficial insects is one way. Protect-ing predators like predacious ground beetles by giving them a home is another example. We use overturned flowerpots for this too. Originally we started putting these between the seedlings after uncovering them following transplanting, because our cats would get in there and scratch around in the fresh compost. Then we found the upside-down pots made also good slug traps, ground beetle harborage, and a home for little spiders that would spin their webs across the hole and trap flies that might emerge from the soil where they were pupating.
By studying the animal that is causing problems, one can devise many such methods of managing the habitat that will reduce the pests and favor its natural enemies. Local snakes, toads, spiders, wasps, meat-eating birds (attract them with unsalted suet), all will help in insect control.
The next strategy is handpicking of the pests. Aphids can be rubbed off, caterpillars and snails collected; squash bugs and others are easily captured. Pruning is also useful in many aphid and caterpillar infestations. Cutting away the areas may not only reduce the population size suddenly, but also remove a favored habitat, as with some aphids that like the inner canopy of certain trees and will not breed in high numbers on the outer branches.
Other important mechanical means are barriers and traps. We use Stickem to prevent crawling insects from going where we don’t want them. Certain honeydew-dripping trees in Berkeley are ringed once a year with a three-inch band of Stickem about eight feet or so off the ground. This prevents ants from ascending and protecting the tree aphids from their natural enemies. Dry sawdust discourages slugs. Screened cages keep out cabbage, carrot, and onion maggots. Although these latter all cause damage to the roots of those vegetables, they are actually the young of flies which can be kept away from the young susceptible plants by a frame barrier of fly screen.
Half a tube from the center of a roll of toilet paper, or a frozen orange juice can with both ends sliced off, makes excellent barriers against cutworms that attack seedlings. After transplanting the young cabbage family plants to the garden, water thoroughly and press the tube down into the softened soil or compost.
Traps are very effective for catching flies. Rolled up newspapers will provide a daytime hiding place for earwigs, if you feel you must catch them. Gophers are best -handled by trapping unless you have too small a space; in that case, you can sink a fence of hardware cloth or a cement wall into the ground deep enough to keep them out.
In waiting for natural biological control to have an ef-fect, be patient. The natural enemies of the pest will al-ways lag a little behind, as they must wait for the pest populations to grow sufficiently large to support them. It is common for people to use a pesticide just as the pest population is about to be reduced by natural means. You need to examine insect populations carefully to learn to recognize predators, their eggs, parasitized and diseased in-sects-all of which will tell you that help is on the way.
One thing should be borne in mind: you always have the option of deciding not to grow a particular plant because constant bug problems make it unsuited to your area.
Many native plants would make attractive landscaping in places where, instead, people struggle with fragile imported exotics.
When all your alternate methods fail, and you must grow that particular plant, you may wish to resort to the use of some spray. By all means use the least toxic one to man and other vertebrates. Water is the safest. A strong stream is effective in knocking bugs off the plants to the ground where they may be picked up by predators, in breaking up their bodies with its force, and in creating conditions for the spread of insect disease. An old-fashioned fat-based soap may be added to the water to increase wetting power. Green soap, made with potassium stearate (1 percent solu-tion), is a good one (it can be purchased by writing Michael and Pelton, Emeryville, California). Always test a new material like soap on a portion of the particular plant before using it widely.
There are other nontoxic possibilities, such as diatoma-ceous earth and silica gel which have an abrasive and dry-ing action upon insects. Dormant oils may be used to smother scales during the period when the plant is not growing actively. One friend of ours successfully used a dilute mixture of sesame oil to control mites on some houseplants.
Plants indoors are in such an artificial environment that they may more easily succumb to high pest populations. By putting infested plants outside in a protected spot for a few hours a day during warm weather you may attract the natural enemies of the pest. These frequently cannot be found indoors. Washing houseplants with soap and water is another useful technique. Invert the pot, with your hand holding down the soil, and swish the leaves through soapy and then clear water. Mealybugs which may become a problem, particularly when plants get too dry, can often be controlled by applying rubbing alcohol to each one with a small brush.
When caterpillars are the problem you can use B.T., as mentioned earlier in this chapter. It is important to wait until they are large enough to eat both sides of the leaf. A number of failures with this material have resulted from people not realizing that the caterpillar has to ingest the disease spores. If the spray is used when the moths are flying and laying their eggs, or when the caterpillars are so tiny that they are only feeding on one side of the leaf, you will not be successful. B.T. spores will not live in sunlight for more than a short while. If it is applied so that only one side or parts of the leaf are covered (usually the top sides) then the young caterpillars may avoid eating it alto-gether.
After this in toxicity come pyrethrins, sabadilla, and rotenone-materials which are true poisons not only to some insects but to some other animals, too.
In any case, no matter how safe you feel your particular spray may be, do not use it indiscriminately. Confine its application to just those specific spots where the pest pop-ulation is out of control, so as to preserve as much as possible of the other wildlife that may give you more long-term aid. Remember, insects are wildlife, too.

Chapter 11

We Take to the Roof

Container Gardening

Our house, which looks like a castle in front with a circular tower, and has a barn roof tacked on behind, is three stories high. As it sits to the west of our backyard, this means our open ground does not get afternoon sun. The first season we struggled along with leggy broccoli and floppy onions until we finally took the hint. There just wasn’t enough sun in our backyard to grow certain things. Lettuce, chard, spinach, carrots, celery, leeks, Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus-they all did fine. But for those vege-tables that need more sun, we just had to think of some-thing else.
We took to the roof, the only spot on our property with all-day sun. During the next two years, in an assortment of five-gallon cans, wooden fish boxes, old drawers, and halved thirty- and fifty-gallon drums, we managed to grow large quantities of a variety of vegetables: turnips, beets, zucchini, rutabagas, bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, cab-bage, cauliflower, and onions.
Container gardening has a great deal to offer city garden-ers. Much of the city ground area has been put under concrete for driveways, walks, and patios. Containers of plants allow you to reclaim these spaces. Many city dwell-ers only rent the property where they live. Growing plants in containers means you don’t have to disturb the land-lord’s landscaping and can take your plants with you when you move.
Containers can be moved around to take advantage of the changing seasons, also. They can be set under trees, eaves, or on the porch to escape a radiation frost, or even inside when the summer is over. Tomatoes and peppers have both responded to this treatment, in our experience. Plants in high, large, permanent planters, such as we con-structed on our porch (out of a set of old garage doors) are easy to reach, weed, and harvest. On the south side of the house, they are perfect for growing early spring vegetables, particularly lettuce. The sun is low in the sky during the winter and slants in under the roof to give the containers plenty of light. But for hot summer middays, the sun is high enough so that the porch roof provides shade. We may be having a heavy spring rain storm, but I can harvest, without getting wet, lettuce for lunch sandwiches or sup-per salad.
What plants can you grow in containers? That depends on how deep the container is, what sort of light conditions you can provide, and whether you are planning on doing it indoors or outdoors. Herbs and small cherry tomatoes like Tiny Tim can be grown in a six-inch pot inside the house in a sunny window. Certain dwarf citrus can also be grown successfully indoors in large planters. There is an excellent book on how to do this: Dwarf Fruit Trees, Indoors and Outdoors, by Robert E. Atkinson (New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1972). But ignore the in-structions on how to manage insects–it’s not necessary to resort to pesticides to handle indoor plants. Handpicking and a few other simple techniques will manage just fine.
Radishes, lettuce, and baby carrots can be grown in soil only six inches deep, but they do better in eight. Eight inches to a foot is better for most other vegetables, too. Tomatoes, broccoli, cucumbers, and zucchini or summer squash will all do much better if they can have one to two feet of depth. In fact, with all of the plants we have tried, the larger the containers, the bigger the harvest. Tomatoes are particularly responsive to root depth. You can prove this for yourself by starting seedlings of a variety of the small cherry tomato, then transplanting one to a six-inch pot, one to a gallon container, another to a five-gallon can, and yet another to an even larger and deeper planter.
In our experience, the plant in the largest container will invariably live the longest and produce the most food. But it is not clear to what extent this is a simple response to greater root space and how much it is due to better nutri-tion.
As we mentioned in the section on mini environment, squashes and cucumbers respond well to being grown under conditions where their roots are well fed and watered but their vines are allowed to sprawl over the hot, dry cement of a patio or tarred roof surface. The fact is, all the vegetables we’ve raised in containers have done well and the only common ones we haven’t tried that way are peas, beans, and corn.

Drainage

Regardless of whether your containers are indoors or out, on the patio or the roof, they share a single important requirement: good drainage. Plant pathologists have told us that there has been a noticeable increase in plant disease since plastic pots have become popular for home and nur-sery. The best containers are those that breathe, porous clay (unglazed) being ideal. Wooden containers usually per-mit some small drainage of water through the cracks be-tween the boards as well as through the drainage holes at the bottom. We have had good luck with ordinary five-gal-lon cans, scavenging them from the dumpsters in the indus-trial section of town and from behind restaurants, but we are careful to punch drainage holes around the sides at the very bottom (not in the bottom itself).
You know the hole on the bottom of the flowerpot? Do not put a piece of broken crockery across it. Yes, that is contrary to what most books say, but we’ve learned our methods from an authority on plant disease who has been called in to diagnose and cure many a sick container-grown plant. Just firm the dry soil down on the bottom of the pot. The first time or two you water, a little soil may run out, but after that it will stabilize itself. He also cautioned us regarding the practice of putting a layer of stones or coarse broken pottery in the bottom of a large container. This will collect water in the spaces thus created and will not drain properly, again creating conditions favorable for root disease. Roots will need all available space in the pot, so avoid the space-filling stones.
If you have a very pretty ceramic container you wish to use that doesn’t have drainage holes in it, use it as the decorative exterior and plant in a smaller pot inside that does have a drainage hole. Set the inner pot on top of some gravel put in the bottom of the outer pot. That way the little pot will not be sitting in water each time you irrigate the plant.
It is very important that plants be watered from the top downward and that they do not sit in the water that has drained through the pot. When this happens, the water rises again by capillary action and then evaporates from the surface of the soil, leaving the salts behind. This is the origin of the white residue often found on the top of the soil around houseplants and coating the outside of the clay pot. It is also the cause of houseplants turning brown around the edges and tips of the leaves. Probably more houseplants are killed by this kind of salt accumulation than anything else that people do to them.
What you should do, if a plant container sits in a saucer so that water can collect below it, is set the pot up on some stones. That way, when the water runs into the sau-cer it will not touch the bottom of the pot and will not be absorbed up into the soil again. It is also a good idea to allow some water to come out the bottom of the pot to wash accumulated salts through the pot.
For plants where the soil has accumulated excessive salts from improper watering, the best thing is to transplant them into fresh soil and a clean pot. Soak the old salt-encrusted pot in a deep tub or bucket and change the water a couple of times to leach out the salts.
Another aspect of the drainage problem has to do with having a good soil mix in the container. If the basis for your planting mix is clay, as it is with us, then the soil will tend to shrink away from the sides of the container when it dries. The next time you water, you will find the water running over the surface, and down the cracks around the sides between the soil and the container, without thor-oughly soaking the earth inside.
For this reason, as well as to make the mixture lighter, it is highly desirable to add a good compost to the planting mix in proportions high enough to keep it porous. There are also commercial materials, sold under various trade names, that can be added to the mix. These will have the same basic effect of improving drainage while paradoxical-ly aiding moisture retention, as the compost does. Ver-miculite, which is a commercial expanded mica, has been popular for this purpose, but after a while it starts to break down, with less desirable effects upon the soil mixture. Perlite may be superior for this reason. Frequently these materials are added just in order to obtain a planting mix that does not weigh so much.
If you cannot obtain any soil, but can get waste organic materials with which to make a compost, try planting your vegetables in pure compost. So far we have done this with squash, bush beans, beets and lettuce and in each case have found it equal to or better than the soil compost mix we used before (because it doesn’t dry out so fast, is lighter, and provides good nutrition).

The Problems of Weight and Wear

When we decided to roof garden, our first requirement was to protect the surface of the roof itself. Ours was covered with a heavy weight (ninety-pound) tar paper. On top of this we built a skeleton of a wood platform to support our containers, with solid boards for walkways in between.
What we worried about most was weight. A cubic foot of water weighs approximately sixty-two pounds: this has to be taken into account. Since the main walls of the house were sturdy, but the roof frame itself was not built to take any weight, we located the containers around the edges of the roof and used our wooden platform to distribute the weight between containers. We also went to some lengths to make the soil mix as light as possible.
We used approximately 1/3 perlite, 1/3 compost, mixed with 1/3 soil, and have had to take special precautions to fertilize these containers regularly. We found rabbit ma-nure a good mulch, along with compost for the top of the containers. Watering with dilute urine (and the addition of a little lime) is a good idea also. Still lighter mixes have been developed for container-grown plants. But, as they usually contain only varying proportions of peat moss, sand, and perlite, they must be fertilized entirely by addi-tions of some sort. Peat moss, in spite of being an organic material, contributes almost no nutrients to the mix. With-out organic matter, of course, they cannot support popula-tions of animals and microorganisms that would decompose them to a form the plant roots can take advantage of.
Since our mixes contain abundant compost and soil right from our yard (we took soil from a particularly good area beneath a cherry plum, where leaves had been accumulat-ing for many a year), the plants have lots of nutrients. We were also careful to introduce earthworms to every con-tainer.
Spacing of the vegetables in the larger containers turns out to be rather similar to growing them in the ground. Although, in general, we tend to grow our plants a lot closer together than many standard works on the subject suggest. I can only conclude that these works are written with mechanized agriculture in mind, or at least assuming cultivation with a plow. If in doubt, plant close and thin as the seedlings get crowded.
Weeding and watering both seemed particularly easy on the roof, although the containers dried out much more quickly than the soil in the yard. Our insect visitors seemed much the same as down below, though it was easi-er to come out at night for handpicking forays against cutworms. We had fewer problems with slugs and snails, which are great pests in our area generally, having been introduced from Europe without their natural predators and parasites. It may be that, since they do not fly, they rarely discovered that anything edible was up there.
The single difference in growing food on the roof that we really had to deal with was the amount of wind. Plants that normally do not need support, such as sprouting broc-coli and eggplant, did better firmly tied to a stake. We also anchored down the compost mulch with burlap pieces, tucked in at the edges or weighted down by overturned pots or stones-all just to prevent the mulch from being blown away and the soil surface from drying out.

A Meat and Greens System

We are continuing to experiment with this rooftop sys-tem as this book is being written. Our scheme is to show how some food raising may be introduced even into the heart of an urban area, such as downtown San Francisco. Such city centers often have residences mixed in with light industrial establishments. The people living in these narrow alley-like ghettos usually have no spot of ground to garden in or even much sunlight for a window box because of the several-story buildings on all sides. But the area seen from a tall building nearby provides a vista of flat roof after roof, all soaking up the sun, doing nothing but increasing the temperatures of the city.
Our plan is to show how meat rabbits can be raised on such roofs and fed primarily from the wastes of the local grocery stores. Their manure could be processed right there by manure worms, or made into compost, and the results turned into containers which would then be used to grow some salad vegetables. This system theoretically could provide a fair amount of food in a small area, with the only continuous inputs from outside the system being sawdust, vegetable scraps, a small amount of alfalfa pellets for the pregnant doe rabbits and babies, and occasional additions of lime-none of which would be expensive. There would need to be some initial investments: lumber and wire to build the system, although some of this could be scrap scavenged from waste bins in the area, peat moss as bedding for the worms, perlite for the planter boxes, and the cost of the starting pair of rabbits and the worms. We have all of these components going already, and all we need is further experimentation to integrate them all into a single unit on the roof, and to determine the costs and profits of such a system.
We know that people tend to be very conservative re-garding their food habits, and many otherwise voracious consumers of meat become all sentimental and filled with what we call the “Bambi” syndrome when they think of eating rabbit. Adoption of such a new system requires as-similating some additional information: how to raise rab-bits, butcher them, tan the pelts, cook the meat, etc. The success of our scheme may depend more on changing the cultural prejudices of people than on the real feasibility of the system as a way to introduce food production into downtown city roof areas.

Chapter 12

HowAbout a Community Garden?

Once our urban farm was under way, it attracted the attention of a great many people. We would show our friends around, then they would send their friends to have a look. The neighbors began to arrange tours for their friends. Our students would bring other students at odd hours of the day. We would hear voices outside the win-dow while eating breakfast and look up to find a train of complete strangers walking by, oohing and aahing, poking and peering at things. It was rather like living in a fish bowl.
We were beginning to worry about soil compaction. When five people get into our yard at the same time it seems crowded! This was becoming a steady stream of visitors, klomping through our strawberries and leaping over the chard. One day the doorbell rang, and there was a nice couple from Massachusetts who were on a trip across the country. They had heard about our little city food-growing venture and thought they’d drop in.
That was the last straw. It was either start selling tickets or move some of our food-raising activities to a more pub-lic place and regain some privacy at home.
If one of our motives in growing our own food was to pass on the information to others, then we needed to find a setting in which to do this. Raising our own food in a public place would mean for every hour of time and ener-gy we put into it, we could affect hundreds rather than dozens of people. So we started the student garden at the Oxford Tract of the University of California in Berkeley, and the rooftop project with our Antioch College/West students.
These two projects are open to the public, and occasion-ally nonstudents participate in them. However, they are not truly public gardens. Such community vegetable plots would be a really good addition to American urban areas, and a few towns are beginning to realize it. In every city there are apartment dwellers who don’t have land to gar-den in and renters whose landlords don’t like the idea of tearing up the lawn to grow food. At the same time there are many waste spaces, publicly or commercially owned, as well as park areas with ornamental plantings that are mis-treated by the local residents because they don’t feel a meaningful connection to the land or the city government. In short, there are many city people who could be inter-ested in growing their own food and many suitable places in urban areas that might be used for such ventures.
With people from Ecology Action in Berkeley who were also interested in encouraging a city-wide movement to use empty lots for neighborhood food raising, we approached the Parks and Recreation Department of Berkeley. Walter Toney, the superintendent, was enthusiastic, and we began a survey of the suitable areas. We requested city support to install water outlets and build fences to keep out dogs and vandals, and also to join us in recommending to owners (many of them absentee) that their lots be used for this purpose.
Before the project went very far, we found out that the fire department was spraying vacant lots with herbicides. In some cases they used Simazine, a long-lasting poison. Although supposedly it penetrates only a few inches into the ground and only lasts for about six months, tests in our class at the university showed that, in some areas at least, it actually penetrated more than six inches and lasted over a year. This was being done “to prevent fires” during the summer when the rain does not normally fall in our area.
This use of herbicides had to be stopped before food raising could begin on those vacant lots, and it finally was. It took time, an aroused group of people to exert political pressure, the proper information, and the suggestion of an alternative using fire-retardant plants in some places and cultivation in others. Along the way we discovered that activated charcoal, when turned into the soil at 300 pounds per acre, could help reduce the effect of the Simazine.
The vacant lot project still hasn’t gotten off the ground in Berkeley, but it has a good chance of doing so in the future because of the encouraging attitude of the city per-sonnel, the general interest of the population, and the ris-ing food prices. In the meantime, we have been able to help a couple of other garden projects get started, by an Oakland black community school, the Junior League, and many other groups and individuals.
A California based group, The Institute of Self-Reliance, has been successful in organizing regular classes in food-producing skills for urban and suburban people. They teach vegetable gardening, small animal raising, home or-chard care, and food preservation, using a practical yet very scientific and environmentally sound approach. We have been helping them out whenever possible in establish-ing community teaching gardens and developing courses in instruction.
From these experiences we have learned a number of things we’d like to pass on to you. First of all, if the land does not belong to the people doing the gardening, obtain in writing an agreement regarding its use, and the mini-mum length of time it will be available. Secondly, find individual people who will take responsibility for either the entire project or significant parts of it, such as composting, starting seeds, watering, wildlife management, pro-dding reliable information for the participants and visitors, and controlling the behavior of visitors. This last can usually be done by constructing prominent walkways and put-ting up signs warning people to stay off the beds, keep out dogs, hang on to their toddlers, etc. A sandbox to one side with a tub of water, is one thing that will keep the little ones busy while adults are visiting or working in the garden.
Another highly appreciated feature of the gardens we have been associated with is the educational display de-veloped for identifying vegetables, weeds, and bugs, giving recipes for lesser-known edibles, describing our compost system, and so forth. Whenever we have had the budget, we have made available handout sheets, many of which have become an integral part of this book.
Sign-up sheets for jobs a week ahead, a file with names and phone numbers of all participants, a surrounding fence, a first-aid kit, a locked tool box with the combina-tion known only to key workers, and a shady place to sit and admire what you’ve done, have all been important components of the systems with which we’ve been in-volved.
Perhaps the most valuable advice we can give you, be-sides finding a responsible individual or a small group of committed people who will take responsibility for parts of the project, is: start small! Build your compost system first and have that going smoothly before you start to plant. Don’t spade up the whole area at once, but rather develop it bed by bed by adding compost as it becomes available. A small, gorgeously successful plot is far more rewarding than a large, back-breaking, woebegone-looking one. If in-dividuals and families are to have control over separate plots, rather than everyone gardening together, then have someone coordinate the overall management of the composting and the communicating of reliable information to everyone.
We found that the biggest problem with our public compost system was people excited over the idea of recycling who were eager to bring us their kitchen garbage. We dis-couraged this unless they were also willing to participate in the making and the turning of the compost too. This was partly because the people who do the actual work of the composting always have enough kitchen wastes of their own, but mainly because we are not interested in becom-ing garbage collectors for others. Our real interest is in getting people to confront their own wastes and to learn how to handle them. A community garden, coordinated by one or more competent persons, is an ideal way to teach those necessary skills.
In general, food producing is so pleasant a recreation with such obvious rewards for stomach and spirit, that we can conceive of no finer vision than each community in the United States emulating those European towns that provide public gardening space, rented for a small fee each year to pay for maintaining the boundaries and providing water. Each plot has its own tool shed and a small cabana for shade and relaxation, where whole families may go to engage in some pleasant physical labor and provide them-selves with a goodly portion of each week’s food.

Chapter 13

Confessions of Two Crazy Environmentalists

We began our urban farm with the goal of raising our own food free of pesticides, hormones, preservatives, artificial flavors, and dyes. We did just this for a great deal of our food fight where we live, in the city of Berkeley, California. We learned a lot and hope what is recorded here will be of use to others. We believe that what we created with our own life styles has already influenced other city residents. We’ve met a lot of fine people doing the same, and we expect to meet many more. What we would like to do with this last chapter is suggest an overall scheme for further expansion on the theme of “Raising Food in the City.” Possibly each of us can take on developing a small portion of the entire plan from which will grow another larger conception for human life.
First we need to discuss long-term survival strategies, then applications with specific suggestions, including urban agriculture, and then some ideas about what the future possibilities are.

Long-Term Survival Strategies

Two basic sources of energy are currently being used: they are solar and fossil. By solar I mean the energy cap-tured by green plants that is ultimately used by man for food, fiber, and structures. The other is the fossil energy sources or the mining and petrochemical group. Here the ultimate source is also the sun, but with a large gap of time between when the earth was formed from the sun and when plant and animal life was converted to fossilized sources of oil and natural gas.
Another basic difference between the two sources is that the solar path is renewable but the fossil is not. This means essentially that once the fossil supplies are used up there will be no more, but that the renewable supplies can be produced as long as the sun shines. With some careful thought we can see that modern industrialized society now depends largely on fossil supplies of raw materials for fuels, textiles, plastics, lubricants, minerals, fertilizers, pesticides, rubbers, dyes, pigments, flavors, perfumes, and medicines.
The future is easy to read, knowing these facts. As the supplies of fossil nutrients dwindle, the cost of extracting the materials will increase; as these costs increase, the price of all the processes that depend on them will also increase. Since most of the materials of our society depend upon these basic supplies, all products will increase in price. This in turn will again affect the extraction costs and still again, across the board, the costs of all derived goods and materi-als.
The most critical industry affected by all these rising costs will be the agricultural food industry. This can al-ready be seen in rising food prices. An example of how this works is very instructive. Consider that current-day agricul-ture is basically operated by machinery which requires fuels, oils, and lubricants, besides a lot of maintenance. It’s simple to see that food costs will rise when fuel costs increase, because the producers will merely push the greater costs onto the consumer. The rise, however, will be compounded because fuel is used at many points along the way to your table.
Today’s agriculture uses energy to till the soil and shape the beds, inject fertilizer, irrigate, apply herbicides, fungi-cides, and insecticides, harvest, and transport to market. Thus, if the cost of each of these processes goes up, the total cost of crop production goes up accordingly. Since it also takes fuels and energy costs to process, store, pack, and ship, and then it also takes fuel to go to the store, shop, and bring the food home, store, and prepare it, it is easy to see how food prices will increase drastically from merely a small increase in fuel costs.
A full picture of what is in store for us can easily be seen when one considers that food is the fuel of humanity. Since humans rely on other humans for education, health care, legal and other services, one can see that the costs of these services will increase as the fuel (food) for maintain-ing these service specialists also increases. Again there is a multiplying effect since all the services require special equipment and structures to support such service people.
The future with such a view looks bleak but is bleaker still since we know that the population is still growing, which means more food is needed. The urbanization of excellent farmland is not helping the food supply problem either. By building on some of the best agricultural lands in the world, here in California, farmers are forced to in-crease yields and bring poorer-grade soils into production. Using poorer soils requires more energy because more fer-tilizer, water, and management are needed.
The full picture of the problems ahead of us includes not only scarcity and the economic ramifications of having less energy, minerals, agricultural and wild lands, but also a reduction in the quality of our living experience. This is already being felt in smoggy skies, crowded cities, in-creased noise levels, etc. What few people are willing to face, however, is that the basic ingredients of life-support, the quality of air, water, and food, have undergone a trans-formation in the last twenty years the scope of which is difficult to fully comprehend.
In 1970, fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals were produced in the United States. These chemicals are incor-porated in our clothing, dishes, soaps, toothbrushes and toothpaste, shampoos, deodorants, eyeglasses, and are found also in the car, the garage, the kitchen, the yard, and living room-in short, everywhere. Not knowing what these synthetic chemicals are only makes the problems of managing the toxic members of this large group more diffi-cult.
The use of pesticides illustrates how pervasive and mon-strous only one facet of this larger problem is. In 1970 some 900 registered pesticides, totaling nearly a billion pounds, were used in the United States. These 500,000 tons of poison are mistakenly believed to be directed at about 200 “pest” plants, microbes, and animals. In reality, these substances fail on entire ecosystems and frequently become circulatory poisons in the planet’s larger cycles.
Pesticides are routinely found in large numbers of food chains, probably including the entire human food web, drinking water, in all major waterways in the United States, in the oceans, in the air and soil throughout the world. Information about production of genetic defects and cancers is only gradually being discovered after the fact, frequently after world-wide exposure.
Yesterday’s newspaper had an article about spraying a poison called furadan on 364,000 acres of alfalfa. A piece of news like that usually means furadan may start showing up in milk or beef or cheese, because alfalfa is fed in large measure to cattle. But here is the important point: you will not know about it! You will take it into your body along with a whole host of other things as long as you buy at the local supermarket.
We hope the view of the world through our pesticide-colored glasses has frightened you. It frightens us, but it also moved us toward producing our own food. The fact that a hormone, DES, was incorporated into our meat led us toward producing our own meat. It also undermined our confidence in our food industry to such an extent that we learned what it would take to produce more of our own. We are convinced that a great many others can also produce a significant portion of their own diet, and we created this book to help you to make the first steps to-ward doing the same. Here also are some reasons why ur-ban food production or urban agriculture, as we call it, is important.

Urban Agriculture: Reasons Why

  1. By converting ornamental plantings, yards, vacant lots, and other urban spaces into areas where food can be produced, the impact of the population-land squeeze can be reduced and once-productive soils can again support people.
  2. By developing food-producing systems close to where the food will be consumed, a basic flaw in modern civilization can be corrected: the urban-rural separation.
  3. Home food production can bring about an awaken-ing of interest in the earth, plants, animals, and nature study that can dismantle the consumptive and apathetic urban life style.
  4. By scattering small, intensive, diversified food-producing units throughout cities and suburbs, more small-scale, stable insect communities can be produced, re-quiring fewer pesticides for management-possibly none.
  5. By creating viable examples for people to learn from and elaborate on, more people will take control of their own life-support processes. This could create an informed, active citizenry that can produce healthy changes in our civilization.
  6. By learning and practicing gardening, composting, and animal husbandry, more people can become aware of the great power in natural systems and the survival poten-tial in harmonizing human life support with the planet’s processes.
  7. By creating and managing your own life-support systems, you can learn by proxy what it will take to man-age the entire human life-support system.
  8. By discovery and study of the bountiful animals of the soil and garden, you can regain a knowledge of the paths through which man has passed and will continue to pass.
  9. By taking one step toward self-support and by learn-ing that all actions affect all other actions, you can begin to understand how individual action can change the world. Finally, you may even think about a great new civilization.
  10. By individuals learning, discovering, building, and re-learning, the steps for building a new solar civilization, where the essentials of life will be produced directly from plant products, can be accomplished. The home and family unit may again become a basic cornerstone of a planetary civilization.

Life-Style Changes

A life style is a person’s way of life. If you move one step toward recycling, using less energy and fewer materi-als for life support, you have started to change your life style. The processes grow on you. We started with a com-post system and a garden, later added rabbits and chickens, then ate from rooftop gardens, tried growing mushrooms, and later, when the traffic from visitors got to be too much, developed a teaching community garden in the middle of Berkeley. Methane generators were next, then we changed the city’s pest control program (to decrease pesticides on the leaves used in our compost, and to increase the survival of beneficial insects), and are now planning for fish, wind, and solar systems, as well as others. This has been our approach; you can try another. Here are some suggestions: All efforts to readjust the life-support system fall into two general groups: 1) new creations or old adaptations, and 2) reducing needs. The first group is more glamorous and probably more exciting, but the second group is probably more effective. Some examples of the second group may clarify the point.
When we used to boil a cup of water, first we’d get the pot, fill it up well beyond the needed one cup, set it on the stove, and wait. After a while we’d hear the water boil and go pour a cup of tea or coffee. Now we rarely bother with tea or coffee, but drink herb teas we grow ourselves, fill the pot only for as many cups as we will actually need, and turn off the heat as soon as the water is hot enough. The overall result of such attention to details is a different approach to using resources. Such efforts are more difficult to achieve for some people than buying or making a new energy source, because of the way we think about things. This example could be expanded to include walking and using a bicycle or train instead of the automobile, a phone call or note instead of a trip by car, and in general a less material-resource-use approach to living. Obviously one still needs to use resources to live, but by starting to work on ourselves, we can use less of them.
We have learned that chickens like to eat greens, particularly grass clippings. Here’s a story about people and a status symbol that has a practical slant after a social statement.

Lawns: “What for Art Thou?”

A student of ours, while living in San Francisco, hap-pened to look up from her books one sunny afternoon and saw a gardener pull up in front of a city residence in his truck. What she saw is probably being repeated millions of times every day throughout the industrialized nations. Now, it turns out the gardener was only out to take care of the lawn. It also turns out that the lawn was only what we call a postage stamp lawn-you know, four by four. Hardly big enough for one person to sit on, yet enough to need a gardener, since the people who live in the house do not have the time or inclination to take care of a lawn.
The story is really about what the gardener did. First, he took out a small machine that looked like an eggbeater that has been squashed. This, we’ve learned since, is an edger. By pulling a rope it starts up and is used to cut the edges of the lawn. Then a lawn mower followed with its usual cloud of smoke, noise, and spew of grass. The final machine is a blower-here modem man has surely come of age! This machine is strapped to the back of the gardener and used to blow the unorderly clippings produced from the previous process back onto the lawn or other areas where they will not appear unsightly.
After a short bit of clipping with a hand-type scissor object, the man loads up, leaps into his truck, and is off. The whole process took about fifteen to twenty minutes, and when our student related the story to us, she was holding her sides at the humor of so much ado about nothing (or very little). The story stuck in our minds be-cause it says so much about what kind of civilization we have created and what kind of lives people live.
The whole story about lawns is not, however, contained in this brief scenario. Lawns, to the best of our knowledge, were created as a status symbol originally by pastoral people who could display to their neighbors the fact that they had some pasture on which they didn’t need to graze an animal. Today the tradition has been passed down to us, including, besides the smoke, noise, and fuel expenditure (all in place of hand-operated machines), whole shelves of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. Notwithstanding their environmental impact, including the fact that they could be better made into fuels, with less poison circulat-ing in ourselves, our food, and our wildlife, the final product-the grass is thrown away! To bring sanity to this situation, we encourage people to use the harvest by feed-ing it to chickens or rabbits, and if this is not possible, to put it in the compost. It has a great deal of nitrogen in its leaves and it is already cut up. Lawn grasses are very pro-ductive. A word of caution: avoid grass that has been treated with any pesticide, particularly if you are using it as an animal feed. If you are using it in the compost, especially an aerobic compost, some pesticides can be taken apart by the heat and organisms, but not the chlor-inated hydrocarbons like DDT, chlordane, lindane, dieldrin, endrin, and still others. These poisons probably all accumulate in food chains, which is why all pesticide-treated grass should be avoided.
The final question about what lawns really are depends upon who you are. They can be feed for fowl or a fouling place for men. Possibly by raising chickens and feeding them grass, you too will see the value in the grass we waste.

The Future

Obviously, if enough people all put their attention to developing small-scale life-support systems, a great many of the problems involved in developing such systems will be solved. Signs of such developments are already appear-ing. Last week in the newspaper we saw that an architect nearby has designed two homes to be powered by a wind-mill so that when no power from the wind or storage batteries is available, power from the electric company will be switched on automatically. Obviously this is a step in the right direction, but this example is useful in pointing out some important points about future direction for self-sufficiency enthusiasts. Some of these points are best ap-proached by considering certain statements about design.

  1. Focus design efforts on systems that can be built, rebuilt, repaired and maintained by yourself.
  2. In designing systems, use materials which can be grown or produced yourself.
  3. Concentrate design activities on constructing a life style that uses the smallest amounts of energy and material resources.
  4. Do not look for the utopian society, but rather transi-tional forms that can be implemented with slight increases in knowledge and skills.
  5. Seek knowledge upon which to build a new civiliza-tion from the old-there’s no need to destroy, only trans-form.
  6. Discover how other civilizations used plants and plant products and adapt them for small-scale use.
  7. Look at and discover how to use waste products.
  8. Become aware of toxic materials and learn to avoid contact with them.
  9. Seek and develop alternative systems for living and producing the necessities of life.

Why Crazy?

Why do we say “crazy” environmentalists? The answer is a little complex. When we started experimenting with ur-ban farming, we saw our lives change. We saw first our physical environment change, as old things were used in new ways. Five containers appeared under the sink: one for plastics, one for paper to be burned and later recycled, one for metal, and a fourth for glass to be taken to the recycling center, and an organic bucket for composting. Later we saw milk cartons stacking up for planting trays, and still later compost materials accumulated and were transformed into fertilizer. There were many other changes as well.
All this action was fun, exciting, and productive, like pioneering in a place where few have tried before. When our friends came to visit or called, we showed them what we were doing, and since it was different from what they were doing, sometimes we appeared to have changed very much. When you get enough peculiar looks and then won-der why all these other people aren’t producing their own food, you think about words like “crazy” to describe ei-ther us or them.
It may be useful to give some specific examples of areas where we think urban agriculture needs development, starting with the home. A new integration between garden, composting, and animal systems, harvesting, preparing, storage, and eating areas can be created that makes it easier to move materials from seed to plate. New systems which we will probably work on in the future include seed stor-age and retrieval, greenhouse, mushrooms, feed mixing and preparation. Next comes adapting animal products like fur, skins, feathers, and silkworm cocoons for clothing.
An integration of agricultural systems and architectural innovations in the home is also needed. These include waste management (methane digester and composting), solar driers and heaters, wind generators, and pumps. Fish and algal systems have already been started, but you can see that there is easily the work of many lifetimes here. Possibly you can join us and start to work on yourself and your place.
RAWLAW

SHTF Survival Gardening- Saving Seeds

Survival Gardens are one of the many keys to surviving SHTF. Below we will go over saving seeds so we can continue our gardens season after season.

PART I: BASIC INFORMATION

CHAPTER 1       Why Raise Seeds?
CHAPTER 2       What Is a Seed?
CHAPTER 3       How Seeds Are Formed
CHAPTER 4       Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials
CHAPTER 5       Pollination
CHAPTER 6       Selecting Seed Parents
CHAPTER 7       Collecting Seeds
CHAPTER 8       Extracting and Drying Seeds
CHAPTER 9       Storing Seeds
CHAPTER 10      Testing Seeds

PART II: THE VEGETABLES

TABLE I:    Characteristics of Common Vegetables
        Saved for Seed

        Monocotyledoneae

        POACEAE (Grass Family)
            Sweet Corn 54 /Popcorn 57
        LILIACEAE (Lily Family)
            Asparagus 58 / Chive 601 Garlic 61 1
            Leek 61 / Onion 63

        Dicotyledoneae

        POLYGONACEAE (Buckwheat or Rhubarb Family)
        Rhubarb 66
        CHENOPODIACEAE (Goosefoot Family)
        Beet 68 I Swiss Chard 71 /Spinach 72
        TETRAGONIACEAE (New Zealand Spinach Family)
        New Zealand Spinach 74
        BRASSICACEAE (Mustard or Cabbage Family)
        Cabbage 51/Broccoli 80/Brussels Sprouts 81 /
        Cauliflower 81 / Chinese Cabbage 82 /Kale 85 /
        Kohlrabi 85 / Turnip 87/ Rutabaga 88 /
        Horseradish 89 / Radish 90
        FABACEAE (Bean Family)
        Pea 95 /Peanut 98 /Bean 98/
        Lima Bean 101 / Cowpea 102 / Soybean 102
        MAIVACEAE (Mallow Family)
        Okra 103
        APIACEAE (Celery Family)
        Carrot 104 / Celeriac 108/ Celery 109/
        Parsley 110 I Parsnip 111
        SOLANACEAE (Nightshade Family)
        Eggplant 112 /Pepper 114 / Tomato 116/
        Potato 116
        CUCURBITACEAE (Gourd or Cucumber Family)
        Squash 120/ Pumpkin 126/ Cucumber 126/
        Muskmelon 128/ Watermelon 130
        ASTERACEAE (Aster Family)
        Lettuce 131 / Jerusalem Artichoke 134 /
        Salsify 134

TABLE II:   A Checklist of Some Seed-Borne
        Vegetable Diseases          

PART III:

Contents

THE FLOWERS

The Best Flowering Ornamentals to Save for Seed

Ageratum    143 Lobelia, Annual 155
Alyssum, Sweet  143 Love-in-a-Mist  156
Amaranthus  143 Lupine, Dwarf   156
Aster, China    144 Mallow, Rose    156
Baby's-breath   144 Marigold    157
Bachelor's-Button   144 Morning-Glory   157
Balsam, Garden  146 Moss Rose   158
Bean, Scarlet Runner    146 Nasturtium  158
Bells-of-Ireland    146 Pansy   159
Borage  147 Petunia 160
Cabbage, Flowering  147 Phlox, Annual   160
Calendula   147 Pink    161
Candyhuft, Globe    148 Poppy, California   161
Canterbury-Bells    148 Poppy, Opium    161
Celosia 149 Poppy, Shirley  163
Chrysanthemum   149 Rocket, Sweet or Dame's 163
Clarkia 149 Salpiglossis    163
Cosmos  150 Salvia  164
Coreopsis, Golden   150 Scabious, Sweet 164
Daisy, English  150 Snapdragon  164
Daisy, Gloriosa 151 Snow-on-the-Mountain    165
Daisy, Swan River   151 Spider Flower   165
Flax, Flowering 151 Stock   166
Forget-Me-Not   151 SunflFower  166
Four-O'Clock    152 Sweet Pea   166
Foxglove    152 Sweet William   168
Gaillardia  153 Tobacco, Flowering  168
Hollyhock   153 Verbena 169
Honesty 153 Wallflower  169
Kale, Flowering 155 Zinnia  169
Larkspur, Annual    155 

Mail-Order Seed Sources
Further Reading
Glossary for Gardeners
Average Frost Date Maps

PART I BASIC INFORMATION

CHAPTER 1

Why Raise Seeds?

A sneeze several years ago started me along the circuitous route toward growing seeds to save.

I had heard the arguments against growing seeds for so long that I began believing them all. Don’t grow seeds, the garden books say. These various arguments all seem to boil down to one main point: that you and I really aren’t smart enough to save seeds. Our grandparents did, as did their parents; as did countless generations reaching almost back to our ancestors who first swung out of a tree, but the plain truth is that the human line has petered out a bit, and that you and I aren’t capable of growing our own seeds.

Then comes the final point, the real clincher: Seeds are cheap.

I won’t argue that seeds at almost any price are a bargain. Think for a moment of someone building a kit that would include all of the parts and the directions for building a celery plant. Think of being able to do this, then offering it so that the entire package-parts, directions, and container-weighs but l/70,000 of an ounce.

Nature has designed such a kit-a celery seed.

But are seeds really cheap? I hadn’t thought of it too much, only realizing that each January my seed bill grew larger and larger, while my garden stayed the same. And noticing that I now paid $2 for what I thought was a dollar’s worth of peas.

Then came that sneeze. Surprising how it snuck up on me. Surprising how loud it was. Surprising me so that my right hand snapped skyward. My right hand at that moment was holding a few seeds-$5 worth of tiny petunia seeds. The dustlike seeds shot up, then were caught in the gale of the sneeze and scattered to, in this case, the one wind.

The seeds were gone, but not forgotten. For that incident started me thinking more about seed costs. My handy calculator soon told me that, if I had managed to sneeze away a pound of those petunia seeds, instead of 1/128 of an ounce, my sneeze bill for the day would have amounted to more than $10,000. That’s much more than gold costs, and it certainly shows that seeds aren’t cheap.

I noticed, too, that seed packets were changing. Only infrequently did they tell me the number of seeds to be found therein. The price for a packet most often was more than a dollar. And no longer were the packets fat with seed. Some were downright slim, even undernourished, in shape.

Today’s prices haven’t dropped from those of several years ago when I first began to watch them. The move of prices has been in the opposite direction. A good hybrid tomato seed sells for $5 for l/32 of an ounce. I’ll save you the calculating and tell you it’s $2,560 a pound-and the seed is even more expensive if you buy it by the packet instead of in the comparatively large increment of l/32 of an ounce.

Clearly, I had found one good reason for raising and saving seeds. To save money. The day of the nickel packet of seeds was over. It was time I looked for another, almost-free source of seeds.

Then I began to wonder if there might be other good reasons for growing and saving seeds.

I immediately thought of a Lebanese family in town. Their grandparents had arrived on Ellis Island years ago, bringing with them very little money, only a few clothes, a handful of squash seeds, and a heedful of recipes for cooking those squash in the most delectable manner. Various grandchildren now are growing what must be the sixtieth generation of those seeds in this country, never giving this squash an opportunity to indulge its promiscuous habit of crossing with any other member of its not-so-immediate family.

Here was another reason for growing and saving seed. To preserve and perpetuate varieties that could die out. Look at a seed catalog of ten or twenty years ago, and compare the varieties of seeds found there with current offerings. Many have been dropped, some for good reason, others because it doesn’t pay to carry too many varieties. Perhaps one of those dropped was exactly what you wanted, because of its taste or keeping qualities or looks. If you had saved this seed, you could have continued a variety now forgotten. Your choice of which varieties to grow would not be entirely in the hands of the seed companies.

Many good old heirloom strains, no longer offered commercially, have already been lost. Some of the vegetables we enjoy today -the Royalty bean and Clemson Spineless okra for example-are still available to us because one family nurtured and handed down the seed for generations. Once a variety dies out, it cannot be retrieved.

If you have seed of a special, obscure, unusual, or heirloom vegetable variety, you-and many other people-might someday be glad that you kept the strain vital by planting and saving it.

If you raise and save seed, you are producing seed for your garden, and, by careful selection over several generations of plants, you can produce plants best suited to your climate and your gardening conditions. No one else but you can do this. Flavor, pest and disease resistance. early bearing, and size are among the many characteristics that can be enhanced by judicious selection over a period of years. Years ago seeds became scarce as the number of home gardeners spurted. Something like this could happen again in the future, caused by a truck strike, blizzard, postal mix-up, or failure of crops. If you have raised and saved seeds, such an event will not hamper your gardening activities one bit. In fact, if you have raised more seeds than you need, as most of us do, you will be able to help your neighbors in a most meaningful way.

If you have a keen eye as you observe, evaluate, select, and compare your plants, you may even discover something new and valuable. The chances may be against it, but good new strains of plants have been found and are being found, some by plant breeders and a few by observant everyday gardeners. One such person was a turn-of-the-century seed grower, Calvin N. Keeney of Leroy, New York, who is credited with originating nine new varieties of bean, among them the Burpee’s Stringless Green Pod, still listed in the Burpee catalog and credited as having the “finest flavor.”

There’s one benefit on which you yourself will have to put a value; I can’t. Let’s say you first attempt something easy-saving peas. The year that you plant those peas, you will put them in the ground with a little extra care. They’ll get the choice compost for encouragement. You’ll spend a minute or two longer with them each time you cultivate around them. And, sure enough, they’ll taste a bit sweeter than any other peas you raise that year. There’ll be a deeper satisfaction in growing them. What’s that worth to you?

The final reason for raising seed? To prove to those writers of gardening books that the human strain hasn’t weakened to the point where it is incapable of growing vegetable seeds. Grandpa was a smart old codger, but not that smart. Maybe he just grew seeds for saving because no one told him he couldn’t.

A Satisfying Hobby

Seed-growing can be a satisfying, fascinating hobby, and you can select your own level of involvement. Perhaps that will be at the easy level of growing your own peas and beans for seeds. Perhaps you’ll try selecting your best carrots to replant the following spring or maintaining your own especially vibrant strain of marigold or zinnia. Perhaps you’ll find a way to grow cauliflower seed without the use of a greenhouse (and write to tell me how to do it). Be assured, though, that you won’t outgrow this hobby, no matter how much you experiment, no matter how much you learn.

If you have any doubts about this, look at some of our nation’s historic figures-Thomas Jefferson is a good example-who found a lifetime of satisfaction from experimenting in this area. Or look at what some of today’s professionals in the field are attempting. A single example is the present effort to give other plants the ability that many legumes have, to host soil organisms that change the nitrogen in the air to a form that can be used by the plant.

Obtaining and Exchanging Seeds

Obtaining seeds of some little-grown yet desirable vegetable and flower seeds is becoming a challenge. As seed companies merge, many marginally profitable seed lines are dropped, and commercial availability becomes restricted or ceases altogether. Fortunately, various seed-saving organizations have sprouted to perpetuate heirloom and other seldom-seen varieties.

The Seed Savers Exchange (Rural Route 3, Box 239, Decorah, Iowa 52101) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to “passing on our vegetable heritage.” The exchange publishes information regarding seed saving and an annual list of varieties available through the membership. If you send a long self-addressed, stamped envelope, you will receive an informational pamphlet. The headquarters of a flower and herb exchange is located at the same address. Your county Cooperative Extension agent may also know of other local and regional seed exchanges in your area.

Keep in mind that quality control by amateur seed savers will vary greatly, and that there is no guarantee regarding fitness of seed obtained through exchanges.

The Andersen Horticultural Library’s Source List of Plants and Seeds by Richard T. Isaacson and published by the University of Minnesota lists over 20,000 varieties of plants commercially available in North America. The list includes, for instance, 144 varieties of petunia and 140 varieties of bean. Many of the varieties are available only from a single source. Another excellent resource for varieties of vegetables is the Garden Seed Inventory published by the Seed Savers Exchange and available for $17.50, postage paid.

If there is a little-known variety you would like to grow, track it down and learn to save its seed before it becomes unavailable. You may wish to make seed that you save yourself available through an exchange. It is a satisfying way to help perpetuate our invaluable plant resources.

Arguments Against Growing Seeds

You will face discouraging arguments about raising seeds both in what you read and in your conversations with other gardeners. Arguments such as these:

You can’t save the seeds of hybrids, because they won’s produce true in the next generation. True, but there are many open-pollinated varieties that were growing successfully long before the hybrids were developed. This is not an attempt to belittle the contribution of hybrids. Most of them are more vigorous and produce more food or flowers per plant than do the open-pollinated varieties. But this doesn’t mean that you can’t find hardiness, top flavor, and great satisfaction in the varieties that you can raise for seed.

It is difficult for the gardener to isolate varieties and strains to avoid unwanted cross-pollination. And this is one of the reasons why the commercial seed-growing industry has moved westward into dry areas where there are fewer wild or garden varieties that may cross with the crop being grown for seed. Cross-pollination can be a major problem if the gardener works in the midst of other gardens

where one has no control over what is being grown nearby. This at best is a delightful challenge to the gardener, and at worst may limit the breadth of seed-growing activities.

It is d difficult in some areas to raise healthy seed because of the prevalence of certain diseases that carry-over on or in the seed. Not all species have seed-borne diseases. Careful roguing (or weeding-out) of unhealthy plants minimizes disease problems. Post-harvest measures can be taken in severe cases.

You are legally prohibited from saving seed from patented varieties. The Plant Variety Protection Act specifically allows the “farmer” to save seed for his own use and even to sell it to other “farmers.” The U.S. Patent Office (separate from the Plant Variety Protection Office) is granting regular 17-year patents on certain seed-propagated plants from which one cannot legally save any seed for propagating purposes. Packets of these seeds should be clearly marked to indicate this patent protection.

Unwanted cross-pollination and faulty selection of seed plants results in the gradual deterioration or “running-out” of the seed. If and when it does, simply buy fresh seed to renew your stock.

Raising and saving seeds is not for everyone. The gardener whose only aim is to grow as much food as possible may not be interested. The gardener to whom the height of adventure is trying a new variety of tomato may back away. But the gardener who enjoys a challenge, who likes to try something different, who wonders about the “why” of the plant world-this person should try raising seeds. There will be failures and problems and disappointments, but these will only make the successes sweeter. And any small measure of self-reliance we can recapture in our overly dependent society is cause for satisfaction.

CHAPTER 2

What Is a Seed?

A seed is more, much more, than it appears to be. The hard, dry, distinctively shaped particles that we plant in our gardens are really dormant embryos-tiny, already formed plants encased in a protective coating. While we may think of seeds as a beginning, they are really links between generations of plants, vehicles for both the survival of the plant species and the spread of new life.

This one-chapter course in botany, while ignoring many fine points, exceptions, and variations, will give you the general idea of the process by which a seed is formed. This is necessary for a clear understanding of what you hope to accomplish when you save seed from your garden plants.

The well-timed miracle of the seed. First, the seed is planted. Next it thrusts down its root tip and unfolds its rudimentary leaves. Then those leaves reach above the soil as the roots expand. Finally, the tiny plant produces its first true leaves.

The Parts of a Seed

Difficult as it may be, imagine all the essential rudiments of a plant -leaves, stem, and root-encapsulated in a tiny, uniform parcel of life. That is indeed what each seed contains. Take the seed of a snap bean, for example. Soak the seed in water for a few hours and slip off the hard outer seed coat. It is easier to see, in the large seed of the bean, what is true of all seeds. There, compressed within that hard outer coating, are a set of rudimentary leaves called cotyledons, a bud that appears as a tiny tuft of leaves, a stem from which both cotyledons and bud arise, and-on the opposite end of the stem-a root tip.

Every seed has within it a reserve supply of carbohydrates, fat, protein, and minerals to nourish the dormant encapsulated plant. Some seeds, like the snap bean, lima bean, watermelon, and pumpkin, have thick, fleshy cotyledons (first leaves), which store nourishment. In other kinds of seeds, the young plant’s food supply is found, not in the leaves, but in the endosperm, a material that occupies the remaining space within the seed coat, beside and around the embryonic plant. The endosperm is floury in some kinds of plants; in others it is oily, waxy, or hard. Buckwheat and most cereal seeds, for example, contain a floury endosperm.

Far from being lifeless, seeds are actually living, resting plants in an embryonic state. Although the life processes of the seed are operating at a very low ebb, they are operating. Seeds carry on internal metabolic activity while they are dormant. They absorb moisture from the air. The stored food of the endosperm or the cotyledons combines with that moisture to form a soluble, and therefore usable, form of plant food for the resting embryo.

Kinds of Seeds

Although there is a great variety of size, shape, texture, and hardness in the seeds that flowering plants produce, most embryonic plants (seeds) follow the same general design. They have two primary leaves with root tip and stem and sometimes with endosperm enclosed in a protective covering. Plants that have two cotyledons- the largest group of seed-bearing plants-are called dicots.

A smaller group, termed monocots, produces seed containing only one cotyledon. As you’ve probably noticed, the large family of grasses, to which corn, rye, and other grains belong, sends up a single shoot when the seed germinates, rather than the paired leaves that form on most other vegetable crops. Onions, too, belong to this group.

While some seeds will germinate at any time, there are many others that follow an internal time clock, a rhythm that insures (as much as is possible) that when the seed does germinate, conditions will be right for its growth. Some seeds must undergo cold or freezing temperatures in order to break dormancy. Still others need light to germinate. Lettuce seed may refuse to germinate in hot weather, when chances for the success of the plant are lower than in cool seasons.

If you remember only one fact from this quick crash course in botany, let it be this: Seeds are alive.

CHAPTER 3

How Seeds Are Formed

More than half the plants that grow on our earth are flowering plants. Many of the flowers are small and inconspicuous, like those of wheat and corn, but the seeds they produce have made possible some of the most influential plant improvements that people have been able to work out.

A flower’s purpose in life is to produce seed. Although flowers differ tremendously in color, size, and complexity, each is uniquely equipped to form seed. Two parts of the blossom are essential to seed production: the stamen, or pollen-bearing part of the plant, and the pistil, which receives the pollen and nurtures the future seeds. The long, thin stalk of the stamen is called the filament. The pollen

sacs on the ends of the filaments are anthers. The stamen, with its filaments and anthers, is sometimes called the “male” part of the plant. The pistil, or “female” part, includes the stigma, or pollen-receptive region, the style, a long, thin tube leading from the stigma to the ovary, and the ovary itself, a cavity containing one or more ovules (eggs).

Seed is formed from the union of a ripe ovule and a grain of fertilizing pollen. When a pollen grain lands on the stigma of a receptive species, perhaps carried there by the wind or a bee, it begins to grow, putting forth a long thread of living matter that grows down through the style, enters the ovary, and penetrates an ovule, where it enters the embryo sac. The two cells-that of the pollen and that of the “egg”-unite to form a single living cell, called a zygote, which then has the power to multiply. This single-celled zygote- much divided and enlarged and finally matured-becomes the embryo of the new plant, that rudimentary leaf-bud-stem-root that is somehow all there in even the tiniest of seeds. The ovule exterior develops into the seed coat.

And what about the endosperm, that layer of nourishment for the new plant? How is it formed? There’s an answer for that question, too; at least, botanists know what the process involves. (The why of the intricate impulses that cause these things to happen remains a mystery.) Although the grain of pollen, when first formed, was a single cell, it has usually split to form two cells by the time it reaches the stigma. One of these cells, you will remember, unites with the embryo sac of the ovule to form the zygote, which will grow into an embryonic plant. The second cell joins with other minute parts of the embryo sac-called nuclei-to form the endosperm, after much division and redivision of cells.

The ovary, usually containing multiple seeds, develops into the fruit, which we sometimes call a vegetable, and which is often the end product of our gardening efforts. Examples are tomatoes and peppers.

Once the embryonic plant within the seed has formed completely, growth stops and the seed enters a period of dormancy during which, as mentioned earlier, the plant consumes minute amounts of energy from the stored endosperm, just enough to keep it on “hold.” The seed is alive, barely, but it should grow or develop no further until it is planted.

CHAPTER 4

Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials

Annuals

Let’s start with the easiest to grow, the annuals, those garden plants that can be grown from seed to maturity and then allowed to go to seed themselves, all within the span of one growing season.

Some plants that are grown as annuals in the average North American garden, such as tomatoes, peppers, and lima beans, are actually perennials in their native tropics.

Other annuals, such as spinach, lettuce, wheat, and some rye plants, may survive a mild winter after fall planting and produce seed in the spring as if they were biennials. Hardy annuals will produce more seed in mild-winter areas when planted in the fall and carried through the winter than when matured in extremely hot summer weather.

With these exceptions, annuals will bear seed the same year they are planted. They need no special pampering, only to be given their normal cultural requirements and to be planted early enough in the season to give them time to ripen seed before they are killed by frost

The common vegetables that are annuals include bean, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, corn, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, muskmelon, pea, pepper, pumpkin, most radishes, spinach, and squash. Annual flowers include calendula, cosmos, marigold, spider flower, sweet pea, and zinnia. Growing one of these annuals is the best starting point for most gardeners wishing to raise seeds.

If you are noted for a certain crop that does particularly well in your garden, try growing that one for seed first. Peas are a good example, or snap beans. Tomatoes are a good bet for first-time seed savers, too, though remember that hybrids should not be grown for seed. Many flower gardeners start by saving only marigold seeds.

To make your chances of success with vegetables even greater, make your choice from among the self-pollinating annuals, such as snap beans, lettuce, peas, and tomatoes. The term self-pollinated means that pollination occurs within each individual, and not from other plants. (More about this in the next chapter.) The reason for choosing a self-pollinating plant is that such plants do not depend on either the wind or insects for assistance in pollination. While insects sometimes do pollinate some of these self-pollinating plants, the problem of isolation, or separation of varieties to avoid crosses, is practically eliminated.

Biennials

Raising seed from biennial vegetables takes a little more persistence. These plants bear their edible crop the season they are planted, waiting until the second season to flower, produce seed, and wither away. Where cold in winter is severe, most biennial vegetables must be dug up in the fall and replanted in the spring. Some of them can be left in the garden and covered with a blanket of hay or leaves, and they will survive to grow seeds.

In all likelihood, you have probably thought of (and grown) these common biennials as annuals. They include beet, Brussels sprout, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, celeriac, celery, onion, parsley, parsnip, rutabaga, salsify, Swiss chard, and turnip.

During their second growing season, most biennials flower in the spring and ripen their seed in midsummer or late summer. The typical biennial flower grows on a sturdy stalk that originates in the root or leafy crown of the plant. Stalk formation may not be seen, but it is well underway by winter after the plant’s first growing season. For a plant to form a good strong seed stalk, the following conditions are usually necessary:

  1. The plant should be a mature, well-developed specimen. Small or immature plants may not form seed even if chilled.
  2. A chilling period of at least 30 to 60 days, with temperatures no higher than 40° to 50°F. (5° to 10°C.).
  3. Moderate weather prevailing during the period of new spring growth in the parent plant.

The biennials pose a new complication for the seed-grower. One must carry the vegetable over the winter in good enough condition so that it will flower and produce seed the following year.

This can be as simple as growing salsify, so hardy that a covering of hay or leaves will protect the roots in the garden during the worst of winters in the North. Or it can be as challenging as growing cauliflower, which in the North will not survive outdoors, and which cannot be stored in a root cellar. Cauliflower must be grown for one season outdoors, then transplanted into a cold frame or greenhouse for the winter. then planted outside again in the spring.

Biennial flowers like Canterbury-bells and foxglove overwinter in the garden.

Perennials

Perennials return year after year, growing from underground parts that live over the winter. Most perennials planted from seed will begin to produce seed themselves a year or two after planting. Rhubarb and asparagus are the most frequently grown perennial garden vegetables. There are scores of herbaceous perennial flowers like daylily, iris, delphinium, and peony. New varieties are developed by professional and amateur plant breeders using seeds. These improved varieties are then maintained as true clones of the parent plant using methods of vegetative propagation like division or root cuttings. Describing the techniques of vegetative propagation is beyond the scope of this book; an excellent source for this information is Lewis Hill’s Secrets of Plant Propagation (Garden Way Publishing, 1985).

CHAPTER 5

Pollination

The little boy had been well satisfied that storks brought babies into the world. But the boy’s father felt his son should know more than that, so he gave him a detailed account of the Facts of Life.

The next day the boy’s pal asked him where babies came from. “The stork brings them,” the boy explained. “But you should have heard the wild story my Dad tried to tell me last night.”

Beginning seed growers may share with that boy a desire for simplicity regarding pollination, but they will find nature uncooperative. There is not one simple method, but many. There are self pollinating flowers, those that cross with other flowers on the same plant, those that cross with others of the same variety, those that cross with other varieties, and many that cross with weeds. The variations seem endless. The seed grower must understand the pollination process of each of the species he or she raises for seeds, or the best efforts will prove futile.

Self-Pollination

A good starting point for understanding pollination (as well as for growing seeds) was suggested in the previous chapter. It’s the self pollinating species. All have what are known as perfect flowers,containing both male and female parts.

Such plants as these can be grown fairly close to other varieties of the same plant without fear of crossings, which result in unwanted variations from the parent plant.

The following species are generally self-pollinating:

Pea Cowpea Tomato Clarkia

Snap bean Endive Wheat Sweet pea

Soybean Oats Lettuce Snapdragon

Self-pollination results when the pollen of a flower fertilizes that same flower or another on the same plant.

Cross-Pollination

Cross- pollination results when the pollen from one flower fertilizes a flower on another plant. The pollen is carried either by the wind or by insects, usually bees.

Within this group there are many variations. Some cabbages, for example, have perfect flowers, but flowers that are self-sterile and thus require the pollen from other plants. This means that the seed grower must not plan to grow cabbage seed by carrying over just a single plant to set out in the spring.

The perfect flower, then, is found in species that cross-pollinate as well as those that self-pollinate. It is found in the orchard (apple, peach, pear, and plum) as well as in the vegetable garden (bean, carrot, celery, eggplant, radish, sweet potato, tomato, pepper, and okra) and the flower garden (sweet alyssum, nicotiana, petunia, salvia, and snapdragon).

Imperfect Flowers

There are certain other flowers that have functional stamens and nonfunctional pistils (called staminate or male flowers), and flowers with nonfunctional stamens and functional pistils (pistillate or femaleflowers). Both of these kinds of flowers are referred to as imperfect flowers.

When a plant has both staminate and Distillate flowers, it is called a monoecious plant (sweet corn, cucumber, cantaloupe, squash, pumpkin, and watermelon, as well as many members of the nut families, including chestnuts, filberts, pecans, and walnuts). When the staminate and Distillate flowers occur on different plants, they are called dioecious plants. Holly is probably the best known of this group, which also includes asparagus, date, and persimmon. Spinach produces male plants, female plants, and plants with both male and female flowers.

Some species, particularly in the Aster Family, have compound flowers with combinations of perfect/imperfect and fertile/ sterile florets. The single French marigold is an example in which the petal-like ray flowers are Distillate and the disk flowers in the center are perfect.

CHAPTER 6

Selecting Seed Parents

Selection of seed is the heart of any garden seed-saving program. If you are careful in choosing the seed that you save from your garden, you can not only perpetuate and multiply your garden plants, but also improve and refine them. Naturally, you will want to save seed from your best plants, since superior plants are more likely to produce seed that will grow into another generation of plants with the same desirable characteristics.

If you intend to save garden seed, don’t wait until fall to select the parent plants. Watch your plants throughout the growing season, keeping in mind the qualities you most want to encourage. To select the best plants, you need to know how they’ve performed all season long.

Consider the Whole Plant

It is the whole plant, rather than an isolated individual fruit, that you should consider in making your selection. For example, in choosing a tomato plant, you would want to save seed from a vine that bore many excellent fruits, not simply from one lone huge fruit that caught your eye on the edge of the patch.

The luscious, early-bearing plant that you’d choose first to eat is the one from which you should save seed. That’s not always easy to do, especially when the family is clamoring for the first sweet corn. Many gardeners who regularly save seed see enough of an improvement in the plants grown from the seed they select to make the sacrifice worthwhile. If you’re not particularly set on cultivating an early strain, though, preferring to select only for flavor or some other quality, or if the species is self-pollinating like tomato, then of course you can go ahead and feast on those very first fruits of your vegetable patch.

If you’re saving seed of root crops-carrot, beet, turnip, rutabaga, celeriac, parsnip, salsify-which are biennials, you’ll need to dig and store the roots over the winter unless you live in an area where winters are mild. Select the roots for desirable qualities as you pack them away, and then reselect from the stored roots in the spring, choosing for your prime seed stock those that have remained in good shape throughout the storage period. Persons saving potatoes for planting will make the same choices.

You’ll have the best luck with cabbage and other brassicas if you let them grow to eating size, or nearly so, before they go through the winter in your garden or cold cellar. Vegetable plants that winter over in an immature state don’t always flower and set seed reliably the following spring. Biennial flowers for seed harvest remain in the garden throughout their life cycle.

More Than One

If you intend to save seed from your garden each year, experts advise that you’d be wise to keep seeds from more than one plant of the same variety, even if you only need a few seeds, so that you maintain a broader genetic base for your garden improvement experiments. This is especially true of corn.

There are two exceptions to this rule. Self-pollinated plants such as beans and peas are inbred by nature, and thus all seeds could be saved from one plant without fear of deterioration. If healthy, productive plants are chosen, the seeds should improve in quality. The checklist on page 137 lists common seed-borne diseases to watch for. Rogue out (remove) all diseased seed plants. The second exception is with squashes and pumpkins. Seeds from one squash or pumpkin can be saved without any change in the quality of the plants the following year.

What About Hybrids?

Home gardeners are generally advised not to save seeds from hybrid crops. The offspring of hybrid plants, especially corn, are sometimes sterile. When they do bear fertile seed, that seed will produce plants unlike the parent plant. The product of a cross between hybrid plants often reverts to resemble one of its ancestors.

Since the reason for growing hybrid seed is usually the exceptional vigor to be found in the first generation after the cross, there would be little to gain from breeding hybrids back in the direction of their parent and grandparent plants. There’s certainly no harm in saving hybrid seed, though. If you like to experiment, go ahead and plant those seeds. Don’t expect great things of this second generation, but keep your eyes open and you might grow something you would enjoy. You shouldn’t depend on seed saved from a hybrid crop, though, if you want to be sure of harvesting what you need next year.

It’s a good idea to keep records, when saving seed, of the kind and number of plants from which you gathered seed, along with any other pertinent data such as yield or earliness notations for the parent plants. This will help you to evaluate the results of your seedsaving efforts after you have been following the practice for a few years.

Plant Qualities , There are many good qualities to look for when selecting plants from which to save seed. You’ll want to consider at least some of the following characteristics when choosing your parent plants:

  1. Flavor
  2. yield
  3. Vigor
  4. Color
  5. Size
  6. Storage life
  7. Disease resistance
  8. Insect resistance
  9. Early bearing (fruits, heads, flowers, etc.)
  10. Late in bolting to seed (lettuce, etc.)
  11. Good germination in poor weather
  12. Absence of thorns, spines, etc.
  13. Seeds-few and small in juicy fruits, large for sunflowers, tender for tomatoes.
  14. Texture, tenderness, juiciness
  15. Suitability for purpose. For example, a paste tomato should be dry and meaty. Flint corn should dry well. Kraut cabbage should be solid. Flowers for cutting should remain erect.
  16. Stature-tall, dwarf, intermediate
  17. Weather tolerance, drought resistance
  18. Aromatic appeal

CHAPTER 7

Collecting Seeds

Once you have selected the plants from which you intend to save seed, your first step is to identify the chosen plants so that they don’t accidentally end up in the soup pot or a flower arrangement before you’ve had a chance to harvest the seed you want. Some gardeners tie a bright cloth or yarn to their elite seed-producing individuals. Others mark the plant with a stake. Be sure that the rest of your family knows which plants should not be picked.

Timing

Your next concern will be to determine the right time to collect the seeds. Seed that is picked too early, before it has had time to mature, will not have had a chance to accumulate enough stored nourishment to get it off to a good start, or even to last it through the winter. Such seed will be likely to be thin and light in weight. It will be less likely to survive storage, to germinate well, or to produce strong seedlings.

So you want your seed to be well ripened before you pick it, but not so far along that it drops onto the ground or gets blown away by the wind.

Generally speaking, seed-bearing garden plants will fall into one of three groups, depending on how they ripen their fruit:

Plants with seeds encased in fleshy fruits, such as tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers. These soft fruits should be allowed to turn fairly ripe, even a bit overripe, before seed is collected. The fruits should be slightly soft, but they should not be so overripe that they begin to heat. It is also important not to allow the fruit to dry around the seed, or it may form a hard covering that will affect the storage life of the seed.

Seed crops, such as corn, wheat, beans, and others in which the seed is the edible part of the plant. Such plants usually hold their seeds for some time after they reach maturity, giving you a chance to do your collecting pretty much when you choose, as long as the seed has become thoroughly dry. Mature plants with dry seeds that tend to bend over in wind or rain may be cut and stacked in a dry place to cure and dry further before removing the seed.

Plants that shatter readily, scattering ripe seed as soon as it reaches maturity. Lettuce, onions, okra, and members of the Mustard Family, as well as many flowers, not only drop their mature seeds promptly as soon as they’re dry; they also tend to ripen seed gradually so that a single plant will usually have a good bit of unripe seed hanging on while matured seed is falling off.

To be sure of catching a good seed crop from such plants, you must either inspect them daily and collect ripe seed in small amounts in a paper bag as it becomes ready, or tie a ventilated paper bag over the seed head. The seed that will collect in the bag may still contain some immature specimens, but these can usually be winnowed out by pouring the seed from one container to another in a breeze. Some plants in this group, especially those of the Mustard Family, will need staking to support the seed stalk. When collecting most seeds, try to do the job on a dry, sunny day after dew has evaporated. However, seed from plants in group three above are often collected while damp to avoid seed loss. Although most of the seeds that you’ll harvest in the fall will not be hurt by the low temperature of a light frost, the frost can cause an accumulation of moisture that will lower seed quality.

To prevent confusion, label each batch of seeds as soon as possible after collecting, especially if you’re saving more than one variety of a species, such as several varieties of tomatoes or peppers or several different members of the Mustard Family, whose seeds are much alike.

CHAPTER 8

Exacting and Drying Seeds

Your first job, after collecting seed-containing fruits such as tomatoes, peppers, squash, and melons, is to separate the seed from the pulp. Scrape out the seedy part of the fruit and save the rest of the overripe flesh for your hens or put it on the compost pile. It’s a good idea to let the tomato seeds and pulp ferment for three or four days, to help control bacterial canker. To do this, spoon the seedy tomato pulp into a jar, add about 1/4 cup of water, and watch, over the next few days, as the lightweight pulp and worthless seeds rise to the top and the heavier, good seeds sink to the bottom.

Some gardeners allow cucumber and melon seeds to ferment, too, using the same procedure. You can also fork out the seeds and wash them.

For squash and pumpkins, separate the seeds from the pulp, wash them thoroughly to remove all traces of vegetable matter, and spread them out to dry. Large seeds should dry for five to six days. Smaller ones may be ready in three or four days.

Peas, beans, soybeans, and limes are usually removed from the dry pods by threshing. Don’t be too rough on these seeds, though. Internal injuries to the seed are more likely with machine processing, but they can happen when force is used to remove seeds from their husks. Damage to the seed may not be noticeable, but if the embryonic stem or root is bruised, the seed may germinate poorly or produce stunted seedlings.

Seed of lettuce, sunflower, dill, calendula, and other plants that are picked dry may be shaken through a screen of hardware cloth to sift out chaff.

Further removal of undesirable lightweight seeds and stem and leaf parts, as well as pulp, may be accomplished by floating them off. When you put the seeds in water, the chaff, “dud” seeds, and pulp will rise to the top and the good seeds will sink to the bottom. Seeds other than tomatoes that you treat in this way should be promptly spread out for drying.

Moisture Content

As already mentioned, excess moisture in the seed will lower its quality. Seed that is not dry enough when stored will keep poorly and have a low percentage of germination. A moisture content of over 20 percent will cause bulk-stored seed to heat. Most seeds fare best when stored with a moisture content of 8 to 15 percent. It is important to thoroughly dry all seed that you will store-even already dry-looking seeds like dill and carrot.

You won’t be able to tell the exact moisture content of the seed under home conditions, of course, but you can give your seeds a long, thorough drying period before you store them, and that should be enough. The important thing to remember is not to package any harvested seed until it has had at least a few days of further air drying after being removed from the plant. The larger the seed, the longer the drying period required.

Most seeds, in most climates, will dry adequately for home storage if spread on paper towels or newspapers in an airy place for a week. They should be turned and possibly spread on fresh dry paper (depending on the kind of seed) several times during that period.

If you were forced to collect your seed during damp weather, or if you live in a humid climate, you might want to use gentle heat to dry some of your seeds like corn and other grains. Such heat must be regulated, though, so that it never rises above 100°F. (38°C.), and 90°F. (32°C.) is preferable. Too-rapid drying can cause shrinking and cracking of the seed and formation of a hard, impervious, and undesirable seed coat. Drying at too high a temperature will adversely affect the viability and vigor of the seed.

A far safer method of hastening the drying process is to spread the seed in the sun, on screens or on a flat roof or pavement, for a day or two of intensive drying.

Many seed savers use silica gel (available at many pharmacies or at camera supply, craft, or hardware stores) as a seed desiccant. Enclose the air-dried seeds in a tight container with an equal weight of silica gel. Most silica gel is treated to turn color when it has absorbed its maximum of moisture. The silica gel can be redried in the oven for reuse.

Once the seeds have been dried, do not allow them to sit around in the open air, or they will reabsorb moisture from the ambient humidity.

CHAPTER 9

Storing Seeds

Now that you’ve grown, selected, picked, and dried your seeds, it’s time to store them. Improperly dried seeds may deteriorate drastically over the winter. If you’re counting on home-saved seed for your spring plantings, or trying to carry on an heirloom strain of a certain vegetable, the loss of a year’s crop of seed can be disastrous.

Seeds, you remember, carry on their basic life processes even while dormant, but at a very low rate. The moisture they absorb from the air combines with stored nourishment to form a soluble food, which then combines with oxygen from the air to release carbon dioxide, water, and heat.

Since your seeds are exchanging elements and gases with the atmosphere while they are dormant, your aim in storing them should be to confine those exchanges to the minimum necessary to sustain life in the seed. That means avoiding any stimulation that would encourage the seed to speed up its metabolism, or that would deteriorate the embryo. So your stored seeds must be protected from moisture and heat, as well as from insects and other animals that would like to eat them.

Moisture

Let’s consider moisture first. As mentioned above, the presence of moisture triggers the formation of soluble compounds in the plant. Too much moisture in the air will cause the seed to burn up its stored food at too fast a rate, producing excess heat which further lowers the seed’s ability to germinate.

How much dampness is too much? Seeds differ, according to their variety, in their ability to absorb water from the air, even under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Beans, peas, and cereals (including corn) should contain no more than 13 percent moisture for safe storage. Soybeans should have a little less-12.5 percent-and peanuts and most other vegetables even less moisture-around 9 percent, with 4 to 6 percent being considered ideal for long-term storage.

According to seed expert Dr. James Harrington, each 1 percent reduction in seed moisture, under 14 percent but not below 5 percent, doubles the life expectancy of most vegetable seeds. Lowering the moisture content below 1 to 2 percent impairs the viability of the seed. You’re not likely to get your seeds that dry unless you apply artificial heat. Even though we home gardeners have no way of accurately determining a seed’s moisture content, we can use these figures as a guide.

Once the seed has been dried for storage, it should be kept as dry as possible. If seeds are allowed to become damp after the initial drying, they will lose some of their longevity, even if redried. Sealed, moisture-proof containers such as cans and jars are the best place to keep your seeds, but only if the seed is good and dry before it is put away. Damp seeds, stored in covered containers, deteriorate more quickly than dry ones in open storage.

Silica gel can be used in the permanent storage container- equal parts by weighs of seeds and silica. Many gardeners place seed in well-marked paper envelopes and store them in tight containers with the silica gel loose on the bottom.

Temperature

Storage temperature also affects the keeping quality of seeds. Most seeds can tolerate cold and even freezing conditions that would kill the parent plant, sometimes as low as 0°F. (-18°C.), as long as they are thoroughly dry. Excess moisture in a seed that is subjected to freezing temperatures may freeze and damage the seed.

Dr. Harrington has found that, at 70 percent relative humidity or lower, it is possible to double the life of the seed for each 9°F. (5°C.) decrease in temperature within the range of 32° to 112°F. (0° to 44.5°C.)

It follows, then, that heat-especially when combined with high humidity-is the enemy of seed quality. High temperatures not only speed up the seed’s rate of internal chemistry; they also promote activity of fungi, bacteria, and insects that further impair the seed’s viability by adding heat from their respirations and sometimes by excreting chemicals or other by-products that harm the embryo or soften the seed coat.

Fungi thrive in 13 to 16 percent moisture at temperatures of 85° to 95°F. (30° to 35°C.) They slow down at 70°F. (21°C.) and barely exist at 50°F (10°C.) Different bacteria thrive at different temperatures, but all of them need a moisture content of 18 percent or so to do much damage. So, to discourage these microorganisms, keep your stored seeds dry and cool.

Long-term storage in the refrigerator or freezer is your best bet, so long as the moisture content of the seed is low and the container that you use is vapor-proof. When removing seeds from cold storage, leave the container closed while the seeds warm to room temperature, or condensation will form on the seeds.

Insects

Invasive insects may be kept out by storing seeds in tightly closed containers. If insect eggs are already present in seeds, they may be discouraged by maintaining a temperature no higher than 40° to 50°F. (5° to 10°C.), at which level most insects that would be likely to affect the seed would be relatively inactive. Freezing, of course, destroys or totally immobilizes insects.

From the preceding sections, you can see that the viability of a seed, far from being an absolute value, depends heavily on conditions of storage-not only during the first year, but throughout the life of the seed. For example, onion seed, usually considered to be short lived, has been kept for up to 12 years when dry and well sealed, but it goes bad in a few months when stored at high temperatures in a damp place.

Points to Remember

To obtain the best results with your stored garden seeds, you will want to do the following:

  1. Store only thoroughly dried seed.
  2. Don’t allow seed to become damp after the initial drying.
  3. Keep the storage temperature as low as possible.
  4. Keep the storage area as dry as possible, especially if the temperature is below freezing.
  5. Label all containers with variety, date, and any other pertinent information about the strain you’re saving.
  6. If you keep seed in envelopes, store the whole collection in a tightly covered lard can, large mayonnaise jar (often available from restaurants), or other sealed container.
  7. Peas and beans are best stored in bags rather than in airtight containers.
  8. If you keep seeds for more than one year, be sure to protect them as much as possible from heat and dampness during the summer.

From these guidelines, you can see that an ideal place for storing seed is your refrigerator or freezer.

The refrigerator, too, is an excellent place to store those commercial seeds left over from summer gardening activities. Place the envelopes of seeds in a canning jar and cap it.

CHAPTER 10

Testing Seeds

The home seed grower will want to provide ideal storage conditions for the seed so that germination rates will be high when the seeds are planted, and so that the seeds can be carried over for more than one year. For example, one should be able to grow a supply of carrot seeds that will last for several years, having gone to the trouble of spending two years in getting the supply. In this way one can make more profitable use of both land and time.

Germination Test

The sure test of success in storing seeds is the germination test. This test can be made indoors, before the regular growing season begins, and thus you can avoid the possibly unprofitable use of land in testing the seed. A good germination test provides seeds with ideal conditions of moisture, air, temperature, and light (or darkness). A good general method is to randomly select 10 to 100 seeds of the lot to be checked. Spread the seeds out on a damp paper towel. Place a slip of paper with the date and variety name penciled on it with the seeds. Roll up the towel, make it thoroughly moist, and seal it in a polyethylene bag (pervious to air, but not to water vapor). There should not be a puddle of water in the bag. Place the bag in a warm area (approximately 70°F., or 21°C.). Check occasionally to make sure that the towel remains damp. The same bag can be used to hold several towels.

Some seeds such as radishes will germinate in as little as three days, but many will take as long as a week, and some herb seeds take even longer. Be guided by the directions for growing the particular plant.

When the seeds have sprouted, it’s time to make your count. Divide the number of seeds germinated by the total number tested, and the result is the percentage of germination. (For example, if you tested 50 seeds and 45 germinated, divide 45 by 50 and the answer is .90, or 90 percent.)

The answer you get can be useful in two ways:

  1. It tells you whether your seeds are worth planting.
  2. If they are, it gives you an indication of how thickly you should plant them, with a heavier planting indicated if the percentage is low.

For some plants, like peas, the germination test seedlings can be planted in the garden. Your germination tests will most likely take place before the normal growing season (and thus, growing conditions may not favor other crops), but peas are often planted earlier than other vegetables anyway.

Getting Started

You have now completed the basic reading on growing and saving seeds. School’s out. It’s recess time. Time to get into the garden, to make mistakes and learn from them, to grow and harvest your own seeds, and to experience the rich sense of satisfaction that is in store for you.

Part II of this book deals with growing specific vegetables for seeds. You would expect, perhaps, that it would be written from A to Z. beginning with asparagus, and ending with that prolific friend of all gardeners, the zucchini.

Instead, it’s broken down by those various botanical families with the unpronounceable names. Why? Simply because it is easier to understand about growing seeds if all members of a family are considered together. There’s much in common, for example, about growing cabbages and broccoli and Brussels sprouts, so much of the material doesn’t have to be repeated if they are put together.

Part III covers annual and biennial flowers. These are arranged alphabetically by their accepted common names. All scientific names are based on Hortus Third, the primary authority on horticultural nomenclature in North America, and on the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Don’t be afraid to wander back into the preceding “schoolroom” pages occasionally. You’ll probably want to refer to this basic information over and over as you get started in seed saving.

TABLE I

Characteristics of CommonVegetables Saved for Seed

            Seed
        Life Cycle  Viability*   How    Need
Vegetable   Page    for Seeds   [Years)  Pollinated Isolation

Asparagus   58  Perennial   3   Insect  Yes
Bean    98  Annual  3   Self    Limited
Beet    68  Biennial    4   Wind    Yes
Broccoli    80  Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Brussels Sprouts    81  Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Cabbage 75  Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Carrot  104 Biennial    3   Insect  Yes
Cauliflower 81  Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Celeriac    108 Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Celery  109 Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Chinese Cabbage 82  Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Chive   60  Perennial   2   Insect  Yes
Corn, Sweet 54  Annual  1-2 Wind    Yes
Cowpea  102 Annual  3   Self    Limited
Cucumber    126 Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Eggplant    112 Annual  5   Self    Limited
Garlic  61  Annual      See listing No
Horseradish 89  Perennial       See listing No
Jerusalem Artichoke  134        Perennial       See listing No
Kale    85  Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Kohlrabi    85  Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Leek    61  Biennial    3   Insect  Yes
Lettuce 131 Annual  5   Self    Limited
Lima Bean   101 Annual  3   Self    Limited
Muskmelon   128 Annual  5   Insect  Yes
New Zealand Spinach 74  Annual  5   Wind        Yes
Okra    103 Annual  2   Self    Limited
Onion   63  Biennial    1-2 Insect  Yes
Parsley 110 Biennial    2   Insect  Yes
Parsnip 111 Biennial    1-2 Insect  Yes
Pea 95  Annual  3   Self    Limited
Peanut  98  Annual  1-2 Self    Limited
Pepper  114 Annual  4   Self    Limited
Popcorn 57  Annual  1-2 Wind    Yes
Potato  116 Annual      Self    No
Pumpkin 126 Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Radish  90  Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Rhubarb 66  Perennial       See listing No
Rutabaga    88  Biennial    5   Insect  Yes
Salsify 134 Biennial    2   Self    No
Soybean 102 Annual  3   Self    Limited
Spinach 72  Annual  5   Wind    Yes
Squash, Summer  120 Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Squash, Winter  120 Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Swiss Chard 71  Biennial    4   Wind    Yes
Tomato  116 Annual  4   Self    Limited
Turnip  87  Annual  5   Insect  Yes
Watermelon  130 Annual  5   Insect  Yes

*As reported byauthorities. Ideal storage techniques can significantly prolong seed viability.

Monocolytedoneae

The monocotyledons or monocots, are a subclass of plants that share the common characteristic of having only one seed leaf (see p. 12). The monocotyledons include the members of the Grass Family and the lily Family.

Poaceae

GRASS FAMILY

The members of this family are found throughout the world, and they include all of our cereals, the grasses of our lawns and pastures, the beelike bamboos, the sugar cane that produces so much of our sugar-and many of our weeds.

The most popular member of this family found in our vegetable gardens is corn, one of the New World’s greatest contributions to agriculture,

Don’t be afraid to try corn, just because some method of isolation may have to be used to keep the seed from being the result of a cross. It’s possible to get both earlier corn and bettertasting corn by raising your own seeds. Remember to save for seed the earliest corn that is well developed and has full-grained ears.

CORN, SWEET (Zea mays var. rugosa). Annual. Monoecious. Has male (the tassel) and female (ears) flowers on each plant. W.mdpollinated.

Grow only standard (open-pollinated, not hybrid) varieties for seed. These include Golden Midget (yellow, early), Golden Bantam (very sweet, yellow, midseason), Country Gentleman (white, late, and does not have regular rows of kernels), and Stowell’s Evergreen (white, late).

Plant in hills (start six seeds per hill, cut back to three plants per hill) or rows (final spacing, 12 inches). Corn is a hungry crop. Furnish plenty of nitrogen-rich fertilizer to provide for the healthy plants that will produce the best seeds. Pollination will be better if planting is in four or more adjacent rows.

To maintain variety purity, ears to be saved for seed must be isolated. Remember that sweet corn will cross with popcorn, flint corn, and field corn as well as with other varieties of sweet corn. Three ways to isolate corn are:

By distance. The distance downwind from the nearest crop of a different variety is most important. A distance of 1,000 feet between varieties is recommended for absolute purity, though 250 feet is far enough if some crossing can be tolerated.

By time. Make certain the yellow pollen of the other varieties is not being spread when the silk of the corn to be saved is developing. Planting seeds at different times may achieve this.

By isolating the developing ears to be saved. If there are gardens near yours, this is the only reliable system for the gardener saving seeds. Obtain a supply of bags that are water-resistant, but not plastic. One should be placed over each ear to be saved, before the silk can be seen. Tie it in place. You may have to replace bags one or more times as rains disintegrate them.

When the pollen can be seen on the tassels, cut off one. Remove the bag from an ear on a different plant, and rub the silk with the tassel. Then replace the bag. Do this to all of the ears being saved.

These ears must be protected from unwanted pollen until the sink turns brown. After the bags are removed, tie pieces of woolen yarn around the ears to be saved, to identify them so they will not be gathered and eaten with the rest of the crop.

No matter how modest your demands for seed, treat at least 12 to 15 ears in this fashion. This will permit you to rogue (discard) any ears with undesirable traits and to save seeds with a broad genetic background, thus avoiding unwanted inbreeding.

The gardener should inspect both plants and ears before selecting the ears to be saved. One may wish to save the earliest ears, those from plants with the greatest productivity, or those that show a resistance to very dry conditions. Choosing the fullest, most perfect ears from the earliest-bearing plants is recommended.

The ears should be left on the plants about a month later than the remainder of the crop picked for eating. While frost will not damage the seed if the ears are dry and mature, the ears should be picked before hard freezes, which could reduce the percentage of germination. Further drying will be necessary. Strip back the husks, then tie or braid several ears together. Hang them up in your home. They will dry and, at the same time, provide a rustic decoration during the holiday season.

Shelling is a splendid job for winter evenings. It involves twisting off the kernels and discarding the ones at the end of the ear that are not completely developed.

Since corn is usually considered viable for only one to two years, most gardeners will find it wise to raise seed corn annually.

POPCORN (Zea maysvar. praecox). Follow directions for sweet corn. Remember that, as with sweet corn, there are both hybrid and open pollinated varieties; select the latter for seed saving. Japanese Hulless and Strawberry are two popular varieties.

Shelling popcorn can injure the hands. Try rubbing the ears against one another to make the shelling easier.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxLiliaceae

LILY FAMILY

The Easter lily and the many other lilies that decorate our flower gardens and homes belong to this family, and so do tulips, the tiny lily-of-the-valley, and, most important for vegetable gardeners, the onion and asparagus.

Growing asparagus from seeds takes time, but certainly is possible. Four other members of this family are excellent for the beginner who wishes to experiment with propagation. Success is almost assured. Garlic is foolproof, since no seeds are involved. There are no isolation problems with leeks or chives, and both of these, as well as onions, are tolerant about storage conditions, with leeks and chives remaining in the ground, and onions needing only a cool, dry storage place, between the first and second year of growth.

ASPARAGUS (Asparagus officinalis). Perennial. Dioecious (male and female plants). Pollinated by insects.

Raising asparagus from seed requires patience. The crop cannot be harvested for three years, or one more than is required if roots are planted.

Female plants produce red berries, which should be gathered in the fall before the first frost. If you are handling small quantities, put the berries in a cloth bag, then crush them by stepping on the bag. Put the mass of seed-pulp into a pail or bowl of water and wash it. The pulp and unwanted light seeds will float to the top and should be discarded. The seeds at the bottom are saved. Dry them for several days by spreading them out and turning them over occasionally, then store them.

Take advantage of advances in the development of varieties by selecting seeds from the rust-resistant Mary Washington or Martha

Washington varieties. While bees do carry the asparagus pollen, unwanted cross-pollination is rarely a problem for the home gardener because of the few varieties grown. Commercial growers strive for a mile between plantings to assure purity.

CHIVE (Allium schoenoprasum). Perennial. Pollinated by bees. The chive makes a decorative plant for flower gardens and borders with its tiny rose-purple flowers. If flowers and seed are desired, the clumps of chives, of course, cannot be cut back for use in the kitchen. The seed, black and smaller than onion seed, should be harvested when it can be seen, so it will not be lost through shattering. Home

gardeners need not worry about undesirable cross-pollination. For harvesting, drying, and storing, see Onion. Chives are also easily propagated by division of clumps.

GARLIC (Allium sativam). Garlic is propagated by dividing the bulbs and planting the individual cloves.

LEEK (Allium ampeloprasum, Porrum Group). Biennial. Pollinated by bees. Seeds form in the second year.

Plants are cultivated as for harvesting the first year. Even in northern climates the plants do not have to be stored, but may be left in the

ground. The fall period is an excellent time for the home gardener to rogue out (and eat) the less desirable plants, marking the best for seed production. If you fear the plants will not survive the winter, hill them up with soil, or mulch them with hay or leaves. The second year, the individual plants will send up single stalks four to five feet high, each capped with an enormous ball (it’s an umber, composed of hundreds of flowers). Pick the umbels in the fall, and dry them well. The seeds are contained in capsules, and brisk rubbing of the heads is needed to extract the seeds. For other harvesting and drying details, see Onion.

ONION (Allium cepa). Biennial. Pollinated by bees. Coal-black seed forms in the second year.

To insure purity of variety, onions must be isolated from other varieties in their second year of growth by a distance of a quarter mile. However, the gardener need not worry about onions being grown for eating (and thus in the first year of growth), since cross-pollination can only occur between flowering plants.

Like onions being grown for home consumption, onions being grown for seed may be started from seeds, sets, or plants. There are two methods of growing them:

Bulb-to-seed. Most home gardeners will practice this method, growing onions as they would for eating: harvesting and storing them, then replanting them the second year. This gives the gardener an opportunity to select the best onions for planting the following year, and roguing out for eating the ones with such undesirable traits as thick necks or double-onions. This method is used in milder climates, where onions are planted in the fall, harvested the following year, rogued, and immediately replanted; as well as in colder areas, where the onions are planted as early in the spring as possible, harvested and rogued in the fall, stored in a cool (32° to 40°F. or 0° to 5°C.), dry room, then replanted as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring.

Seed-to-seed. This method means planting seed and letting plants remain in soil through the second year until the seeds are harvested. This reduces the labor involved, and the expense, and is better for those onions that do not store well, such as some of the sweet onions.

When using the first method, the onions should be planted (in the second year) three to four inches apart, in rows three feet apart. They will send up stalks as high as four feet, capped by the flowers that produce the seeds. For the second method, thin the onions the second year to three to four inches apart in rows three feet apart.

Some experts advise making a cut down into the top of the onion before replanting it, to hasten the development of the stalk. There is general agreement that the larger onion produces more seed.

The heads should be watched from midsummer on. When the black seeds can be seen, start the harvest, cutting off the seed heads and a piece of the stem. Several cuttings may be required, since all seeds will not be ready for harvesting at the same time. Do not save seed from precocious bolters. Dry the heads, then flail them to remove the seeds. If there is a great deal of debris in the seeds, place them in water, so that the debris will float, while the seeds sink. Do not allow seeds to soak for any length of time. Dry them well and store them.

Dicolyledoneae

The dicotyledons or dicots, are plants having two cotyledons or seed leaves (see p. 12). They include most of the common vegetables, except asparagus, onions (and onion relatives), and corn.

Polygonaceae
BUCKWHEAT OR RHUBARB FAMILY

This family includes two members of particular interest to the home gardener.

One is buckwheat, which may be grown, not to harvest, but to till under to improve the soil. Raising two consecutive crops of

buckwheat in a garden is an excellent way to discourage future weed growth. The buckwheat should be turned under not later than the flowering stage to avoid an unwanted future crop.

The second important member of this family for the home gardener is rhubarb.

RHUBARB (Rheum rhabarbarum). Perennial. Cross-pollinated. Pollinated by insects. Grows best in northern states.

Propagation by division of the crown is strongly recommended, since seeds may not produce plants that are true to the variety.

When planning a bed of rhubarb, select a site that will not interfere with production of annual crops in your garden. Along one side of the garden is preferred. Soil should be prepared by the addition of compost, plant foods, or manure. In early spring, dig up the crown of a large parent plant, cut off several chunks for propagating, then replant the original plant. The crowns cut off should be placed about four feet apart, at the same depth as they were found on the parent plant. Six plants will provide ample rhubarb for a family.

Those who wish to try saving rhubarb seeds should let the tall center stalk of the plant grow in the summer. Cut off the top of the stalk when the seeds are mature (dry and flaky), then separate and dry the seeds. Plant them the following spring, thinning them to three to four inches apart when they emerge from the soil. The following spring, select plants wanted for production, and replant them four feet apart in rows six feet apart.

Dividing existing plants is preferable to growing rhubarb from seed, since it not only ensures you will get the variety you want, but because it benefits the original (mother) plant, which can continue to produce vigorously for as long as 20 years. If you are not growing rhubarb for seed, be sure to cut back the seed stalk, to conserve the food supply of the plant for greater stalk production the following year.

Chenopodiaceae
GOOSEFOOT FAMILY

The three members of the Goosefoot Family described below vary considerably in the work that is involved in obtaining seed from them. Spinach is all too eager to go to seed, and does so the same year it is planted. The home gardener must wait two years for seed from Swiss chard, but growing it is relatively easy, since throughout the United States chard is hardy enough to remain in the garden through the winter, in colder climates asking only for a winter coat of mulch for protection. Beets, also biennial, are more difficult to raise for seed since, in all but the most moderate of climates, the beets must be gathered and stored for the winter. For the beginning seed saver, spinach is a good vegetable to try, particularly if the problems of isolation are not insurmountable. The growing of beet seeds, however, is best left to the more experienced seed grower.

BEET (Beta vulgaris, Crassa Group). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Cross-pollinated, with extremely light pollen often carried for miles by winds.

The beet produces the familiar rosette of leaves the first year, but the second year produces a seed stalk several feet high. This has branches, along which tiny blossoms appear, followed by the beet seed”-actually corky seed balls containing enough seeds to produce up to six plants.

Here are two methods for growing beet seeds, which are also used for many of the other biennial vegetables:

Root-to-seed. Home gardeners, particularly in the North, should try this method, growing the beets as if for the kitchen, but planting them later in the season, so the beets reach only a moderate size (one to two inches in diameter) at fall harvesting time. During the

growing season, plants with undesirable traits such as poor leaf quality should be pulled, and the thinnings used for beet greens.

In the fall, the beets should be pulled. The beets with the most desirable characteristics in terms of color, shape, and size should be saved for seed plants, with the remainder used for eating. The tops of those saved for seed should be cut, but not closer than one inch from the top of the beets. Handle the beets carefully; damaged beets will rot. About half a dozen beets will provide more than enough seeds for home needs, but you will want to save more than this, in case some of them do not winter-over well.

Many storage systems are effective. Ideal temperatures are 40° to 50°F. (5° to 10°C.), or about what is found in many “unheated” basements or root cellars.

Try storing beets in a box, placing a layer of fresh sawdust or sand in the bottom, adding a layer of beets, then another layer of sawdust or sand, and continuing until the box is full. Any storage system should provide some moisture, since a dry, shriveled beet will produce few or no seeds.

In the spring, as soon as the soil can be worked, the beets should be set out, crowns planted barely beneath the soil, with the beets spaced two feet apart in rows three feet apart.

Seed-to-seed. This method requires less work than the previous method and doesn’t require storing the beets; on the other hand, the gardener does not have the opportunity to select the best roots for propagation, and the method can be used only in mild climates, since beets are not cold-hardy. Seeds are planted in August to September, with the earlier dates used in the less mild areas, and for slower-growing varieties. Beets get first-year growth in the fall, and can be mulched if the gardener knows such protection is needed. In the second year, the beets should be thinned to permit a space of two feet between plants, in rows three feet apart. Most gardeners who have raised beets only for eating and have never seen the second-year growth, are surprised at the height, width, and quality of this seed-stalk growth.

Don’t attempt seed crops of both beets and Swiss chard in the same season. The two will cross (and both will cross with sugar beets). You can, of course, have first-year crops of both, or a seed crop of one and a first-year crop of the other. Similarly, you should not attempt seed crops of more than one variety of either beets or Swiss chard in the same year. Commercial growers strive for at least a mile’s distance between seed crops of Swiss chard and beets, or between different varieties of either vegetable. The home gardener, of course, cannot plan for such spaciousness, but can take comfort in the knowledge that few home gardeners grow either Swiss chard or beets as biennials for seed, and thus the chances of stray airborne pollen causing unwanted cross-pollination are relatively small. Because both beet and Swiss chard seeds will remain viable for four or more years if given reasonable treatment, the gardener can alternate years in growing these two vegetables for seed, and thus always have enough seed for home use.

When some of the seeds have reached maturity (they will be brown), cut the entire plants at ground level and hang them upside down in a dry, protected area such as a garage or barn. When the plants are dry, seed balls are easily stripped by hand from the branches. If only a few beets are being raised for seeds, a convenient method for collecting the seeds straight from the garden is to bend each stalk into a large grocery bag and strip off the seeds that are brown and mature. This can be repeated later when more seeds have matured.

If considerable debris is stripped off with the seed balls, the seeds should be cleaned by winnowing. Use a wooden salad bowl for this, placing the seed in the bowl on a breezy day, then tossing the seed gently into the air until the lighter chaff has blown away.

SWISS CHARD (Beta ualgaris, Cicla Group). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Cross-pollinated, by wind.

Swiss chard and beets are very similar, except that Swiss chard is grown for its foliage, while beets are grown for their roots and, increasingly, for the immature plant, from which both roots and foliage are eaten.

Gardeners can grow Swiss chard by either method listed under beets. There is one big difference, though: Swiss chard is extremely hardy, so there is no need to dig up and store the plants as described under Method 1. The plants are left in the ground (in extremely cold areas, they can be heavily mulched after the first few frosts), then dug up and transplanted in the spring, at about one foot apart in rows three feet apart. Since the foliage is the part of Swiss chard that is eaten, the gardener need not inspect the roots when roguing out undesirable plants. For this reason, many home gardeners may favor Method 2. It may be necessary to stake up the seed stalks as they reach maturity.

Gardeners should be aware that there are both white-stemmed and red-stemmed varieties of Swiss chard. The latter is often called “rhubarb chard.” While the two varieties taste alike, many gardeners choose it because of its greater ornamental value.

SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea). Annual. Cross-pollinated. Pollen carried by wind.

The various curiosities found in the reproductive patterns of plants are well illustrated in the spinach plant. Within one row in your garden you may find four distinct types of plants. The one most desired for both harvesting and seed production is the monoecious plant, which bears both male and female flowers (see p. 25). Satisfactory, too, are the female plant, having only Distillate flowers, and with foliage that is fine for harvesting, and the vegetative male, with staminate flowers and edible foliage. Unwanted and discarded as soon as they are recognized are the extreme male plants, smaller than the others and having staminate flowers and few or no leaves.

The tendency to produce seed early, a desired characteristic in many vegetables, is not wanted in spinach, since the emergence of the seed stalk marks the end of the crop as a desirable food plant. Thus, the early bolters in your rows should be eliminated, in an attempt to harvest seed that doesn’t have this characteristic. Seed should be harvested from among the plants that were the last to bolt.

Sow seeds of this cold-hardy plant in early spring, or, in milder climates, in the fall, with growth completed the following spring. Plant the seeds in rows two feet apart. As the plants reach about six inches in height, you should, in one operation, weed the seed row to insure good growth, rogue out the stunted male plants (and any others with an undesirable appearance), and thin the plants to about six inches apart, reserving those thinnings for dinner that evening At least one more roguing will be needed to eliminate the plants that bolt early.

Spinach bolts when temperatures rise and days grow longer. The flowers may not be recognized as such, since, not having to attract insects, they lack petals. As the plants turn yellow, the seeds are reaching maturity. They may be gathered by pulling the plants, then stripping the seeds from the stalk with your hands.

Maintaining purity of variety in spinach can be nearly impossible in some home gardens, particularly where many varieties are being grown by neighbors and allowed to bolt, thus spreading the

dust like pollen over a vast area. If there are only a few gardeners in your immediate area, perhaps you can get your neighbors to agree on a variety that everyone will grow. Otherwise the chances of growing a pure strain are slight; the seed grower can only rogue out any undesirable plants that grow the following year from the seed he has

grown, and expect to purchase commercially grown seed and try again after a few years.

Tetragoniaceae
NEW ZEALAND SPINACH FAMILY

This family consists of over 50 herbs and small shrubs, including one common vegetable, New Zealand spinach.

NEW ZEALAND SPINACH (Tetragonia expanse).. Wind pollinated.

This delightful substitute for spinach will grow and prosper in temperatures that would make spinach bolt.

Since the time required to produce seed is long, start plants indoors in a cold frame. Plant outside when all danger of frost is past, 18 inches apart in rows spaced three feet apart. Plants bolt slowly. Flowers develop first at the bottom of the plant, continuing on up the plant

New Zealand Spinach develops seed pods containing several seeds each. As they mature, they will shatter. Before this happens, cut the plants and place them on a canvas to cure. They can be shaken to dislodge the seed, and the seed can then be gathered.

Brassicaceae
MUSTARD OR CABBAGE FAMILY
(Surface Crops)

The gardener attempting to raise seed of members of the Mustard or Cabbage Family faces two main problems:

Isolation. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi will all cross with each other if any of them are flowering at the same time. The rule for the gardener should be to have only one of these flowering at a time if one is saving the seed. Similarly you can expect trouble if one of these brassicas is flowering at the same time in a neighbor’s garden within 100 yards of your own. Crossing can be expected, too, if two varieties of cabbages are raised within 100 yards of each other.

The flowers are pollinated chiefly by bees. As a rule, bees will not go from one type of plant to another while collecting honey, preferring to collect from only one source, such as apple blossoms or goldenrod, at a time. But in the case of the brassicas, the Mustard Family, the bees do not differentiate between broccoli and cabbage, or any of the others, and will gather from all at the same time.

Commercial growers strive for much more than 100 yards between varieties or between the various members of this family, with one mile given as the minimum distance. Such a distance is impractical for most home gardeners to duplicate.

Biennials. The second problem associated with growing these vegetables for seed is that all of them except broccoli are biennials, requiring two growing seasons to produce seeds, and thus the plants have to be carried through a winter. This can be difficult, particularly in northern areas, and is most difficult with cauliflower.

CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea, Capitata Group). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by bees. May be self-sterile.

Cabbages grown for seed have the usual head the first year, and in the second produce a seed stem with branches. The stem may grow as high as five feet, and should be staked for support. Leaves, much smaller than first-year cabbage leaves, and bright yellow flowers grow on the stem and the many branches. Pods develop, containing

up to 20 seeds each. When the pods turn yellow, the seeds are mature. While an individual plant may produce as much as one-half pound of seed, the gardener should raise at least six cabbage plants for seed. Some of the plants may be self-sterile, so a quantity of seeds can be guaranteed only by raising several plants. Cabbage requires a cool period between the two growing seasons to force bolting. The period, studies have shown, can range from about 30 days at temperatures below 50°F. (10°C.) to 60 days at 60°F. (15°C.) or below.

Two methods of growing seed crops are practiced commercially, and can also be used by the home gardener:

Seed-to-seed method. Plants remain in place for two seasons, from the original planting until the seed crop has been harvested. If winter temperatures in your area seldom go below 10°F. (-12°C.), try this method, since it involves less work and avoids the trouble of storing the cabbages through the winter. Plants can be spaced about two feet apart in rows four feet apart, with the small cabbage varieties planted more closely than this.

Time the planting so that the head of the cabbage will not be completely formed at the time of heavy frosts. At this time, shovel soil around the cabbages, three-quarters of the way up the plant’s height. This soil can be pulled away from the plants in the spring as soon as the soil can be worked. The uncovered plants will be hardy enough to withstand frosts and even late snows.

A common practice is to slash an inch-deep X across the top of the head, to hasten the emergence of the seed stalk.

When this stalk appears, a stake capable of supporting the fivefoot stalk should be driven in beside the plant, and the stalk tied to it. One drawback of this system is that the gardener will tend to raise seed from all the cabbages that survive the winter. One must be particularly alert to rogue out any with undesirable characteristics, to avoid a gradual deterioration of the seed.

Plant-to-seed method. This method involves growing the cabbage

head, pulling and storing it and its root system over the winter, then replanting it in the spring. The gardener should plant cabbages for seed somewhat later than those one will harvest for eating. The aim is to have the head reach maturity in the late fall, after the first fall frosts, so that it will store well.

To produce more than enough seed for several years, try raising 18 cabbages the first year. This will give you an opportunity to save the 12 best specimens for planting the following year, reserving the others for eating. With any luck you will be able to winter over enough cabbages so that you can select the six best for planting for seed.

When roguing out undesirable plants, remember that the job must be completed before the first blossoms appear on the second year plants, or else pollen from those undesirable plants may fertilize the plants that are being saved.

Try to store your seed cabbages:

  1. Where temperatures will remain as close to 32°F. (0°C.) as possible. This keeps the plant dormant.
  2. Where humidity is high, so the plant does not dry out.
  3. On shelves, packed closely together, but not piled up.

They should be inspected occasionally during the winter, and any that are rotten should be thrown away.

An ideal storage place is a cold cellar such as is used for storing root crops. Sometimes cabbages are stored in pits and covered with soil. This method provides adequate moisture, and the cabbages will not be harmed if frozen. But there is a greater chance of spoilage going undetected and spreading.

The bulky outer leaves of the cabbage can be removed before storing.

In the spring, as early as the soil can be worked, the cabbage and its root system should be replanted, about two feet apart in

rows four feet apart. The cabbage head should be resting on the ground, several inches lower than it was in its original position.

Cut an inch-deep X in the top of each head, and, when the stalk appears, support it with a stake.

At seed harvesting time, you’ll find the cabbages most uncooperative, since all the seeds do not mature at the same time. The seeds are contained in small pods, and the first pods will be turning yellow, then brown, and then dehiscing (splitting open and spilling out their seeds), before the last ones have matured. Cut the plants when the pods begin to change color. Dry them in some way so that any seeds falling from shattered pods can be caught. Piling the plants on a large sheet is one way to do this. The immature pods will ripen and turn in color during this drying period. Strip the pods from the branches, place them in a bag or pillowcase, and beat them with your hands.

If many seeds have been grown, the easiest method to clean the chaff from the seeds is to build a screen that will permit these small, round seeds to fall through, but will hold back the trash. Another system, if only a few seeds are grown, is to place the seeds and trash on a slightly inclined plane, such as a table propped up on one side, then work the mass over with your hands, permitting the seeds to roll down and into a container.

The seeds may also be winnowed.

BROCCOLI (Brassica oleracea, Botrytis Group). Annual. Has perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by bees. May be self-sterile.

Broccoli is unlike the other members of this family in that it produces flowers the first year. For this reason it is a good plant for the beginner to try. Broccoli will cross with Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi if any of these are flowering at the same time (midsummer) as the broccoli flowers, so the gardener should raise only one of these per year for seed. The edible part of broccoli is the mass of green buds, which eventually develop into tiny yellow flowers.

In colder climates, broccoli grown for seed should be started indoors, in a greenhouse, or in a cold frame, with plants set out two

weeks before the last expected frost. Set plants 18 inches apart in rows three feet apart. Rogue out any weak or off-type plants when setting them out, and again before the plants blossom.

In warmer climates, gardeners can sow seeds of the cold-hardy broccoli in the early fall, so that the plants will produce seeds late the following spring.

When most of the seedpods have turned brown and dried, the broccoli plants can be cut. The process of harvesting, threshing, and cleaning is the same as for cabbage seed.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS (Brassica oleracea, Gemmifera Group). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Some may be self-sterile. Pollinated by bees. See Cabbage entry for problems with crossing.

Nearly all of the directions for cabbage apply to Brussels sprouts. The grower in the North may have difficulty in carrying the plants through the winter because of the tendency of the small cabbage like sprouts to dry out in storage. The growing of these seeds is much easier in more temperate climates, since the plants are very hardy and will survive in the garden without being uprooted and stored. It is not necessary to slash the tops of the small Brussels sprouts heads to promote growth, as is done with cabbage heads.

CAULIFLOWER (Brassica oleracea, Botrytis Group). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). For crossing dangers, see Cabbage. Pollinated by bees.

Most gardeners consider the cauliflower the fussiest of the Mustard Family to grow, and the most difficult to raise for seed. Beginning seed growers, particularly in the North, should consider the growing of cauliflower seeds an advanced exercise. The problem is in carrying the parent plant over from one growing season to the next.
I have proven to my own satisfaction that in northern Vermont it is impossible to carry the cauliflower over, either by mulching it in the garden or by storing it in a root cellar. Both attempts were made during one winter; both were dismal failures.

Greater success can be achieved by starting the seeds in early September in flats, placed in a cold frame. They are repotted into peat pots about six weeks later, and moved into a cool greenhouse. There they are repotted into larger pots in midwinter, and finally moved into the garden in late April, where they move from the curd (ready-to-eat) stage to the formation of seed stalks.

In warmer climates, such as in California, the seeds are sown in midsummer, and grown on the seed-to-seed plan (see p. 76).

In either case, the spacing should be ample, since the seed stalk, while smaller than the cabbage, requires more room than the first-year plant. Three feet in each direction is the minimum separation distance for most cauliflower varieties.

Like the other brassicas, the cauliflower produces a seed stalk, on which yellow flowers form. The seed pods form in the summer and in the fall turn yellow, then brown. Like cabbage plants, they can be cut and then piled on a sheet to dry further. Follow the directions under Cabbage for harvesting and threshing.

CHINESE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa, Pekinensis Group). Annual. Flowers are perfect (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by bees. Self-sterility should be expected.

You might expect that this vegetable would cross with cabbage and other brassicas that we have discussed. But it won’t. Instead, it will cross with other varieties of Chinese cabbage, as well as with turnips, radishes, rutabagas, and mustards, both cultivated and wild. Professional growers use one-quarter mile as the minimum isolation distance. The home gardener should grow only one member from this group per season for seed, but can grow all of them as crops for eating. Just make certain that only one will be flowering.

Because Chinese cabbage is an annual, the crops can be sown directly where the seeds will be produced. Space plants 12 to 16 inches apart in rows 30 inches apart.

Gardeners in the North plant Chinese cabbage late, knowing that, if it is planted early or if it is transplanted, it may bolt before forming heads. While this may seem desirable for seed production, it means the cabbage is not heading, and therefore the chance is lost to cull out plants with undesirable characteristics such as loose heads.

The northern gardener has three possible methods of growing this vegetable for seed:

  1. As just described, plant early, knowing that the plants will produce seed without producing a head. This assures you of seed, but makes it impossible to rogue to get the best possible heads.
  2. Plant as late as mid-June, and thus have the opportu

nity to rogue out undesirable plants. You will be taking a chance on getting mature seeds before the first heavy frost.

  1. Plant in the late summer, mulch the plants after the first heavy frost, and hope that heavy snows will also protect this hardy plant. Then, in the spring, rogue out any undesirable plants as they head.

In areas with milder winters, seed sown in the fall will head, then produce seed stalks and yellow flowers the following spring.

The Chinese cabbage seed stalk is not as large as the cabbage stalk. The seed is found in small pods, and harvesting is the same as for cabbage seed.

KALE (Brassica oleracea, Acephala Group). Biennial. Flowers are perfect (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by bees. May be self-sterile.

Hardiest of the brassicas, kale can be grown even in the North using the seed-to-seed method (see p. 76). Plant as for a food crop, either in early spring or following some other crop in midsummer. In the far North, a mulch applied after the first heavy frosts will give the plants added protection. Plants will produce seed stalks, blossoms, and small seed pods the following summer and fall. Stake up the stalks. For harvesting directions, follow those for Cabbage.

Remember that kale is closely related to broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, and kohlrabi, and will cross with all the other members of this group.

Because kale is so hardy, it is an excellent choice for the beginner who wishes to raise the seeds of one of the brassicas.

KOHLRABI (Brassica oleracea, Gongylodes Group). Biennial. Has perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by bees. May be self-sterile.

Kohlrabi, one of the most unusual members of the Mustard Family, is grown for its ball-like swollen stem.

In more temperate zones, seed is planted in the fall. The following spring, the crop should be carefully inspected, with any plants having other-than-uniform stems of the desired color being rogued out.

In more northern areas, gardeners may choose between mulching the plants after the first heavy frost, then uncovering them in the spring, or pulling up the plants, roots and all, in the late fall, storing them (following the directions in the entry for Cabbage, p. 78), then replanting them in the spring. If you use either of these methods, time your seeding so that the plant’s growth will be halted by heavy frosts before the plant has reached full maturity.

Since kohlrabi produces an ungainly seed stalk the second year, the home gardener should give the plants ample room, setting them out perhaps 24 inches apart in rows 30 inches apart. Harvesting and storage are the same as for cabbage.

Brassicaceae
MUSTARD OR CABBAGE FAMILY
(Root Crops)

All of these root crops grow best in cool, moist climates. The group whose members will cross with each other includes turnip, radish, rape, mustard, rutabaga, Chinese cabbage (see p. 82), as well as wild varieties of mustard and turnip. The home seed grower should per

mit only one of these vegetables to flower at any one time in the garden, and should cut back any wild varieties to avoid crosses between them and the vegetable crop. Professional growers set onequarter mile as the minimum isolation distance between varieties.

TURNIP (Brassica rapa, Rapifera Group). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by bees.

This hardy plant is relatively easy to grow for seed, and so is a good candidate for the beginner who wants to grow seed from one of the biennial brassicas.

The turnip can be grown for seed using one of two methods:

Root-to-seed. This method must be used only in the most northern areas of the country, and involves digging and storing the roots. An advantage of this method is that it permits inspection of the roots, so that those that do not store well, or are not uniform in size, shape, or color can be discarded.

The home gardener using this method will plant for seed much later than for a crop for eating. Time your planting so that the crop will barely reach maturity in late fall. Dig up the roots at this time, or in the early winter. Cut back the turnip tops to one inch from the crowns, then place the roots in damp sand and store them in a nearfreezing site, such as a root cellar. (If you have a tried-and-true method for storing carrots, for eating during the winter, use it for storing turnips.)

In the spring, as early as the ground can be worked, set the roots out, with the crowns at ground level, 18 inches apart in rows spaced two feet apart.

Seed-to-seed. This method can be used throughout most of the country, and even in cold areas if snows are heavy enough to protect the roots during the winter. While roguing to discard roots that are not uniform in shape, size. or color is not possible using this method, it involves much

less work than wintering over the turnips in storage.

The first year’s crop can be planted, then thinned to three or four inches apart, in rows spaced two feet apart. Planting time should be calculated based on the expected first frost date for your area (see map, p.185). Aim for roots that have not quite reached market size when cold weather halts their growth. This means midsummer planting in northern regions and early fall planting further south. Prior to the second year, enough turnips should be harvested to provide 18 inches of space between plants.

During the second year, the seed stalks should be watched carefully, and, when the seed pods have turned yellow, the stalk should be cut, then handled like cabbage stalks (see p. 80).

RUTABAGA (Brassica napes, Napobrassica Group). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by bees.

This vegetable is also commonly known as Swede turnip, and is much like the turnip, except that it is most commonly grown in the northern part of this country, and in the cooler areas of Canada, while turnips are more commonly grown further south. Colors range from buff (the most common) to white, green, and purple.

For growing instructions, see the Turnip entry. The only major difference is that rutabaga must be planted earlier than turnip, since it grows more slowly. When using the seed-to-seed method, sow in early august; for the root-to-seed method, plant in early June.

HORSERADISH (Armoracia rusticana). Perennial.

Horseradish is propagated by planting sections of either the main root or the smaller lateral roots of a parent plant. Those planting it should be absolutely certain they want horseradish growing in that site henceforth, because, once established, horseradish is very difficult to eliminate. Any root left behind in digging will grow again.

In the late fall or early winter, when the root is at its pungent best, dig up the root, cut it into sections four to six inches long, and replant, a foot apart, with the large ends up, as they were growing.

RADISH (Raphanus satires).. (But the larger Oriental or winter radishes are biennial.) Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Cross-pollinated by bees.

The annual radish is that spicy vegetable of which we grow too many in our frantic desire for something quick and in quantity from the garden in the early spring. It will cross easily with other radish varieties, and with others in its group, as explained at the beginning of this section, and so only one variety of the group should be permitted to flower at the same time in the home garden. For professional growers, the minimum isolation distance is one-quarter mile. You may wish to grow extra seed for sprouts for fresh consumption.

If the beginner has difficulty getting seeds from radish plants, consider these three possible reasons:

  1. Bees are required for pollination, and often the small white-to-lilac flower of the radish will not attract bees, if other flowers are available to them.

2.

. Hot weather. The best-tasting radishes are grown in the cool of the spring. The best crops of seeds are also grown in relatively cool weather, with production cut when periods of temperatures over 90°F. (32°C.) are experienced.

  1. Dry weather, too, results in fewer radish seeds, although the radish is more tolerant of dry weather than are the cabbage and its near relatives.

Two methods are used in growing radish seeds:

Root-to-seed. Plant seeds as if growing for the table, thinning them to two inches apart in rows as close as a foot apart. In three or four weeks, depending on the variety of root, the radishes will be large enough to eat. Rogue them, saving the radishes that have the best size, shape, and color, and eating the remainder. Immediately after this roguing, prepare the roots for planting by cutting off all but about one inch of the leaves. Look closely at the top of a radish. You will see small central leaves beginning to develop. Do not cut these.

Replant the radishes, setting the roots in the soil so that the crown of the radish is at ground level. The plants will produce seed stalks two to three feet high, so give them enough room-set the radishes about eight inches apart in rows spaced three feet apart.

The careful gardener will rogue once more, pulling up and discarding those plants that bolt first, since early bolting is not a characteristic to encourage. Careful roguing at this time (and earlier) will do much to maintain the quality of the seed grown.

Seed-to-seed. This method saves time and labor, but it results in poorer quality seed, since roguing out the undesirable plants is not as selective as with the first method.

Plant seeds in rows spaced three feet apart, and thin plants to eight or more inches apart. When thinning, rogue out any undesirable plants. You can do a better job of roguing if you pull away enough soil from the top of the roots so that you can see their color. Any that are off-colored should be removed.

In the North, planting in the spring is advised. Further south, the gardener may plant in the fall, and plan on getting a seed stalk growth the following spring.

The radish seeds develop in pods. Unlike cabbage seed pods, though, these pods will not break open when dry, and so the precautions for saving seeds from dehiscent pods need not be taken.

Plants should remain in the garden until most of the pods are brown. You can then open the pods by hand. Dry the pods further if they are difficult to open. The seeds are yellow at first, even when mature, but they will gradually turn to the shade of brown familiar to most gardeners.

The biennial radish, called daikon by the Japanese, is unfamiliar to many gardeners who would appreciate both its taste and the ease with which it can be stored to be cooked in the winter. To raise daikon radish seed, follow instructions for Turnip (p. 87).

Fabaceae
BEAN PAM I LY

Beginners, here’s the perfect starting place if you’re interested in growing seeds.

It’s hard to go wrong growing peas or beans for seed. You don’t need to provide the walled security and isolation of a nunnery in order to defend and preserve their purity. A row of some other crop -preferably a tall one-between rows of different varieties of

peas, and 150 feet between different varieties of beans, will prevent crosses.

Peas and beans are annuals, so growing plants need not be carried over from one season to another. And the seeds are large, which makes harvesting them easy. There’s another plus to raising these vegetables. If you are careful and industrious enough to mind your peas and beans (and lucky), you can produce a superior variety of either one. You will have vegetables that do best in your garden, because over several generations they have become acclimated to your soil and your growing conditions.

You’ll be tempted to grow your usual crops of these two vegetables, and then, when you have picked what you want to eat, let the remainder dry on the vines, saving them for seeds.

DON’T DO IT. You may be saving seed from less-than-desirable plants, and you probably will be saving late-growing seeds, and thus possibly breeding that characteristic into your seeds.

There are many ways to divide your rows between eating and saving for seeds. A recommended method is to mark off 10 or 15 feet of a row for seeds. Put a string around that section. It will remind you and others not to pick from it. Treat this section like royalty. Give it that extra amount of compost. (But not too much fertilizer that’s heavy on nitrogen. That will produce lush plants, and fewer seeds.) Carefully rogue out any weak or undesirable plants. Make certain the individual plants have enough elbow room to attain full growth. Weed that plot carefully so the crop does not compete with other plants for food, light, or moisture.

Later, when you have grown, harvested, dried, and packaged your seed, mark the container carefully with the year of growth, and the variety of seeds. Some years ago I planted green beans, and carefully saved a section of a row for seeds. The beans were delicious and the bushes were loaded with them. I’d made a good choice. Suddenly I realized . .. I’d forgotten what variety I had planted. Now each fall, after I have dried and packaged some of those beans for seed, I mark the container, “Brand X” It’s a reminder to me not to make that particular mistake again.

PEA (Pisum sativum). Annual. Self-fertile, but to preserve purity of seed, avoid planting adjacent rows of different varieties.

If you can grow a good crop of peas for eating, you can grow them for seed. Peas do best when planted before the final spring frost, and ideal growing conditions for them are slowly warming days. Peas are planted early: in December and January in the Coastal Plains,

Gulf Coast regions, and California; in late January and February in the mid-South, and in April and early May in the northernmost areas of the country. Pea plants are hardy enough to live through frosts, although heavy freezing will delay the crop. The gardener who gets the earliest crop of peas gets the best peas, and this is equally true of peas grown for seed.

During the growing season rogue out any weak plants, or plants that are off-color or undesirable in any other way. Plants with small, narrow leaves are commonly found among some varieties, and should be rogued out.

When the peas reach edible size, resist the temptation to harvest them for eating. Wait another month. By now the pods are brown and dry, and the peas inside them are dry enough to rattle when the pods are shaken.

Many commercial growers pull up the plants, then stack or windrow them for further drying. If you have the time, try this method: Pick the pods by pulling up the plants, then stripping off all of the pods. Spread them out under cover, such as in a barn, for further drying. By doing this, you will avoid the possibility of the pods getting rained on, and the damp peas sprouting and becoming worthless as seeds. If well dried, peas can be left in the pods for weeks or even months. Removing them from the pods is a good job for winter, when there isn’t as much work to do outside. You should get at least one pound of seed for every 12 feet of row you grow for seed.

There are several methods of removing the seed from the pods. If you harvest one bushel or less, the seeds may be removed by hand. Because the pods are dry, this job can be done quickly and easily.

If you have more than a bushel, try threshing them out. Spread the pods on a blanket or canvas, and beat them with a flail made of two sticks attached by a short piece of leather. Control your enthusiasm as you thresh. Break open the pods, but don’t break apart the peas. Since the peas tend to fall to the blanket or canvas surface, most of the trash can be removed quickly with a rake or pitchfork. Then gather the corners of the blanket or canvas to bring the peas

together in a pile, and remove the remainder of the trash by hand.

If dirt and trash remain in the seeds, remove them by taking the seeds outside on a windy day and pouring them from one bowl to another. If you are in doubt about how dry the seeds are after three or more weeks of drying, let them dry for another week or two, well spread out so that moisture is not trapped under layers of seed.

The professional seed grower has moisture computers that will read out the moisture percentage of seeds at the touch of a button. The amateur can’t afford this equipment, so it is meaningless to quote desired percentages of moisture to home gardeners. Remember, though, that seed viability depends on low moisture content as well as low temperature, and that maintenance of either at a low level will do much to extend the viability of the seed. Remember, too, that, no matter how dry the seed is at the time of storing, it will soon have the moisture level of the air around it. Thus the emphasis on finding a cool, dry location for storage.

Many people recommend storing peas and beans in airtight containers. I don’t. Several attempts at this under varying conditions have resulted in peculiar smells, the growth of fungi, spoilage -and lower viability. I have had no difficulty with placing seeds in burlap bags and storing them under cool, dry conditions out of reach of vermin.

PEANUT (Arachis hypogaea). Annual. Self-pollinated, but avoid adjacent planting of different varieties.

Peanuts, also called groundnuts or goobers, are interesting to grow in the home garden, but require a long, warm growing season for best results. I have raised them from transplants here in the North with some success.

After the bright yellow flowers are pollinated, the fruit stalk elongates and pushes the ovary, or “peg,” into the soil. When the leaves begin to turn yellow late in the season, pull up or dig the entire plant. Store for several weeks in a warm, dry place. Remove the fruits from the plant. Store in a cool, dry place. Shell out the seeds before planting. Be careful not to injure the thin papery seed coat while handling the seeds.

BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris). Annual. Perfect flower (having both male and female parts). Usually self-pollinating before the flower opens, so there is little chance of cross-pollination.

While beans cross-pollinate somewhat more frequently than peas, there is still little opportunity for this, so a row of some vegetable planted between rows of different varieties of beans will decrease even the minimal likelihood of cross-pollination. For greatest protection, plant different varieties 150 feet apart.

All of the beans are grown for seed in the same manner. And all, to some extent, have the same limiting factor when being raised

for seed. They must be started after all danger of frost is past, and they must be harvested before freezing injures the seed. Thus, many areas of the North simply do not have a long enough growing season for some varieties of beans.

An example is the lima bean. The famous Burpee’s Best, a pole lima bean, requires 92 days to reach eating size. Add another six weeks to this for maturity as seeds, and that’s a requirement for a 134-day growing season between even light frosts-far too long for most of the northern states and Canada.

If you have grown such dry beans as navy or kidney beans with success, you can, of course, grow these as well as snap beans for seed without worrying about the length of the growing season.

When growing these beans for seed, grow them as you would a crop f or eating, but rogue out any plants with undesirable qualities. Beans are planted after all danger of frost is past, but will react to weather in other ways, as well. They will drop blossoms during a heat wave, for instance, and fail to produce if the weather turns cool and rainy.

Plant bush beans in rows spaced two feet apart, with plants thinned to four inches apart. Pole bean rows should be spaced at least three feet apart.

Be on the lookout for the various seed-borne diseases listed in the table on p. 137. Anthracnose is especially common.

The harvesting time for seeds can be estimated by watching the crop reach the harvesting size for eating, with the pods nearly full-grown and the beans not yet fully developed. The beans should be ready for harvesting as seeds about six weeks later, or when most of the pods have turned brown.

The person who is harvesting only one or two bushels may find it easy to pick the beans, spread them out (indoors, if you have rainy autumns) to cure for a week or two, then shell them.

For larger amounts, pull up the plants, let them dry in piles or windrows for one or two weeks, until brittle, then flail them. If rain is predicted during the drying period, try to dry them indoors.

In flailing, most of the trash can be removed with a pitchfork or rake, with the remainder removed by winnowing.

Seeds should be stored in a cool, dry place-not in airtight containers.

LIMA BEAN (Phaseolus lunatus) can’t be grown for eating in the green stage in many of the northern regions. Ideally limes should have two months of above 50°F. (10°C.) night temperatures, with planting delayed until the soil is warm. Add six more weeks of frost free weather at the end of this two-month period for growing these

beans for seed, and the reason they can’t be grown in the North for seed becomes obvious.

Both bush and pole varieties of lima beans are available. All the steps of growing, harvesting, drying, and storage are the same as for other beans. Limas can be easily damaged during and after harvest, so care should be taken with them.

COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata) is grown in the South (where it is often called a southern pea or a field pea: the green pea of the rest of the nation is an English pea) and in California (where it is called a black-eyed pea). Many families in the South save this seed each year, proud of the taste qualities of the strain they nurture.

This warm-weather crop is grown much like lima beans, with planting delayed until the soil is warm, when seed is planted three inches apart, in rows spaced 30 to 36 inches apart.

Follow instructions under Beans for harvesting, drying, and storage.

SOYBEAN (Glycine Unix). This is a crop of growing interest to the home gardener, because of the many uses and the high protein content of the soybean, with the larger-seeded garden varieties the choice to grow.

Like lima beans, most of the soybeans can be planted only when the soil is warm, and most have a long growing season. However, several seed companies in northern areas have worked on, and now offer for sale, soybeans with growing seasons short enough to be grown in most areas of the United States.

storage.

Follow instructions under Beans for harvesting, drying, and

Malvaceae
MALLOW FAMILY

This family includes familiar flowers, such as the hollyhock (see p. 153), an important commercial plant, cotton, a few trees and weeds -and one garden vegetable, okra.

OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus). Annual. Self-pollinating. Some cross-pollination may occur within one mile.

This plant produces a yellow flower with a red center followed within several days by a pod, which is harvested for eating before it has become fully developed.

For seeds, pods should be left on the plants to become woody, and with the seeds fully developed. Harvest pods in late fall, crack them open, and remove the seeds.

ApiaCeae
CELERY FAMILY

The gardener who wishes to grow seeds of biennials is encouraged to select from this group. Carrying the plants over to the second year of growth is not a major problem with these vegetables as it can be, for example, with the members of the Mustard Family. The major problem for home growers is that the different varieties of each plant will cross unless separated by long distances, and the garden carrot will cross with its wild and prolific relative, Queen Anne’s lace.

Most of the seeds in this family have low viability, so they should be tested before planting. All of them flower and form seed in the second year of growth.

CARROT (Daucus carota var. satiua). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by insects.

There are two methods of growing carrot seed:

Root-to-seed, the recommended method. In the first year, plant seed late enough in the spring so that the plant reaches maturity in late fall. The carrots can be dug up any time before the ground freezes. Cut the tops off, taking care not to cut into the growing point of the plant’s crown. Leave about an inch of growth.

Rogue out the crop at this time, reserving for table use any carrots that are misshapen, off-color, small, cracked, or damaged during harvesting.

In mild climates, the carrots can be replanted immediately after this roguing. In cooler areas, replanting in the late fall is possible, too, with a heavy mulch giving the roots more than adequate protection. Or the roots can be stored for spring planting.

Near-freezing temperatures and high humidity are ideal for

storage. These conditions will generally be found in a root or cold cellar. For further protection, carrots can be stored in boxes of damp sand or sawdust.

In the spring, when the soil can be worked, check over the stored carrots and discard any that have shriveled or decayed. The carrots should not be left to dry out before replanting, but should be set out quickly in moist soil. If the soil tends to be dry, soak each carrot after it is planted. Replant the carrots one foot apart, in rows spaced three feet apart, with the carrot’s crown set at or just below the surface level of the soil.

There are two common methods for setting out the carrots. The first is to insert a shovel into the soil, then push it forward, and plant a carrot in the space. Make sure you firm up the soil around each carrot as it is planted.

The second method is to rototill the soil, then simply press the carrot down into the loosened soil, making sure that the root is planted deep enough so that the crown is at the surface level of the soil when the soil has been packed around it.

Seed-to-seed is the other method of growing carrots for seed, and it involves leaving the carrot in place for two seasons. This method requires less work than the root-to-seed procedure, but has certain disadvantages. For one thing, the grower cannot rogue out undesirable roots, so the quality of seeds may deteriorate gradually. Carrying carrots through the winter, too, can be troublesome. Alternate freezing and thawing may thrust the roots up out of the ground (a problem that can usually be avoided by mulching them). Finally, the gardener may tend to crowd the crop using this method, leaving too many carrots in the row during the first growing season, and not reducing the number of carrots to space plants one foot apart in rows three feet apart in the second year of growth.

No matter which method is used, the soil should be loose and high in organic matter, and should never be permitted to dry out. Weed the carrot patch carefully to provide ideal growing conditions.

Commercial growers separate different carrot varieties by a minimum of one mile. Your alternative is to carry only one variety at a time into the second year of growth, although other varieties can, of course, be grown for first-year harvesting. Check your area for Queen Anne’s lace, and make certain it is cut back and not in bloom when your carrots blossom in the second year.

If you’ve grown carrots only as annuals for eating, you’ll be surprised at that second year’s growth-two to six feet high, with a fairly large head, and a series of branches beneath it. Flowers will appear first on the head, then on the top branches, and finally on the lower branches. This is also the order in which the seeds develop and mature. The seeds are ready for harvesting when the heads of the top branches have turned brown. This will be in September in most areas. They will not shatter easily, so exact timing of harvesting isn’t necessary.

For harvesting a small crop, pull up the entire plant, and form

small piles of them. They should be cured until the stalks snap when bent. This may take two or three weeks in moist climates. You can speed up this process by placing the plants under cover to cure.

Another method of harvesting is to cut off the heads as they mature (turn brown), and take them indoors to dry.

Rub the seed heads together to free the seed. The quickest way to remove stems and other unwanted material from the seed is to build a screen that will permit seeds to fall through but will sort out the other debris.

The carrot seeds you retrieve will have small spines. Commercial growers remove these so that the seed can be used in mechanical seeders. If you wish to remove them, rub the seeds briskly between your hands.

CELERIAC (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum). Biennial. Perfect

flowers (having both male and female parts). Cross-pollinated by insects.

This vegetable, unfamiliar to many gardeners, is grown for its roots. While it is closely related to celery, the methods used to grow seed are very similar to those for carrots.

Celery and celeriac will cross, so only one of these should be grown a second year for seed in any season.

In the second year, the plants should be watched carefully, since all of the seeds will not mature at the same time, and the seed tends to shatter. You can save this early seed by holding the browned heads in a paper bag and shaking them.

Follow instructions under the Carrot entry for growing, harvesting, and drying the seeds.

CELERY (Apium graveolens var. dulce).Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is probably the most difficult of the plants in this family to raise for seed, because of the greater difficulty in wintering over the plants.

In the North, because of celery’s long growing season, this vegetable must be started indoors or in a cold frame, then transplanted outdoors. This is not necessary in the areas of milder weather that provide the 115- to 135-day growing season this crop requires.

In the fall, select the best plants for seed. They should be dug up, roots intact, then placed in a cold cellar, with the roots in soil and the vegetation blanketed in straw. Near-freezing temperatures and high humidity are required.

After the danger of frost is past in the spring, uncover the plants, remove the rotted leaves and stalks, and replant, two feet apart, in rows spaced three feet apart.

In warm areas such as California and the South, the timing is changed by sowing in July, then transplanting the plants in January.

This avoids the need to store the plants.

The second-year growth is two to three feet high and extremely bushy. Tiny white flowers appear first on the top of the plant, then bloom on the lower branches. Seeds will turn brown and become ready for harvesting in this same order. Since many seeds can be lost through shattering, you should try to save the earlier seeds by shaking the top heads into a paper bag.

Follow the directions for harvesting given for carrots. Dry heads on a canvas, so that seeds that fall will not be lost.

Remember that celery and celeriac will cross with each other, so plan to have only one of these blossoming in any one season.

PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by insects.

Parsley seeds, even under ideal conditions, do not retain their viability for more than one to two years. New seed should be harvested every year.

Parsley seeds, slow to germinate, may be speeded along by soaking them overnight the night before planting. They can be started indoors or in cold frames, then transplanted to the garden, set out one foot apart.

In the fall, select the most desirable plants, and transplant them to where you wish them to grow by digging them up with a spadeful of soil. Set them two feet apart in rows spaced two feet apart. After the first few heavy frosts, cover them with a mulch of leaves or hay. They will survive well, even in northern areas.

Uncover them as growth starts in the spring. They will grow to two or more feet in height, with many branches and small flower heads. Seeds are ready for harvesting when they turn brown, in September in most areas. The seeds will shatter, so you should collect the first seeds that mature by shaking the heads inside a paper bag When most of the heads have turned brown, cut them off end let them cure indoors on canvas or papers so any seeds that fall will not be lost

Clean and process parsley seeds like carrot seeds (though parsley seeds do not have spines).

PARSNIP (Pastinaca satins).. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Pollinated by insects.

Parsnip seeds lose viability in one or two years, so fresh seed should be grown each year. This is the slowest-growing member of this family.

Parsnips can be grown using either the seed-to-seed or root to-seed method, as described in the Carrot entry (see p. 104). You will probably be tempted to use the former method, because, even in the coldest climates, parsnips will winter over without difficulty..

For superior seed, however, you should use the root-to-seed method, digging up the parsnips in the early spring, when they are ordinarily dug up for eating, then replanting them three feet apart in rows spaced three feet apart, with the crowns at soil level. For the best seed, select the best of the roots for replanting, and dine on the remainder. You can, of course, dig up the roots in the fall, store them as you would carrots, then replant them in the spring.

The second-year plant will send up a bushy seed stalk, three to four feet in height. The yellowish flowers are followed by the brown seeds in the fall. Harvest as for carrot seed. Since parsnip seeds shatter, shake the early heads into a paper bag to avoid loss.

Parsnip will cross with the true wild parsnip (Pasiinaca saliva var. sylvestris), the root of which has a strong parsnip aroma.

Solanaceae
NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

This family includes the eggplant, pepper, potato, and tomato. Most growers of seed will want to try one of these, probably the tomato. Again, don’t try to save seed from the hybrid varieties. It won’t work.

(And if you do try it, as you will if you are the curious type, expect some seed that won’t germinate, plus plants that lack the uniformity and vigor of their parents-and that may not even resemble them, since the tendency is for them to revert one of the types of plants used to create the hybrid.)

For each of these vegetables there are open-pollinated varieties with admirable qualities, and seeds that will not give you unpleasant surprises. For the names and descriptions of nonhybrid varieties, consult the Garden Seed Inventory, published by Seed Savers Exchange of Decorah, Iowa (for information, see p. 171).

EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena var. esculentum). Annual. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Self-pollinated, but crossing will occur, since flowers sometimes attract insects.

Eggplant likes a growing season that is both long and warm. However, by starting plants indoors or in cold frames, and setting them out when the soil has warmed up, gardeners in all but the coldest parts of the country can raise eggplant.

While cross-pollination is not a major problem, you can avoid any possibility of this if you raise only one variety during a season when you expect to save seed.

Identify and save for seed the best fruits on several of your best plants. The remaining plants can produce eggplants for eating, after any with undesirable traits have been rogued out.

If possible, leave the fruit on the plant until it falls off, which is an indication that the seeds are mature. If frosts threaten, and the fruit is ripe enough for eating, pick it and take it indoors. In about two weeks (don’t wait until it is rotting) the fruit will produce mature seeds.

Cut the fruit and remove the placenta, or the seed-bearing portion. Place this in a container (a glass bowl works fine), add water, and work the mass with your fingers. Gradually the seeds will separate and sink to the bottom, and the remaining material and

water can be poured off. Several washings may be necessary.

Spread out the seeds on paper towels or screens, and dry them thoroughly. If, after drying, the seeds stick together, rub them together gently in your hands to separate them.

PEPPER (Capsicum annuum). Annual, but perennial in tropical areas. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Self-pollinated, but some crossing can be expected if different varieties are planted in adjacent rows, due to bee activity.

Grow plants in the same way as you would for a food crop. Rogue

out any undesirable plants, to avoid cross-pollination with better plants. Select and identify excellent fruits on several of your best plants. Let these ripen far beyond the stage at which you would ordinarily pick them for eating. The peppers are ready for seed production when they have turned color and have begun to shrivel. If your growing season does not permit them to ripen that far, pick the peppers and take them indoors to ripen further.

Cut open the peppers and remove the seeds. If this is done carefully, there should be little or no unwanted material mixed in with the seeds. Dry the seeds thoroughly and store.

TOMATO (Lycopersicon Iycopersicum). Annual, although it’s a perennial in its native South America. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Self-pollinated, although some crossing may occur from bee activity.

If you have been growing hybrid tomatoes, but would like to grow the nonhybrid varieties for seed as well as for eating, try several varieties the first year. In this way you can most quickly find the variety or varieties that best meet your needs. Plant at least three plants of each variety, separating the varieties by as much garden space as possible.

Tomatoes are tropical plants, and do best in long, hot growing seasons. Those of us who live in cooler areas know the race we watch each summer, wondering whether the peak of the tomato season will beat the first killing frost. In areas such as these, many seed growers strive for early producers.

Identify and mark several of the best and earliest plants of each variety. Let the fruit reach full ripeness, then pick the best of them from those plants. Cut them open and scoop out the seeds and pulp, mixing seeds and pulp from several plants, but of course keeping the different varieties separate. Place the mixture in glass jars, with a jar for each variety, and add a small amount of water. Stir two or three times daily. The fermentation that results helps separate the seeds from the other materials. Depending on the room temperature, the seeds will separate and sink to the bottom of the jar in from two (warm room) to four days. Add more water, then pour off the pulp, repeating this procedure until the seeds are clean.

Spread the seeds out on paper towels or screens to dry.

POTATO (Solanum tuberosum). Annual. Self-pollinated.

The true seed of the potato is used mostly in breeding programs. The tuber (that’s the potato) is used for propagation as well as for eating. Tubers grown specifically for propagation are often called seed potatoes.

If you want to raise potatoes for both eating and propagation, start with certified disease-free potatoes. Mark the plants that are healthiest and most disease-free, and take your seed potatoes from them. Discard any tubers with discolored flesh or soft spots on their skin. I have tried planting with both the small and the large potatoes

from these plants, and see no difference. It is logical, then, to eat the larger potatoes and save the smaller ones to start the next season’s crop.

Potatoes, of course, have been and are grown from seed. A famous example is that of the Burbank potato, which was one of 23 otherwise worthless seedlings grown by Luther Burbank from seed saved from a single potato seed ball.

You may not find many seed balls in your patch of highly selected, civilized potatoes, but if you do come across a potato plant that bears seed (the seed ball resembles a tiny green tomato), and you want to experiment, save the seed for planting early the next spring. Just don’t count on it for your whole crop of potatoes.

Cucurbitaceae
GOURD OR CUCUMBER FAMILY

If you’ve been successful raising peas or beans for seed, and now want to try your hand at something slightly more complicated, here is your next move. This family includes the cucumber, gourd, squash, pumpkin, muskmelon (including cantaloupe), and watermelon.

You’ve probably raised some or all of these vegetables for eating. Pick one that you feel confident growing, and raise it for seeds. Remember to follow the rules to avoid unwanted crosses between these vegetables. This is a case where failures often produce most startling results.

First, a few general rules:

  1. Don’t worry about crosses between any combination of cucumbers, squashes, and melons. They won’t happen. You won’t raise any squamelons or melocumbers, despite what some old gardener may tell you. The so-called Melon Squash is a variety of Cucurbita moschata.
  2. Crosses will occur between varieties of each vegetable. Thus, two varieties of cucumbers will cross, and this is undesirable if you are saving seed.

Don’t worry about crosses if you are growing crops to eat, not for seed. The female, or Distillate, blossoms will dominate, so all of the acorn squash (for example) on a single plant will be the same for eating purposes, even though some of the blossoms were pollinated from male acorn squash blossoms, and others from male zucchini squash blossoms.

Let’s start out with a discussion of squash and pumpkins, since this is where much of the confusion begins for the seed grower. There are just a few simple rules to learn; then you’ll feel that superiority that can come when you understand what few others have mastered.

SQUASH (Cucurbita spp.). Annual. Monoecious (having separate male and female blossoms on the same plant). Cross-pollinated, usually by bees.

What about crosses between pumpkins and squash? Is there any easy-to-learn rule that just can’t be forgotten? Unfortunately, no. They don’t divide simply and logically, such as all winter squash in one group, all summer squash in another, and pumpkins in a third.
Instead, there are four species (you may find only three listed in older references), and here are their easily recognized characteristics, and the best-known varieties of each species:

Cucurbita maxima. Vines 15 to 20 feet long. Huge leaves. Stem is soft, round, and hairy. Long growing season. The numerous varieties include Buttercup, Hubbard, Delicious, and Hokkiado.

Cucurbita moschata. Large leaves and spreading vines. The

smooth, five-sided corky stem flares out as it joins the fruit. Butternut is the classic and most common example of this species. (A new Butternut bush variety lacks the characteristic spreading vines.)

Cucurbita pepo. Both bush and long-vined. Stem is five-sided. Branches, too, have five sides, and spines. All of the familiar summer squash fall into this species, including Zucchini, Yellow Crookneck, Vegetable Spaghetti, Acorn, Lady Godiva, White Bush Scallop, Cocozelle, and the common pumpkin.

Cucurbita mixta. This species formerly was lumped with Cucurbita moschata, and has similar characteristics. The most familiar variety is the Green-Striped Cushaw.

The varieties within each species will cross. And research has shown that there is also some crossing between varieties of different species, specifically:

C. pepo and C. moschata.

C. pepo and C. mixta.

C moschata and C maxima.

In your home garden, do not raise more than one variety from each species. In a large planting, a distance of 500 feet is usually enough to prevent crossing. Separate as far as possible varieties of different species if there is some chance of crossing, as indicated in the previous paragraph.

If you wish to raise two or more varieties of a particular species, or if your over-the-fence neighbor raises them, there is a method you can use to insure the purity of the seed you harvest. It’s hand pollinating.

This procedure involves protecting the female blossom both before and after hand-pollinating, and protecting the male blossom until it has been used for pollination.

Male and female blossoms from the same plant can be used,

since the squashes do not lose vigor when inbred in this way.

Before you begin, you must learn two things: how to tell a male from a female blossom, and how to find buds that will open the following day.

Identifying the male and female blossoms is simple. The female bud has the beginning of the squash-a miniature fruit that is really an ovary-at its base, while the stem of the male buds leads directly into the bud.

The blossoms that will open the following day are those that have a definite orange color, rather than only green.

Select six or so female buds for your first effort, identifying them on a sunny afternoon. Place a paper bag over each one, marking an “F”on the bag so that it will be plain to you the following day that this is one of the female buds. The nonplastic bags used by supermarkets for pints of ice cream are ideal for this work, since they are heavy and thus will endure the dews and even the rains of several days. Tie (but not tightly over the stem), staple (but not through the stem), or paper-clip the bag in place, close enough so that no exploring honeybee will find her way into it. Protect an equal number of male buds. The same type of bags can be used, or, because the bud needs to be held closed only overnight, you can simply slip a rubber band over the end of the bud, holding it shut. In the past, I have tried using twine, and it worked fine, although tying it without damaging the bud was more of a problem.

On the following morning, pick one of the male blossoms that you have fastened shut with a rubber band. Carry it to one of the covered female blossoms. Uncover the female blossom, and remove its petals. Take the rubber band off the male blossom and remove its petals. You will see the stamen and its pollen. Gently rub this stamen against the stigma of the female blossom so that the pollen clings to the stigma. Discard the male blossom, and cover the female blossom again with the paper bag. Leave it in place for about four days. After removing the bag, mark the stem of the female blossom in some way so that the right squash can be found at harvesting time. A bright ribbon tied loosely around the stem is one way to do this.

hi. drawing shows the difference between the female bud, with the round ball called an ovary, and the male, with its longer, thin stern

Repeat this process for each female blossom. This is one of those simple procedures that can be done much more quickly than it can be described, so don’t be talked out of trying it by the detail given here.

The squash and pumpkin plants should be watched during all periods of growth, so that any with undesirable traits can be rogued out.

The seed of the winter varieties and pumpkins is mature when the squash or pumpkin is mature and ready for harvesting in the fall. The summer squash, however, must grow far beyond the harvesting stage, until it has reached full growth and has hardened If you have raised zucchini squash, and one hid under the heavy foliage and grew to a huge size, you have grown zucchini to the proper size for seed.

Squash for seed should be harvested in the fall, at about the time of the first frost. Because the squash will keep for many months, there Is no urgency about removing the seeds. It’s a good job for the early winter. Cut the squash in two, but avoid slicing through the central seed cavity. The seeds and the moist material around them can be removed with a large kitchen spoon. Place all of this material

in a large bowl, add some water, and work the mixture through your fingers. The seeds will separate gradually. Wash them again, then spread them out on paper or screens to dry. Give them up to a week of drying, moving them about daily so that they do not remain in small, wet piles, retaining the moisture.
Once dry, the seeds can be kept in a sealed jar. It’s a good idea to check them two or three weeks after placing them in the jar. If there is any sign of moisture, spread the seeds out again for further drying. After all the trouble you’ve gone to, this is not the time to take a chance on spoilage.

The four easy steps for saving cucumber seed. First, split the cucumber lengthwise, then, using a spoon, scrape out all of the seeds and the pulp surrounding them.

As always, be sure to label the container with the variety of seeds and the year of growing. You may remember-and then again, you may not.

PUMPKIN. All directions for squash apply to pumpkin.

CUCUMBER (Cucumissanvus). Annual. Monoecious (having separate male and female blossoms on the same plant). Cross-pollinated by bees.

Cucumbers will not cross with melons or squashes, but will cross with other varieties of cucumbers. The home gardener thus may grow any other vegetables in the garden, and still raise cucumbers for seed, provided that he or she raises only one variety of cucumber. Because bees pollinate the cucumber blossoms, commercial seed growers strive for a distance of at least a mile between varieties. The home gardener should be concerned about any other varieties within one-quarter mile, but will probably get an undesired cross

Place the mixture in a bowl to ferment. Stir several times daily to keep mold from forming. The pulp will become watery, and the seeds you’ll want to save will sink to the bottom. Dry the seeds on a screen.

Only if a neighboring garden is growing a different variety. Some method of cooperation, such as growing the same variety, can usually be worked out with the neighbors.

The length of the growing season may be a problem for some gardeners in cold climates. Cucumbers for eating can be raised in 60 to 70 days, with planting started after all danger of frost is past. But the growing season for seeds must be at least five weeks longer to produce the ripe, yellow cucumbers that will have mature seed.

The careful gardener will watch the growth of the cucumber plants through all stages of development, and rogue out any that are not strong and healthy, or that show any undesirable characteristics.

If there is any danger of undesirable crosses, cucumbers can be hand-pollinated, using the system described under Squash.

It’s easy to tell the male from the female blossoms. Each plant will have both. The female, or Distillate, flowers are not in groups, as are the male, or staminate, flowers. Beneath the female flower, there is a tiny growth that looks like a small cucumber. This is the ovary.

If you have raised cucumbers, you probably know that there are white-spired varieties, grown for slicing, and black-spired varieties, grown for pickling. The former will be a yellowish-white when

mature, while the latter will be much darker, from golden to brown. Any cucumber that does not follow this rule should not be saved for seed.

I have found that cucumber vines are blackened by the first fall frost, and that this makes the selection of cucumbers to be saved for seed an easy task, since suddenly all of the cucumbers are very visible, no longer hidden beneath the green leaves. I select half a dozen cucumbers from as many plants and mix the seeds of all together, even though this gives me far more seeds than I need. If you have hand-pollinated and marked certain cucumbers, these of course will be the ones you use for seed.

Split the cucumber lengthwise, then scrape out the seeds and the pulp surrounding them. A spoon will do the job. Dump this mixture into a large glass bowl, then let it sit and ferment in the kitchen for about five days, stirring it at least once a day to discourage any mold from forming.

By the end of the five days, most of the seed will have separated from the pulp and will be down at the bottom of the bowl. Retrieve several of the seeds and rub them between your fingers. You should discover that their slippery coating has been lost in the fermentation process.

The top layer of pulp and undeveloped seeds can now be removed, leaving the good seeds at the bottom of the bowl. These can be washed by filling the bowl with water (not hot water), letting the seeds settle to the bottom of the bowl, then pouring off the water.

Spread the seeds on paper towels or a screen, separate them as much as possible, then let them dry, either inside or out in the sun. Shake them around occasionally, so that they do not cling together and thus retain moisture.

MUSKMELON (Cucumis melo, Reticulatus Group). Annual. Monoecious (having separate male and female blossoms on the same plant). Cross-pollinated by bees.

Growing muskmelons for seed follows most of the instructions for

growing cucumbers. There are two major differences:

  1. The muskmelon likes warm weather, even more than does the cucumber, and may demand a longer growing season.
  2. When the muskmelon is ready to eat, the seeds are mature. This of course means that the melon can be eaten and enjoyed after the seeds and pulp have been removed.

Follow the instructions under Cucumber for isolation, roguing seed production and harvesting, and for separating seeds from the pulp

WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus). Annual. Monoecious (having separate male and female blossoms on the same plant). Cross-pollinated by bees.

This melon is grown only in the warmer areas of the country, although the growing area has pushed northward with the development of new, hardier varieties and the use of greenhouses to start plants. The watermelon will cross with citron fruit and other varieties of watermelon, but not with muskmelons, cucumbers, squashes, or pumpkins. The ideal isolation distance is a minimum of onequarter mile. Watermelon can be pollinated by hand, as described under Squash.

As with muskmelons, the seeds of watermelons are mature when the melon is ready to be eaten. There are several methods that can be used to determine this. One is to check under the watermelon, where it rests on the soil; if this area has turned from white to yellow, the melon should be ripe.

Extracting seeds from watermelon should be a pleasant family effort. The larger the group of participants, the better. Provide several chilled watermelons, cups or bowls for the black seeds, and

trash containers or compost

buckets for the rinds. Serve slices of watermelon until everyone feels sated, or until the desired number of seeds has been obtained. The fastidious will wash these seeds. In any case, be sure to dry them well.

For other instructions on growing watermelon seeds, see the Cucumber entry.

Asteraceae
ASTER FAMILY

LETTUCE (Lactuca satioa). Annual. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Self-pollinated.

Because lettuce is self-pollinating, different varieties can be grown in adjacent rows, although to prevent the occasional crossing, it is better to plant another crop between rows of separate varieties.

You probably think of lettuce as an early crop, but, in growing it for seed, it’s a long-season crop.

There are several methods of planting. One is to plant as soon as the soil can be worked, since a frost will not kill the tiny lettuce plants.

Another is to start the seeds indoors, or in a cold frame, then set out the plants about one foot apart. This is an excellent idea for any gardener, assuring one of lettuce to eat at least a month earlier than when the lettuce seed is planted outdoors.

In warmer areas, lettuce is planted in the late fall, and produces seed in the spring.

This same method can be tried in cooler climates for the crisphead varieties that are slow to bolt and produce seeds. The time of late summer planting will vary geographically, but the gardener should aim for plants about two inches in height when cold weather halts growth. This height has proven to be the level at which

the least winter damage can be expected. The tiny plants can be mulched after the first heavy frost to provide protection. The soil in which they are growing should be well drained. If you try this method, delay thinning the plants until spring.

Aim for a foot of space between plants when the lettuce reaches the bolting stage. If planting is heavier than this, the gardener can remove any plants with undesirable characteristics while thinning.

You should remember that early bolting is not a desirable characteristic, so any plants that bolt and produce seed at a record pace should be pulled and the seeds discarded.

The plants will put up seed stems that are from two to five feet high, with the height depending on the variety.

Some varieties of lettuce, particularly the crispheads, should be encouraged to produce seed stalks by cutting an X into the top of the head as soon as it reaches full growth, or by cutting off the top half of the head, or by opening the leaves at the top of the head. This should not be delayed, since the reason for doing this is to clear the way for the growth of the stem before it begins its growth, rather than after normal development has been halted by the closely packed head.

Lettuce does not produce seed in a way most convenient for the gardener. The yellow flowers open over a period of a month, and the seeds, presenting a feathery appearance on the branches of the seed stalk, mature over a similar period, about 12 days after flowering. If ignored, this early seed will be lost. Shake the plant into a paper bag any time you observe maturing seed. This will provide more and cleaner seeds. Another method is to wait for the branches to have a feathery appearance, then cut them. Dry them for several days on a canvas to save any seed that falls, then shake out the remaining seed. winnow the seed to remove any trash.

Many varieties of lettuce have been produced that do best in the growing conditions of specific areas. The gardener who starts with a preferred variety of lettuce, who provides good growing conditions, and who discards any undesirable plants, can improve that variety to produce the plants best suited for that garden.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (Helianthus tuberosus). Perennial. Propagated by tubers.

If you have read anything about Jerusalem artichokes, you know that the name is a corruption of words, and that the plant has nothing to do with either Jerusalem or artichokes. It was cultivated by North American Indians, and was a source of pleasure to the empty stomachs of many an early colonist.

Plant tubers four inches deep, two feet apart in rows spaced three feet apart, and in an area of the garden where the plant, all six to eight feet of it, will not shade other crops, and where its missionary zeal toward taking over the entire garden can be curbed. The tubers do not store well after being dug, so they should be left in the ground and dug up in the fall or early spring, as they are needed for eating or for propagation. This tuber is an excellent vegetable, flavorful and crammed with nutrition. It’s easy to grow too; neither pest nor disease has challenged the long line of my Jerusalem artichokes, nor slowed its expanding width.

SALSIFY (Tragopogon porrifolius). Biennial. Perfect flowers (having both male and female parts). Self-pollinated.

Salsify is a delicious root vegetable that has won little popularity. Like parsnip, its taste is improved by cold weather. Even in northern Vermont, the roots can be left in the ground during the winter, then dug up for eating in the spring.

If you wish to raise salsify seed, you will carry this process one step further, selecting the best of your roots in the spring and replanting them a foot apart, in rows spaced three feet apart. If you decide not to rogue the plants, simply thin to one root every foot as you are harvesting the rest.

In the second year, the salsify plant will grow to about three feet in height with large, purple flowers. When the seeds develop and mature (with the “feathers” of dandelions), pick the individual

heads in the morning, and dry them for several days. Then rub the heads between your hands to free the seeds, and winnow them.

TABLE II

A Checklist of Some
Seed-Borne Vegetable
Diseases

BEAN    Anthracnose (false rust), bacterial blight, bacterial wilt,
    common mosaic, halo blight
BRASSICAS   Bacterial leaf spot, black leg, black rot
CARROT  Alternaria blight, bacterial blight, early blight
CELERY  Early blight, late blight
CORN    Bacterial blight (Stewart's disease), seedling blight
CUCURBITS   Anthracnose, alternaria blight, angular leaf spot,
    fusarium wilt, mosaic
EGGPLANT    Fruit rot (phomopsis blight)
LETTUCE Anthracnose, mosaic, septoria leaf spot
PEA Ascochyta pod spot, bacterial blight, scab
PEPPER  Anthracnose, bacterial spot, cercospora leaf spot

POTATO (tubers) Bacterial ring spot, black scuff, early blight, late blight, leaf roll, mosaic, scab, wilt

RADISH  Leaf spot
SPINACH Anthracnose
TOMATO  Bacterial canker, bacterial spot, early blight, nailhead
    spot, wilt

Many authorities recommend hot water treatment of infected seed: immerse at 125°F. (52°C.) for 15 to 30 minutes just prior to planting. Cool seeds quickly. Alternatively, a 90-second soak in diluted bleach (one part household bleach to nine parts water) followed by a pure water rinse will disinfect the seed coat.

Seed treatment with Captan (or an equivalent fungicide) is practiced commercially and by some home seed savers to control some seed-borne diseases and damping-off. Some agricultural uses of Captan have recently been restricted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Studies have shown that Captan can be carcinogenic or mutagenic in some animals.

Captan is the active ingredient in several household pesticides. In general, its use cannot be encouraged for home gardeners; if you decide to use it anyway, be sure to read the label directions carefully and follow them explicitly.

PART I I I

The
Flowers

The Best Flowering
Ornamentals to
Save for Seed

Included in this section are common annual and biennial ornamentals that, with varying degrees of effort, can be saved by the home gardener. There are many closely related perennial species, often with names similar to the annuals, that can also be grown from seeds. Perennials, however, are ordinarily propagated vegetatively to maintain varietal distinctions. For information on the various methods of vegetative propagation, refer to Lewis Hill’s Secrets of Plant Propagation (Garden Way Publishing, 1985).

For many self-sowing species like ageratum, forget-me-not, and foxglove one has only to catch the seeds before they are naturally dispersed. The most challenging ornamental for the seed-saving flower gardener is double stock, the procedure for which involves a complicated process of selection (and considerable luck).

Unlike with vegetables, there are significant intrava-rietal differences between some flower varieties. For instance, the cosmos variety ‘Sensation Mix’ includes four flower colors. When saving seed from year to year from the entire group together, plants with darker flower colors may come to predominate. Commercial seed producers isolate the color strains within the variety for seed growing and then blend the seeds for sale. The home seed grower can partly overcome this problem by saving more seed from the genetically recessive colors (usually the lighter pigments). True zealots may resort to caging seed parents to exclude pollinating insects and to performing hand pollinations. The inheritance pattern of many significant ornamental qualities like doubleness of flowers, flower color, flower shape, and plant stature are extremely complex genetically and not entirely understood. You will have to accept “pot luck” in some cases.

Seed maturation may take several weeks beyond the time the flowers fade. In the meantime the plants may become unsightly end continued flowering will be suppressed in those species where “deadheading” is required. Many gardeners do not harvest seed until the plants have been killed by frost. Freezing temperatures will not kill the seed, but much of your control over seed saving is gone after a frost. Remember to dry the fruits and/or seeds adequately after harvest, even if they appear dry already.

Finally, I will reveal the most important secret of successful flower seed saving: an intimate knowledge and understanding of the plants. Carefully observe them throughout their life cycles. Study the flowers as they expand, dissect an immature ovary to see the ovules and how they are placed, look at the pollen under a microscope, watch the pollinators at work, keep a record of when your favorites flower and the number of days to seed maturity. In other

words, get to know as much about the flowers as your time and interest allows. Your diligence will be rewarded in many ways.

AGERATUM (Ageratum houstonianum, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This old-time favorite can be a prolific self-sower. The seed is tiny (about 200,000 to the ounce!). The flower heads turn brown and dry out as the seed matures. Requires close watch of the seed head or seeds will be lost to shattering.

The many Fit hybrids will yield variable offspring. ‘Blue Mink’ is a fine variety from which to save seed.

ALYSSUM, Sweet (Lobularia mariuma, fem. Brassicaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This diminutive member of the Mustard Family has a lot to recommend it, being very hardy and blooming only six weeks from seed. In mild climates it may act as a perennial.

The fruit is a small two-celled capsule. The seed matures unevenly over the plant, so you must hand-harvest the capsules when they turn brown (and while damp, to avoid seedless from shattering.)

AMARANTH US (Amaranthus caudatus, fem. Amaranthaceae). Annual. Monoecious (having separate male and female flowers on the same plant). Wind-pollinated, but generally inbred.

This is an interesting species because of the many horticultural forms, including the varieties ‘Love-Lies-Bleeding’, ‘Green Thumb’, ‘Pygmy Torch’, and ‘Viridis’. The male and female flowers are borne adjacent on the flower stalks. Amaranth can be a self-sower, but it requires a long season to mature seed. The fruits are one-seeded,

maturing along the flower spikes or “tails.”

Red leaves are dominant to green leaves. The young leaves and seeds of this species are edible.

ASTER, China (Callistephus chinensis, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects, but double-flowered types are mainly self-pollinated.

The China aster is a favorite for cut flowers. Be certain to grow wilt resistant varieties, since wilt is a seed-borne disease.

Superdouble flowers will not produce seed. Color dominance is purple over red over pink over white. Therefore, purple crossed with red will produce an all-purple Fl. Remember, though, that this Fl will pass on the red gene 50 percent of the time. Therefore it is possible to cross a purple-flowered plant with a red-flowered plant and obtain 50 percent purple plants and 50 percent red plants. The red-flowered plants obtained will only produce red-flowered plants if pollinated only among themselves.

The seed heads are harvested individually when mature dandelion-like “feathers” appear.

BABY’S-BREATH (Gypsophila elegans, fem. Caryophyllaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The seeds of baby’s-breath are ready to harvest when the fruit capsules turn brown. If very mature, it is best to pick the capsules when the dew is on them, to prevent seed loss.

BACHELOR’S-BUTTON (Centaurea cyanus, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This occasional self-sower sometimes lives over the winter. Flower

color dominance is blue over pink over white.
Harvest the seed by cutting when most of the flowering is done; the seed shatters easily, so be careful harvesting it. Birds also enjoy this seed, so beware of losing it to them.

BALSAM, Garden (Impatiensbalsamina, fem. Balsaminaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is a shade-tolerant, moisture-loving relative of the weed touchme-not or jewelweed. There are many genes which affect flower color and flower form, but in general colors are dominant to white and single flowers are dominant to common double forms.

Harvest the seed-bearing capsules when they are yellow. It is a good idea to put them in an airy covered box, because the seed may be exploded out of the fruit when dry.

BEAN, Scarlet Runner (Phaseolus coccineus, fem. Fabaceae). Annual. Self-pollinated.

This ornamental bean is grown like regular pole beans. It is a perennial in the Tropics, where it was probably the original edible bean of the Aztecs. Many modem stringless varieties are available for table use. Pods can reach one foot long, and seeds to one inch wide. The selection var. albus has white flowers. The flowers are self-pollinated, so red and white varieties can be maintained together. See the Bean entry on page 98 for further seed-growing infommation.

BELLS-OF-IRELAND (Moluccella laevis, fem. Labiatae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The showy part of this plant is the persistent calyx (the external part of the flower, consisting of the sepals). The fragrant flowers are tiny. The seeds are in the collection of four outlets nestled within the base of the calypso Seeds are ready for harvest when the outlets are dry. Seeds may self-sow.

Gemmination of this species may be difficult.. Best results have been obtained by pre-chilling soaked seeds at 50°F. (10°C.) for five days, then gemminating them at temperatures of 50°F. (10°C.) at

night, 85°F. (30°C.) during the day. It may take up to three weeks for germination to occur.

BORAGE (Borago oJ7icinalis, fem. Boraginaceae). Annual. Crosspollinated by insects.

Borage is a marvelous bee plant. The plant is rather coarse, but has lovely blue flowers (occasionally purple or white). The flower can be candied as a confection. The leaves, which have a cucumbery flavor, can be used in soups, salads, etc. Borago is derived from the Latin burra, ‘rough’ or ‘hairy’, which describes the foliage. Seed savers should look for a hairless strain, which would be welcomed by all borage eaters.

The species sometimes self-sows. Harvest the seed when the one-seeded outlets are dry (occasionally two-seeded outlets occur).

CABBAGE, Flowering (Brassica oleracea, Acephala Group, fem. Brassicaceae). Biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This ornamental is grown for seed like the regular vegetable cabbage, except that it does not form a tight head. See Cabbage, page 75.

CALENDULA (Calendula officinalis, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The calendula or pot marigold has been a garden favorite for centuries. In cool regions the plants have a very long flowering season if dead heads are promptly removed.

The full double-flowered varieties may be sterile, because of a lack of stamens early in the season, but later the flowers may become fertile semi-doubles.

Hybrids like ‘Mandarin F.’ and ‘Apricot Sherbet F.’ will not come true from saved seed, but may segregate out some interesting individuals. The “seed” of the calendula is actually the fruit.

Cut the flower heads before the seeds shatter. The seeds can be slightly immature when harvested.

CANDYTUFT, Globe (Iberis umbellata, fem. Brassicaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This hardy annual will sometimes over winter when sowed late. It blooms six weeks from sowing until hard frost. Flower colors are white to purple.

Sometimes the outer flowers in a cluster are sterile. Harvest the small, roundish pods when they turn a yellowish brown. Each pod compartment contains one seed. The seeds do not shatter. Alternate wetting and drying of the pod will make seed extraction easier.

CANTERBURY-BELLS (Campanula medium, fem. Campanulaceae). Biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

There are various forms of this plant other than the normal bellflower. An annual variety is available. Flower color ranges from violet to white, with darker colors dominant over lighter ones. The double forms do not come totally true from seed.

The cup-and-saucer variety has a flared series of outer “petals, ” with the inner petals forming the regular bell, and the “hose-inhose” type that has a bell within a bell; both are partially dominant over the normal bellflower type.

This species may be difficult to overwinter in severe climates. Rabbits are attracted to it as a gustatory treat.

The tiny seeds (120,000 per ounce) are dispersed from slits at the base of the fruit capsule when mature. The seeds may take two

to three weeks or more to gemminate.

CELOSIA (Celosia cristata, fem. Amaranthaceae). Annual. Monoecious (having separate male and female flowers on the same plant). Wind-pollinated.

These omamentals are considered weeds in the Tropics. The species includes the cockscomb type and the feathered ( plumosa) type, both available in some fiery reds and brilliant golds.

Harvest the seeds when they have dried within the flower heads. Sift them through screening, to separate chaff.

CHRYSANTHEMUM (Chrysanthemum spp., fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

There are several species of these relatives of the florist’s chrysanthemum including the crown daisy (C. coronarium) and the most popular corn marigold (C. segetum). There are several named varieties of each available. The species C. carinatum has a variety, ‘Court Jesters Mixed’, with powers in many different brilliant colors.

Cut the flower heads when they are dry, and be careful not to let the seed shatter.

CLARIaA (Clarkia unguiculata, fem. Onagraceae). Annual. Selfpollinated.

This native of the western United States was named for Captain William Clark of Lewis and Clark fame. The very showy flowers come in many shades ranging from purple to white. The darker colors seem to dominate in intercrosses, as do double flowers. Commercial growers isolate different varieties by 200 feet.

The seeds are ready to harvest as soon as the lower capsules

begin to open. Seeds may be easily shaken out of the fruits.

GODETIA (Clarkia amoena) can be treated similarly.

COSMOS (Cosmos bipinnatus, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Crosspollinated by insects.

This is deservedly a favorite for the back of annual gardens and for cut flowers. When selecting seed parents, be aware that the darker colors dominate the lighter colors in a cross.

You may notice some of the “petals” have a splash of color at the base, lacking in other flowers. The base color gene is also dominant. There are double-flowered forms and a variety with tubular ray flowers (outside “petals”) called ‘Sea Shells’. The variety ‘Candy Stripe’ has red-and-white-striped flowers.

The so-called Klondike cosmos belongs to the species Cosmos sulphureus and will not cross with C. bipinnatus.

To harvest seed, pick the entire head as it ripens. Dry the head and roll the seeds out.

COREOPSIS, Golden (Coreopsis tinctoria, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

Also known as calliopsis, this is the most popular of the annual coreopsis species. Yellow flower color is dominant to brown. The flower heads ripen unevenly, so one must watch carefully as the seed matures and harvest individual heads as the seed dries.

DAISY, English (Bellis perennis, fem. Asteraceae). Biennial. Crosspollinated by insects.

This is the common garden daisy of Shakespeare’s time and before. It is a weedy perennial in England, where it often self-sows.

The special varieties like those with quilled (tubular) ray flowers (the outside “petals”) and double flowers do not come true from seed.

The seeds are tiny, at 135,000 per ounce. Harvest the seed heads when they are dry, before the seed shatters.

DAISY, Gloriosa (Rudbeckia hirta, fem. Asteraceae). Annual or biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The garden variety of this species is the tetraploid form of the blackeyed Susan. It often self-seeds, so harvest the flower heads before the seed is dispersed. It may take up to three weeks for seed to germinate. It is possible to obtain a (probably) sterile triploid form if the plant crosses with wild black-eyed Susan.

DAISY, Swan River (Brachycome iberidifolia, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This Australian native prefers a cool climate. The flower colors vary from purple to white, with the darker colors dominant. Harvest the individual flower heads as they mature and before the seed falls.

FLAX, Flowering (Linum grandiflorum, fem. Linaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is a red- or pink-flowering species related to the important fiber plant which supplies the raw materials for linen and linseed oil.

The fruit is a capsule, usually containing 10 seeds. Harvest the fruits when they are dry, but before they split open.

FORGET-ME-NOT (Myosotis sylvatica, fem. Boraginaceae). Annual or biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This little, usually blue-flowered plant is also available in red, pink and white fomms, with the darker colors dominant. It can become a weedy pest due to self-sowing. I have had spots where it apparently died out, and then years later it reappeared. Sow in the summer for flowers next spring. Sown early in the year, it may produce flowers that year.

The fruit is a collection of four nutlets which are harvested before they drop.

Some varieties of M. sylvatica are incorrectly listed in seed catalogs as belonging to the species M. alpestris.

FOUR-O’CLOCK (Mirabilis jolapa, fem. Nyctaginaceae). Annual; may persist as a perennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This plant puts on its show as a daily late matinee. It may persist as a perennial in southem climates. The tuberous roots, similar to those of dahlia, can be lifted and stored over the winter in the North.

Taller fomms are dominant to dwarf forms. Flower color is inherited in a complex manner.

The leathery fruits contain one seed, harvested as they dry. The plant may self-sow.

Hummingbirds are particularly attracted to four-o’clocks.

FOXGLOVE (Digitalis purpurea, fem. Scrophulariaceae). Biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

Foxglove is one of the most commonly cultivated biennials since it is easy to grow and quite showy. There are many fomms: one with a temminal flower like a moming-glory, one with leopard-like spots on the flowers, a double-flowered type, one that blooms the first year, and various cultivars with flower colors ranging from purple to white.

All parts of the plant are poisonous, it being the source of the common heart medication, digitalis.

The flower spikes are quite long, so lower fruit capsules maybe

dropping their many tiny seeds while the flowers are still open above. Watch the plants for opening of the lower fruits and begin to harvest seed at that time. Foxglove will self-sow in masses that have to be thinned out.

GAILLARDIA (Gaillardia pulchella, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Crosspollinated by insects.

Also known as the annual blanket flower, gaillardia has a bright and showy daisy-like flower, ranging in color from yellow to purplish orange (and reportedly a white fomm).

It may self-sow; otherwise, harvest the heads as they mature and roll the seed out. Gemmination may take several weeks.

HOLLYHOCK (Alcea rosea, fem. Malvaceae). Annual, biennial, perennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

If you picture in your mind’s eye an English or early American cottage garden, hollyhocks should be a main feature. The genus was fommerly called Althaea, but has now changed to Alcea.

The special annual strains must be started very early. The regular hollyhock is a perennial, but it is best treated as a biennial.

The double-flowered varieties are incompletely dominant over

the singles, and crosses will yield in the Fl all semi-doubles. The F2 would segregate out doubles, semi-doubles, and singles in the ratio of 1:2:1.

Fruits are ready to harvest two to three weeks after flowering. The fruit consists of the seeds collected in a circle, which will disintegrate into the individual seeds and chaff if handled when dry. Seeds take two to three weeks to germinate.

HONESTY (Lunaria annua, fem. Brassicaceae). Annual or biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This easily grown species is popular because of the remnant of the dried flower that is used in arrangements. However, the biennial forms may need winter protection.

The white-margined leaf type ‘Albomarginata’ is recessive to the normal.

The few seeds per flower are borne on each side of the papery partition which divides the pod. The seeds are mature when the pods are dry. Collect before the outer pod cases fall away. Honesty may self-sow.

KALE, Flowering (Brassica oleracea, Acephala Group, fem. Brassicaceae). Biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This ornamental is grown for seed in the same manner as the vegetable kale. Refer to the Kale entry on p. 85.

LARKSPUR, Annual (Consolida orientalis, fem. Ranunculaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This species was formerly known as Delphinium ajacis. The juice and seeds are poisonous.

Darker flower colors are dominant. Harvest the seeds as soon as the lower capsules begin to open. The seed is easily shaken out of the end of the fruit. It may readily self-sow.

Larkspur germinates in about three weeks in the dark (light is reported to inhibit germination).

LOBELIA, Annual (Lobelia erinus, fem. Lobeliaceae). Annual. Crosspollinated by insects.

This is a popular edging plant with many horticultural forms, including compact shape and double flowers (full doubles are sterile).

Usually blue-flowered, it is available in other colors, too. ‘Cambridge Blue’ is the most popular variety. The plant is poisonous if eaten.

The fruit is a two-part capsule containing many tiny seeds (about 700,000 per ounce). Harvest when the capsules are dry and thresh by shaking in a paper bag.

Lobelia takes up to three weeks to gemminate.

LOVE-IN-A-MIST (Nigella darnascena, fem. Ranunculaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is an old-fashioned favorite grown for both its attractive flowers and its dried fruits, which are used in arrangements. The seed was used like pepper long ago.

Flower colors range from purple to white, with darker colors dominant in a complex genetic pattem. Single flowers and tall stature are both dominant to their altematives.

The fruit is an inflated capsule containing many seeds dispersed through an opening at the top. Harvest as the fruits dry and shake out the seeds.

LUPINE, Dwarf (Lupinus nanus, fem. Fabaceae). Annual. Self-pollinated.

The little pealike pods are harvested as they turn brown. Each pod contains five to six flat, hard, kidney-shaped, shatter-prone seeds. The seeds should be nicked carefully through the seed coat with a file to hasten germination. Other lupine species are treated similarly.

MALLOW, Rose (Lavatera trimestris. fem. Malvaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is a close relative of the hollyhock and looks it. Despite the

common name, there is a white-flowered form.

The seeds occur within a cluster of podlike fruitless, one seed per fruit. Harvest the fruit when it is dry, and do not extract the seed from the fruit, just separate the fruitless.

Seeds may take up to three weeks to germinate.

MARIGOLD (Tagetes species, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The marigold is one of the most popular annual plants and hence receives much attention from plant breeders and seed growers. Burpee’s search for the white marigold will go down in the annals of commercial horticulture as a brilliant advertising campaign.

The French marigold (Tagetes patula) is not really French but Mexican and is tetraploid. The African or American marigold (Tagetes erecta) is also of Mexican origin and is a diploid. Commercial crosses between the big American and the little French marigold produce a sterile triploid hybrid with the huge flower of the former and the dwarEness of the latter, but with poor seed gemlination.

There are many F. hybrids available which will not come true from seed.

Doubleness of the flowers is a dominant trait. The extreme double may produce little pollen and so must be pollinated by another variety. As the flower season progresses, double-flowering plants may begin to produce semi-double and single flowers, which will be fertile within the variety.

Harvest the seeds when the individual heads dry. Seed is easily rubbed from the head.

MORNING-GLORY (Ipomoea purpurea, fem. Convolvulaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This viny near-weed will not produce its beautiful flowers if the soil

is too moist or too fertile. The double-flowered forms are dominant over singles. Inheritance of flower color is complex would stick with one color-like the aptly named ‘Heavenly Blue’.

The fruit is a globe-shaped capsule usually containing about six large seeds with very hard coats, which must be nicked with a file or soaked in warm water overnight to hasten germination. Morning glory may self-sow. Harvest the fruits when they are dry and break open the capsule to obtain the seeds.

MOSS ROSE (Portulaca grandiflora, fem. Portulacaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is a close relative of the common weed purslane or pusley, but will not be troublesome like it. Portulaca will thrive even with poor soil and in drought conditions.
Inheritance of flower color is complex, but doubleness of flowers is inherited as a simple dominant.

The fruit is a capsule with many tiny seeds (about 280,000 seeds per ounce). The seed is dispersed through a hinged lid atop the capsule. Harvest the seeds when the capsule is dry.

NASTURTIUM (Tropaeolum majus, fem. Tropaeolaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The nasturtium has a long history of breeding manipulation, so today there are many colors; long-trailing and compact vines; single, double, and superdouble flowers; and green or variegated foliage.

Do not plant nasturtiums in too fertile a soil, or flowering will be sparse. Be watchful for heterosporium leaf spot, a seed-borne disease.

The fruit is three-celled, with each cell containing one seed. Harvest when the fruit is dry and separate the three cells. Seed is not extracted from the individual cell. Nasturtium sometimes self-sows.

PANSY (Viola x wittrockiana, fem. Violaceae). Annual, biennial, or undependable perennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The pansy used to be known as Viola tricolor hortensis, but those in the know decided that it is actually a hybrid between V. Iutea and V. tricolor, hence the new epithet.

Seed saved from some varieties, particularly the F. hybrids, reverts to inferior forms. Flower color is inherited in a complex

manner. Be watchful for pansy anthracnose, because it can be perpetuated via the seed.

Though the species is cross-pollinated by insects, I have gathered mature seed from plants in the greenhouse where no pollinators were active. Handpickthe fruit capsules as they mature. Put the closed capsules in a box covered with cloth. As they dry, the seeds will be ejected.

PETUNIA (Petunia x hybrida, fem. Solanaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The petunia is one of those species on which the hybridizers have spent much effort-with wonderfull success. This species, actually a perennial, includes the types advertised as P. grandiflora, P. floribunda, and P. multiflora. They are easily intercrossed and produce various types of offspring. The breeders have yet to produce a strain that will really stand up to rainstorms.

Double-flowered varieties are usually female sterile, but they do produce viable pollen, which can be transferred to single flowers. Seedling doubles are usually more vigorous, with thicker stems than singles.

Be watchful for the tobacco ringspot virus, which is a seed bome disease that affects petunias.

In general, later flowers produce larger, healthier fruits. Harvest the capsules when they are dry, but before they split open. Each capsule contains 100 to 300 seeds. Petunia commonly self-sows and quickly reverts to a wild form.

PHLOX, Annual (Phlox drummondii, fem. Polemoniaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

A high percentage of self-pollination occurs in phlox. Flower color is inherited in a complex manner. The so-called salver-shaped flower is dominant to the funnel-shaped flower.

The fruit is a three-celled capsule, with each cell usually maturing only one seed. Harvest when the capsules begin to turn brown.

PINK (Dianthus chinensis, fem. Caryophyllaceae). Annual, biennial, perennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

The China or India pink is now available in various F. hybrid varieties which will revert to an unimproved type.

A wet growing season may ruin the seed crop. The seed usually matures early in September. The fruit is a capsule, which becomes brown and very hard as it matures. Harvest the capsules and continue to dry for another two weeks. The capsules will split open to free the seeds.

POPPY, California (Eschscholzia californica, fem. Papaveraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This poppy is the California state flower, occurring in shades of white, orange, red, and bicolors. The colorless sap is said to be mildly narcotic and to have been used by Indians in California as a treatment for toothaches.

Heterosporium leaf spot or capsule spot is a seed-bome disease to watch out for.

The fruit is a many-seeded, cone-shaped pod three to four inches long. Harvest the fruit when the capsules turn a light brown, before the seed shatters. California poppy may self-sow.

POPPY, Opium (Papaversomniferum, fem. Papaveraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is the controversial poppy of the heroin trade. Crude opium is

the hardened milky sap exuded from slits made in the unripe fruits. Flower color dominance is purple over red over white. Individuals in the F2 may vary a great deal in color shading.

Single flowers are dominant over double flowers.

POPPY, Shirley (Papaverrhoeas, fem. Papaveraceae). Annual. Pollinated by insects.

This is the famous poppy of Flanders’ fields. It is a prolific self-seeder. Different varieties of this species are available in many colors ranging from red to purple to white. Inheritance of flower color is complex

Harvest the seed when the fruit capsules begin to open, but before the seed is dispersed.

ROCKET, Sweet or Dame’s (Hesperis matronalis, fem. Brassicaceae). Biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is an undependable perennial best treated as a biennial. Flower color comes in shades of purple and plain white. The flowers are very fragrant, especially at night. Double flower varieties also exist.

Seedpods are two to four inches long and contain a row of seeds. Harvest when the pods are dry.

SALPIGLOSSIS (Salpiglossis sinuata, fem. Solanaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

One can see the resemblance of these flowers to petunias, to which they are related. The large, velvety, trumpet-shaped flowers come in a variety of colors. This species is difficult to grow in hot climates.

The fruit is a capsule containing many minute seeds. Harvest when the capsules are dry, before the seed shatters.

Seed will germinate in two weeks.

SALVIA (Salvia splendens, fem. Lamiaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

Salvia is actually a tender perennial subshrub, but it is grown as an annual. Flower colors include red, purple, and white. One seed is contained within each of several Outlets that form at the base of the flower. Harvest when the Outlets are dry, before the fruit drops. Sylvia may self-sow.

It takes up to two weeks for seed to germinate.

SCABIOUS, Sweet (Scabiosa atropurpurea, fem. Dipsacaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

Also known as the pincushion flower, this hardy plant is available in flower colors shading from purple through pink to white. There are double-flowered types, and the variety ‘Grandiflora’ has larger flower heads.

The flowers are attractive to hummingbirds.

The “seeds” cohere in the head and can be harvested when the head dries . Don’t wait too long, however, as the “Seeds” are wind d ispersed.

Seeds take up to two weeks to germinate.

SNAPDRAGON nual. Self-pollinated.

(Antirrhinum majus, fem. Scrophulariaceae). An

The snapdragon is actually a perennial, treated as an annual. It can be propagated by cuttings. It is mainly self-pollinated, but it is amusing to watch bumblebees force their way through the tight lips of the flower to access the nectar.

In general, the darker colors are the most dominant genetically. Yellow, not white, is said to be the most recessive

Plant breeders have had great success with this species, so

there is much diversity. Varieties are available as F. and F2 hybrids, as well as tetraploids, only the last of which will come true from saved seed.

The fruit is a capsule containing many seeds. Cut the flower stalk when two-thirds of the capsules are ripe for a large seed harvest. Otherwise, harvest the individual fruits and shake out the seeds. Snapdragon sometimes self-sows. The seeds are tiny, at 180,000 per ounce. Germination may take up to three weeks.

SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN (Euphorbia marginata, fem. Euphorbiaceae). Annual. Monoecious (having separate male and female flowers on the same plant). Cross-pollinated by insects.

This close relative of poinsettia is a morphologically peculiar plant. The showy parts of the plant are leaflike white bracts. The true flowers, male and female, are inconspicuous.

The fruit is a small capsule containing usually three seeds. Harvest the fruits and extract the seeds when mature. Fruits may open explosively. This plant can self-sow and become weedy.

Many people suffer an allergic reaction following skin contact with the milky sap.

SPIDER FLOWER (Cleome hasslerana, fem. Capparaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

Spider flower and cosmos together make a terrific backdrop for the annual border, with a pastel color splash that waves in the breeze. Spider flowers are available in shades of white, pink, and light purple.

The fruits are long slender “pods” that stick out of the stem like whiskers. Harvest the pods individually and extract the seeds before they are dispersed. Spider flower can be a self-sower. The seeds may take up to two weeks to germinate.

STOCK (Matthiola incana, fem. Brassicaceae). Annual or biennial. Mainly self-pollinated.

The stock is a challenge to the gardener and seed saver. The annual forms include ten-weeks stocks and seven-weeks stocks, the latter of which is trisomic, having one or a few triploid chromosomes in its otherwise diploid set. They all do best with a continuously cool season. Bacterial blight is a seed-borne disease in stock.

The problem for the seed saver is in obtaining the double flowering types, which set no seed. One must save seed from the so called “single-flowered, double-throwing” stocks, which give about 50 percent doubles. In the seedling stage, the dark green individuals will be single-flowered and the lighter green ones will produce double flowers.

Trial and error and copious record keeping and luck will help you select a double-throwing strain of single stocks from your original seed source of mixed doubles and singles. Some bedding plant growers have single-flowered stocks available that may be double -throwing.

The fruit is a pod containing 30 to 60 seeds

Harvest when mature.
SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annuas, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross pollinated by insects.

This plant, some forms of which can grow to astounding heights in the space of one year, is the source of the common bird seed.

The “seed,” which is technically the fruit, is massed in the flat heads that can be a foot or more across. Harvest the seed when it is dry, before it drops. The birds may beat you to it. Weevils occasionally infest the seed.

The sunflower can be a prolific self-sower.

SWEET PEA (Lathyrus odoratus, fem. Fabaceae). AnnuaL Self-pollinated.

These sweet-scented climbers used to be garden favorites. They are too little grown today.

There are various flower colors, plant heights, and flower forms, all of which have complex inheritance patterns. Anthracnose and bacterial streak are both seed-borne diseases to watch for.

If you would like to try your hand at plant breeding, sweet peas are fun to work with. The technique is simple: first, choose a nearly mature flower that has not shed its pollen. Carefully remove all the anthers with a pair of forceps, without injuring the other floral organs. The stigma will not be receptive, but pollen from the male parent can be gently placed on it at this time. The final step is to tag the flower with the parentage and the date indicated in pencil. For example: 6/15, White x Red. When the dry pods are harvested the record keeping must continue, and when the seeds are planted, too. The F. flower color from your cross White x Red will come to light.

Seeds germinate in about two weeks, if soaked overnight before planting.

SWEET WILLIAM (Dianthus barbatus, fem. Caryophyllaceae). Biennial. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This sprightly member of the Pink Family is actually a short-lived perennial. The annual form ‘Wee Willie’ double comes true from seed when pollinated by a double.

The fruit is a small capsule containing many seeds. Harvest before the seed shatters.

TOBACCO, Flowering (Nicotiana alata,fem. Solanaceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This long-blooming, floriferous member of the Nightshade Family is actually a perennial. The variety ‘Grandiflora’, in fact, is propagated by root cuttings.

Flower color is complex genetically, but in general darker colors are dominant.

The fruit is a small capsule containing many minute seeds (about 350,000 per ounce). It often self-sows, so one must pick the fruits before the seed shatters. The seed germinates in about 15 days.

VERBENA (Verbena x hybrida, fem. Verbenaceae). Annual. Crosspollinated by insects.

Verbena, one of the best all-season bloomers, is actually a perennial. The species is quite variable, and there are a number of varieties which will intercross and produce something different.

The fruit consists of a small number of one-seeded Outlets. The seed germinates in about three weeks.

WALLFLOWER (Cheiranthus cheiri, fem. Brassicaceae). Annual or biennial. Limited cross-pollination by insects.

Pronounced Ky RAN’ thus, this plant is a perennial in England.

Darker color shades are dominant. Double-flowered types set little or no seed. Special flower colors and forms are propagated by cuttings or division.

The fruit is a pod 2 to 2 1/2 inches long. Seeds are mature when the pod yellows.

The Erysimum species wallflowers are similar to Cheiranthus.

ZINNIA (Zinnia elegans, fem. Asteraceae). Annual. Cross-pollinated by insects.

This is my favorite flower for bright, long-lasting summer bouquets. The plant breeders have worked hard to make many varieties of this

very popular bloomer available. Today there are many Fl hybrids to choose from, but they are not recommended for the seed saver

Be watchful for zinnia blight, which is seed-borne. It would be good to select a strain resistant to the unsightly alternaria leaf spot.

The seed is mature when the flower has dried up. The seed sticks tightly to the central core, and requires some effort to remove it.

Mail-Order
Seed Sources

The following is a select list of companies-some large, some small-that should be of interest to seed savers, either because of the wide selection they offer or because they carry seeds of particular interest: old-time or seldom-seen varieties, foreign seed strains, or seeds that are well-adapted to a particular growing region or climate of North America. While most of the companies listed specialize in vegetable seeds, many of the larger mail-order sources also offer flower seeds and plants in their catalogs.

This list is by no means complete. Serious seed savers will want to buy a copy of the standard reference from which this list is adapted-the Garden Seed Inventory, 2nd Edition, published by

Seed Savers Exchange, RR 3, Box 239, Decorah,Iowa 52101. This 418-page reference lists and describes more than 5,000 vegetable seed varieties found in some 240 catalogs. The Garden Seed Inventory is available from Seed Savers Exchange for $17.50 softcover or $25.00 hardcover, postage paid.

One final note. Garden seed companies are like most other kinds of businesses: over the course of years, some may change ownership, discontinue product lines, and even go out of business. The following selection of seed suppliers is presented as the most current information available as of this printing. Any corrections submitted by readers will be added to the updates to be used for future printings of Saving Seeds.

ABUNDANT LIFE SEED FOUNDATION P.O. Box 772 Port Townsend, WA 98368 $5.00forseed catalog, booklist, and periodic newsletters. Untreated seeds for the Northwest Pacific rim.

ALBERTA NURSERIES & SEEDS LTD. Box 20, Bowden, Alberta TOM OK0, Canada Free catalog. Seeds for shortseason areas.

STERLING AND LOTHROP ALLEN 191 U.S. Rte. 1 Falrnouth, ME 04105 Free catalog. Vegetable seeds adapted to northern New England. Companyfounded in 1911.

ALsToN SEED GROWERS P.O. Box 266, Littleton, NC 27850 $1.00 price list, refundable with order. Organicallygrown seeds from oldfamily seed savers, collectors, and importers.

BLUE CORN NURSERY 2806 W. Alameda Santa Fe, NM 87501 SASE for seedlist, which includes a number of corn varieties that are both edible and decorative.

W. ATLEE BURPEE Co. 300 Park Ave. Warrninster, PA 18991 Free catalog The largest mailorder seed source in the United States, with a huge selection.

BuRRELL SEED GRowERs Co. Box 150 Rocky Ford, CO 81067 Free catalog Family-owned businessfounded in 1900. Fine selection of cantaloupes and watermelons.

CoMsTocK, FERRE & Co. 263 Main St. Wethersfield, CT 06109 Free catalog Established in 1820. 320 vegetable varieties, including many older varieties.

THE COOK’S GARDEN Box 65 Londonderry, VT 05148 $1.00 for catalog Specializing in greens, with 22 varieties of lettuce, many seldom-seen. Also offers other culinary vegetables.

WILLIAM DAM SEEDS LTD. Box 8400, Dundas, Ontario L9H 6M1, Canada Catalogiree within Canada, $1.00 to U.S. Vegetable, flower, and herb seeds, featuring many European varieties.

DE GloRGI CO., INC. 1529 N. Saddle Creek Rd. Omaha, NE 68104 $1.00 for catalog Many unique and old-time varieties.

FARMER SEED & NURSERY Co. Dept.77 Reservation Center 2207 East Oakland Ave. Bloomington, IL 61701 Free catalog Specializes in coldhardy northern varieties.

GARDEN CITY SEEDS P.O. Box 297, Victor, MT 59875 $1.00forcatalog Nonprofit co m patty featuring un treated, organically grown seeds adapted to the North.

GLEcKLER>s SEEDsMEN Metamora, OH 43540 Free catalog Seed collection assembled from around the world. Many unique tomato varieties.

GuRNEy~s SEED & NURSERY Co. Yankton, SD 57079 Free catalog Huge selection of hardy vegetables, flowers, and nursery stock.

HARRIS SEEDS 961 LyellAve. Rochester, NY 14606 Free catalog Exclusive flower and vegetable seed introductions.

HAsTINGs P.O. Box 115535 Atlanta, GA 30310 Free catalog Founded in 1889. Many selections specially suited for southern growing cond itions.

HEIRLooM GARDEN SEEDS P.O. Box 138 Guerneville, CA 95446 $2.00 for catalog. Unique collection of culinary, historic, and rare plant seeds.

ED HUME SEEDS P.O. Box 1450, Kent, WA 98032 Free catalog Seeds for the Pacific Northwest and short-season areas. Special collections forAlaska and fall and winter planting.

JoHNNy’s SELECTED SEEDS 305 Foss Hill Rd. Albion, ME 04910 Free catalog. Seeds for northern climates. Many new introductions.

|UNG SEEDS AND NURSERY 335 South High St. Randolph, W1 53957 Established l 907. Vegetable and flower seeds.

LANDRETH SEED CO. 180-188 West Ostend St. Baltimore, MD 21230 $2.00 for catalog The oldest seed house in the U.S., founded in 1784.

LE CHAMPION HERITAGE SEEDS P.O. Box 1602 Freedom, CA 95109 $0.50 for catalog Specializes in open-pollinated old-tz’me varieties (introduced 40+years ago), edible

gourds andflowers, and Chinese greens.

LE MARcHE SEEDS INTERNATIONAL P.O. Box 190, Dixon, CA 95620 $2.00 for catalog Specialty vegetableseeds, including European, Asian, and Latz’n American varieties.

EARL MAY SEED & NURSERY CO. Shenandoah, IA 51603 Free catalog Large selection of vegetables and ornamentals.

MELLINGER’S INC. 2340 South Range Rd. North Lima, OH 44452 Free catalog Vegetable, tree, herb, unusual, and imported seeds.

NoRTHpLANIMouNTAlN SEED P.O. Box 9107, Moscow, ID 83843 $1.00 for catalog, refundable with first order. Cold-hardy seeds adapted to short seasons or higher elevations.

PARK SEED CO. Cokesbury Rd. Greenwood, SC 29647 Free catalog Flower seed speczalists since 1868. Also carries a full line of vegetables.

PINETREE GARDEN SEEDS Rte.100 New Gloucester, ME 04260

Free catalog Specializing in varietz’es for limited space, with some unique offerings.

PLANTS OF THE SOUTHWEST 1812 Second St. Santa Fe, NM 87501 $1.00 for catalog Featuring littleknown Natz’veAmerican crops and d rought-tolerant vegetables for the Southwest.

RAwllNsoN GARDEN SEED 269 College Rd. Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 2P6, Canada Free catalog to Atlantic Canada, Quebec, and Ontario; $1.00 for catalog elsewhere, refundable with order. Offers seeds adapted to cool growing regions.

REDwooD CITY SEED CO. P. O. Box 361 Redwood City, CA 94064 $1.00 for catalog Rare and unique varieties.

RIGHTERS Box 26, Goodwood, Ontario LOC lA0, Canada $2.50 for catalog Family-owned companyfeaturing400 types of herbs, unusual gounrzet vegetables.

RoswELL SEED CO.
115-117 South Main St.
Roswell, NM 88201

Free catalog Established in 1900. Vegetable, flower, and lawn seeds adapted to the Southwest.

SEEDS BLt}M Idaho City Stage, Boise, ID 83706 $2 for catalog Over 700 heirloom varieties, including unusual potatoes.

SHEPHERD’S GARDEN SEEDS 7389 West Zayante Rd. Felton, CA 95018 $1.00forcatalog European vegetable seeds and specialty seeds such as scented basz’z’s and edibz’eflowers.

R.H. SHUMWAY SEEDsMAN P.O. Box 1, Graniteville, SC 29829 $1.00 for catalog, refundable with order. Traditz’onal open-pollinated seed varieties.

SouTHERN EXPOSURE SEED ExcHANGE P.O. Box 158 North Garden, VA 22959 $2.00 for catalog Many heirloom and open-pollinated varieties, with an emphasis on seeds suited to the mid-Atlantic growzngregz’on.

SouTHERN GARDEN CO. P.O. Box 200 D-6 10800 Alpharetta Hwy. Roswell, GA 30076 Free catalog Offers seeds that are well adapted to the Southeast.

SOUTHERN SEEDS P.O. Box 2091 Melbourne, FL 32902 $2.00 for catalog Specializes in vegetables adapted to hot climates

STOKES SEEDS INC. Box 548, Buffalo, NY 14240 Free catalog Established 1881; features huge selection of seeds for home gardeners.

TERRITORL\L SEED CO. P.O. Box 27, Lorane, OR 97451 Free catalog Specializes in varieties suited for Pacific Maritime climate.

THOMPSON & MORGAN P.O. Box 1308, Jackson, NJ 08527 Free catalog U.S. branch of well-known English seedhouse.Offering4,000 different varieties of vegetable and flower seeds.

TILLINGHAST SEED CO. P.O. Box 738 La Conner, WA 98257 Free catalog. Seeds for western Washington and British Columbia. The oldest seedhouse in the Northwest, established in 1885.

TOMATO GROWERS
SUPPLY COMPANY
P.O. Box 2237
Fort Mvers. FL 33902

Free catalog Family-owned company serving the backyard tomato grower.

THE TOMATO SEED CO. P.O. Box 323 Metuchen, NJ 08840 Free catalog Offering over 300 varieties of tomatoes.

TSANG AND MA INTERNATIONAL P.O. Box 294 Belmont, CA 94002 Free catalog Far Eastern vegetablesirom China, Vietnam, Malaya, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka.

VESEY’S SEEDS LTD. P.O. Box 9000 Houlton, ME 04730 Free catalog Specializing in vegetable andflower seeds for short-season areas.

WESTWIND SEEDS 2509 North Campbell Ave. #139 Tucson, AZ 85719 Free catalog; SASE requested. Specializes in nonhybrid, untreated seeds for the Southwest.

WILLHITE SEED CO. P.O. Box 23 Poolville, TX 76076 Free catalog Large selection of watermelons and cantaloupes, includingintroduced varieties.

Further Reading

Readers who desire to read more about seeds should consult the following books:

Cox, J., and G. Starr. Seed Production and Marketing New York and London: John Wiley & Sons, 1927.

Edmond, J.D., et al., Fundamentals of Horticulture. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.
Hartmann, Hudson, and Dale E. Kester. Plant Propagation. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1975.

Hawthorn, L.R., and L.H. Pollard. Vegetable and Flower Seed Production. New York and Toronto: Plakiston, 1954.

Hill, Lewis. Secrets of Plant Propagation. Pownal, Vermont: Garden Way Publishing, 1985.

Knott, James Edward. Handbook for Vegetable Growers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1962.

Lawrence, W.J.C. Practical PlantBreeding London: Allen and Unwin, Ltd.,

F.ickett, Harold William. Botany for Gardeners New York: Macmillan Co. 1957.

Slate, George L., ed. Handbook on Breeding Ornamental Plants. New York Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1959. (Special issue of Plants and Gardens, v.15 no.2).

Weatherwax, Paul. Indian Corn in Old America. New York: Macmillan Co. 1954.

Whitsin, John, et al., eds. Luther Burbank, HisMethods and Discoveries and Their Practical Application. New York: Luther Burbank Press, 1914.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Seeds, Yearbook of Agriculture 1961. Washington, D.C.: USDA, 1961

Glossary for Gardeners
(Partially adapted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s
1977 YEARBOOK OF AGRICULTURE)

ANNUAL A plant living one year or less. During this time the plant grows, flowers, produces seed, and dies. Examples: beans, peas, sweet corn.

AXIL (leaf). The angle or upper side where the leaf is attached to the stem. BIENNIAL A plant that grows vegetatively during the first year and fruits and dies during the second.

BOLTING. Production of flowers and seeds by such plants as spinach, lettuce, and radishes, generally occurring when days are long and temperatures warm. BRASSICA. A member of the mustard family. Examples include radishes, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and turnips.

CLONE. A group of plants derived from an individual plant by vegetative propagation such as grafting, cutting, or divisions rather than from seed. CLOVE. One of a group of small bulbs produced by garlic and shallot plants. COLD FRAME. An enclosed, unheated, but covered frame useful for grow

ing and protecting young plants in cold weather. The top is covered with glass or plastic and located so it is heated by sunlight.

COMPOST. Decayed vegetable matter such as leaves, grass clippings, or barnyard manure. It usually is mixed with soil and fertilizer. Valuable as a mulch in a garden or for improving soil texture, and in potting soils.

COOL CROPS. Vegetables that do not thrive in summer heat, such as cabbage, English peas, lettuce, or spinach.

COTYLEDON(S). Seed leaf or leaves containing stored food for initial seedling growth.

CROWN (plant). Growing point above the root where the tops or shoots develop as with lettuce, spinach, carrots, celery, and rhubarb.

CUCURBIT. A member of the gourd family, to which cucumber, muskmelon, watermelon, pumpkin, and squash belong.

CULTIVAR. A term that means “cultivated variety.”A specific horticultural selection, originating and persisting under cultivation.

CURE. To prepare vegetables for storing by drying the skins. Dry onions and sweet potatoes are typical examples.

CUTTING. A segment of plant stem including a leaf node that is cut or snapped off and used to propagate a new plant.

DAMPING-OFF. A fungal disease that causes seedlings to die soon after germination, either before or after emerging from the soil.

DETERMINATE TOMATO. Stem growth stops when the terminal bud becomes a flower bud. Tomato plants of this type are also known as selftoppingor self-pruning.

DIOECIOUS. A term describing plants that have exclusively male flowers on some individuals and exclusively female flowers on others. (SeeMonoecious). DIPLOID. Having the “normal” two basic sets of chromosomes.

DIVISION. Propagation of plants by cutting them into sections, as is done with plant crowns, rhizomes, stem tubers, and tuberous roots. Each section must have at least one head or stem.

DOMINANT. Refers, loosely, to a characteristic, or, more precisely, to the underlying gene that determines that characteristic. For instance, if a plant carries genes for both red and white flower color but produces only red flowers, the gene for red is said to be dominant over the gene for white (which is termed recessive). (See Recessive).

F.. The first filial generation, or the offspring of a given set of parents.

F2. The second filial generation, or the offspring of the F,’s produced either by cross-fertilization among themselves or by self-fertilization.

FERTILIZATION. (1) The union of pollen with the ovule to produce seeds. This is essential in the production of edible flower parts such as tomatoes, squash, corn, strawberries, and many other garden plants. (2) The application to the soil of needed plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potash.

FLAT. A shallow wooden or plastic box, in which vegetable seeds may be sown or cuttings rooted.

FRUIT. Strictly, the ripened ovary (and its contents) of a seed plant. Loosely, the entire structure containing ripe seeds, which may include more than the ovarian tissue. A tomato is a fruit, as is the pod of a pea, the capsule of a poppy, and the “seed” of a sunflower.

FUNGICIDE. A pesticide chemical used to control plant diseases caused by fungi such as molds and mildew. (See also Pesticide).

GERMINATION. The sprouting of a seed and beginning of plant growth.
GREENS. Vegetables grown and harvested for their edible foliage, such as spinach, kale, collards, and turnip greens.

GROWING MEDIUM. A soil or soil substitute prepared by combining such materials as peat, vermiculite, sand, or weathered sawdust. Used for growing potted plants or germinating seed.

GROWING SEASON. The period between the last killing frost in the spring and the first killing frost in the fall.

HARDENING-OFF. Adapting plants to outdoor conditions by withholding water, lowering the temperature, or gradually eliminating the protection of a cold frame, hot bed, or greenhouse. This process conditions plants for survival when transplanted outdoors.

HARDY PLANTS. Plants adapted to winter temperatures or other climatic conditions of an area. The term half-hardy indicates that a plant may be able to survive in local conditions with a certain amount of protection.

HERBACEOUS PLANT. A plant that dies back to the ground in winter, such as asparagus and rhubarb.

HILL. Raising the soil in a slight mound for planting, or setting plants some distance apart.

HOST PLANT. A plant on which an insect or a disease-causing organism lives.

HOTBED. Same type of structure as a cold frame, but heated, as with an electric cable.

HUMUS. Decomposed organic material that improves the texture and productive qualities of garden soils.

HYBRID F.. Plants of a first generation hybrid of two dissimilar parents. Hybrid vigor, insect or disease resistance, and uniformity are qualities of this generation. Seed from hybrid vegetables grown in your garden should not be saved for future planting. Their vigor and productive qualities generally occur only in the original hybrid seed.

IMMUNE. Free from disease infection because of resistance. Not subject to attack by a specified pest. Immunity is absolute.

IMPERFECT FLOWER. A flower containing in itself either male or female reproductive organs, but not both. (See Perfect Flower).

INDETERMINATE TOMATO. Terminal bud is always vegetative, and thus the stem grows indefinitely. Indeterminant plants can be trained on a trellis, a stake, or in wire cages. (See also Determinate Tomato.)

INFLORESCENCE. The entire floral structure of a plant.
INTERNODE. A region on a plant system between the nodes.

INIERPLANTING. The process of planting early-maturing vegetables between rows of slow-maturing vegetables to obtain maximum productivity from a garden. An example is radishes or onions planted between rows of sweet corn.

LEGGY. Weak-stemmed and spindly plants with sparse foliage caused by too much heat, shade, crowding, or over fertilization.

LEGUME. A plant that takes nitrogen from the air with the nitrifying bacteria that live on its roots. Examples are garden peas and beans.
LIFTING. Digging a plant for replanting or winter storage.

MICROCLIMATE. The climate of a small area or locality as compared to that of a country or state. For example, the climate adjacent to the north side of a home, or the influence of a lake on a portion of a county.

MILDEW. A plant disease caused by several types of fungi, recognized by the white cottony coating on affected plants.

MIST. Applying vaporized water to cuttings in the propagating stage.

MONOECIOUS. A term describing plants that have both male and female reproductive organs in different flowers on the same plant, such as cucumbers and squash. (See Dioecious).

NITROGEN FLYATION. The transformation of nitrogen from the air into nitrogen compounds by nitrifying bacteria on the roots of legumes.

NODE. The region of a plant stem that normally produces leaves and buds. PARTHENOGENIC. Fruit produced without fertilization of the owlets) Usually seedless. (See Fertilization, definition 1.)

PATENTED. Plant varieties protected by a government patent, which grants exclusive rights to the patent holder.

PERENNIAIL Any plant which normally lives more than two years. Examples are artichoke, asparagus, raspberry, and rhubarb.

PERFECT FLOWER A flower containing in itself both male and female reproductive organs. (See Imperfect Flower).

PESTICIDE. General term for any chemical used to control pests. PHOTOPERIOD. Length of the light period in a day.

PHOTOPERIODISM. The effect of differences in the length of the light period upon plant growth and development.

PLANT VARIETY PROTECTED. Plant varieties protected by the U.S. Government Plant Variety Protection Act, which grants certain rights to the holder.

POLLEN. Reproductive material, usually dustlike, produced by the male part of a flower.

POLLINATION, OPEN. The transfer of pollen by natural means from the flower of one plant to another flower of the same or different plant species. POLLINATION, SELF. The transfer of pollen from the male part of one flower to the female part of the same flower, or to another flower on the same plant.

PROPAGATION. Increasing the number of plants by planting seed or by vegetative means from cuttings, division, grafting, or layering.

RECESSIVE. Said of a gene (or of a specific plant trait or characteristic controlled by that gene) that can be masked by the corresponding dominant gene. (See Dominant).

RESISTANCE. The ability of a plant to restrict disease or insect damage or to withstand severe climatic conditions.

RHIZOME. A horizontal underground stem, distinguished from a root by the presence of nodes and internodes, as well as buds and scalelike leaves. ROGUE. An off-type or diseased plant. Also, to remove such plants from the garden.

ROOT CROPS. Vegetables grown for their edible roots, such as beets, carrots, radishes, and turnips.

RUNNER. A slender, elongated, and prostrate branch that has buds and can form roots at the nodes or at the tip.

SEEDBED. Garden soil after it has been prepared for planting seeds or transplants by plowing and dishing, rototilling, spading, or raking.

SEED LEAVES. See Cotyledon.

SEEDLING. A young plant developing from a germinating seed. It usually has the first true leaves developed.

SETS. Small onion bulbs used for early planting.

SHORT-SEASON VEGETABLES. Vegetables ready for harvest after one to two months following planting.

STAKING. Tying plants such as tomatoes to a stake to provide support.

STOLON. A slender, prostrate stem. It may produce a tuber such as a potato.

SUSCEPTIBLE. A term used to describe a plant that is unable to restrict activities of a specified pest, or to withstand an adverse environmental condition.

TENDRIL A slender twining organ found along the stems of some plants such as grapes, which helps the vine to both climb and cling to a support. TETRAPLOID. Having four basic sets of chromosomes.

TOLERANT. A term used to describe a plant that can endure a specified pest or an adverse environmental condition, growing and producing despite the disorder.

TRANSPLANTING. Digging up a plant and removing it from one location to another.

TRIPLOID. Having three basic sets of chromosomes.

TRUE LEAF. An ordinary leaf (as opposed to a seed leaf or cotyledon), which functions in the production of food by a plant.

TUBER (STEM). A thickened or swollen underground branch or stolon with numerous buds or eyes. Thickening occurs because of the accumulation of reserved food. Examples: potato, Jerusalem artichoke.

TUBEROUS ROOTS. Thickened roots, differing from stem tubers in that they lack nodes and internodes, and buds are present only at the crown or stem end. Example: Sweet potato.

VARIETIES. Closely related plants forming subdivisions of a species and having similar characteristics. (See Cultivar).

VEGETATIVE GROWTH. The growth of stems and foliage on plants, as opposed to flower and fruit development.

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION. Increasing the number of plants by such methods as cuttings, grafting, or layering.

VIABLE. Alive, such as seed capable of germinating.
RAWLAW

Getting Ready for 2020. SHTF?

Getting ready for 2020. SHTF?

I try not to write really long articles. I try to keep them short and sweet and get to the point. Here are a couple questions for you:

 Do you have food to feed yourself and your family?

Do you have water storage and means of water purification for you and your family?

 Do you have a means of cooking said food if your power goes out for a long while?

Whatever your plan is do you have it do you have a shelter with that be your house in apartment about your location anything do you have a shelter for you and your family.

 Last, but not least do you have a means of security? Security is just as important as the rest of the items listed above do you have firearms and ammo to secure you and your family?

 Do you have the training to use those firearms?

 Do you have the mentality to protect your family for whatever may happen in the near or distant future?

I believe big things are happening now, please do not take this as fear mongering or fear porn. I think shit is going down. If you take a look at the current political climate in the country. Whereas the country is nearly divided 50-50 right down the middle. When you hear talks about a second Civil War in America. When you hear talks of socialism coming to America with over 50% of millennials and generation Y supporting and wanting socialism in America. Then you hear about the escalating war and conflict spots throughout the world with what’s going on in Venezuela, with what’s going on in France and the yellow vest, with what’s going on with China and Russia and hacking and news of Facebook and Instagram going down possibly at the hands of the Chinese with the Russians also involved.

There is a lot going on and it’s only getting worse by the day and for some funny reason my spider senses are tingling.  I believe 2020 is going to be one heck of a year. I’m not saying 2020 is the new millennial bug. I’m also not saying 2020 is the end of the world like in 2012 with the Mayan calendar. I’m not saying the event is going to happen or SHTF is happening in 2020. I am just saying that the current environment we are in is getting more and more hostile. That’s not even talking about food prices going up at a rate higher than normal inflation. The stock market having a wild ride with everybody trying to sell you silver instead of gold or crypto currency because it’s safer than the US dollar? There is nothing safer than the US dollar, not gold, not silver, not crypto currency. If the US dollar is worthless everything is worthless because everything is backed by the US dollar it’s just common sense even though it is just a Fiat currency.

I think now more than ever in our history is the best time to prepare. Get your food stocks ready. Get your water stocks ready. Get your water procurement ready. Get your cooking methods ready. Get your family and personal security ready. Find your Bug Out Location now!  Whether you want a bug in or bug out have your plans ready now because it’s only going to get worse.  If nothing happens between now and 2020 or 2021 or January 1, 2021, when the new president, whomever that maybe is inaugurated into office. What do you have to lose by preparing now? So what if you have more food, more water and more security and a plan set? Who cares if you never use it? This is my biggest quarrel with people when I talk to them about survivalist and prepping. Who cares if you never use it? Most people have life-insurance are they hoping to die to use the life insurance? No! So why not have food water shelter and security insurance?  
Ref:

SHTF, Every Light in the House is On

Some of you country music fans may recall the song by Trace Adkins, but what does it have to do with survivalists and prepping? Everything. Now lets put this into perspective. The Grid just went down (Maybe from an EMP, Solar Flare, or maybe “somebody” just flicked the switch) or perhaps we just had a major economic collapse and nobody at any power company showed up for work today. So the SHTF as we say.

Fortunately, you decided to bug in at your home, with your family. It is also very fortunate that you are a Survivalist/Prepper. A couple years back you installed a propane generator, a 1000 gallon propane tank, that was just filled the week before. You also cashed out most of your 401(k), and took the tax penalty to purchase that awesome solar panel system with Lithium batteries that you always wanted. So what is the big deal than you and your family are prepared and ready for anything.

The big problem is that even thou you may live in a fairly rural area and are prepared your neighbors did not. Every house on your street is dark. Every house in your neighborhood is dark. Every house in your nice and small rural town is dark.

BUT…..Your house is lit up like a Christmas tree in the middle of July! What does that make you? The biggest target on your street. The biggest target in your neighborhood. The BIGGEST target in your nice and small rural town.

So today we are going to talk about Light Security. In future articles we will discuss Noise Security, Smoke from fires and cooking, smells, etc. Light Security is very important Post SHTF. You wouldn’t want the noise from your propane generator (as long as you have fuel) be heard by your neighbors or anyone else for that matter. So why would you want the lights from your house (if your bugging in) or the lights from your BOL (Bug-Out Location) be seen by anyone either? Light if available has to be contained. Windows must be blocked, door sills must be “sealed” and its use must be contained and even rationed as much as possible. There is no reason to announce your presence with the use of light when everything else is dark.

Just another thing to think about in this crazy never ending learning process of survivalism and prepping.

What have you done today to get ready for SHTF?

Thanks,

Brent

Professional Survivalists/ Professional Preppers

I am writing this quick note to both warn and inform my readers. There are NO Prepper/Survivalists professionals out there. There is not a Prepper PHD program! Everything you read on prepping/survivalists is an opinion. That opinion may or may not be an educated guess, a hypothesis. Whether that opinion is based on experience is up to you to decide. In other words, please take all prepper/survivalists advice and prepping knowledge with a grain of salt.

What am I getting at here? No living person in the United States of America has any experience with bugging out or a real SHTF experience. I say this because SHTF has NOT happened in the good ole USA.

So everyone’s experience and knowledge is solely based on opinion. Even mine. Be careful what advice you take as you and your families life just may depend on that advice you took.

What did you do today to prepare for SHTF?

Thanks,
Brent

The Quintessential Super Survival Food

What is the Quintessential Super Survival Food you may ask? The food that has more Calories per serving than anything else? The smallest and best bang for your buck? Well without a doubt the best survival food in the world you can buy is…..Olive Oil. Olive Oil is 100% Fat and contains 120 calories per Tablespoon! That is 1920 Calories per Cup. That is a super survival food. Did you ever consider adding Olive Oil to your preps?

All kidding aside,now am I telling you to go out and buy a 55 gallon drum of Olive Oil for your family to survive off of? No. Of course not. What I am saying is I would like you to think about your preps for you and your families survival and consider all the options available to you when it comes to your families long term survival.

Now lets look at it this way….”What if” each member of your Prepper group received 1 cup of rice as their food ration? What if you mixed in one tablespoon of Olive oil with each cup of cooked rice? How about also adding a dash of salt and pepper to each cup of rice? Do you see where we are going here? You can add a great deal of sustenance with very little effort, if you plan accordingly.

So the moral of this story is to planning accordingly on a budget is not that difficult. Yes, you can put back 60 pounds of dried rice for each member of your prepper group. But you can also put back very basic low cost provisions too. These include but are not limited to Salt, Pepper, Sugar, Olive Oil, Dried Turmeric, Honey, Multi Vitamins, Etc. As with anything good planning before SHTF goes a long way after SHTF.

What have you done today to get ready for SHTF?

Thanks,

Brent

Brexit Preppers

According to a news article released today, the link can be found here:https://www.forexlive.com/news/!/forget-doomsday-preppers-the-new-thing-is-brexit-preppers-20190304 “The British are Prepping!, The British are Prepping!” No The British are not Coming! They are prepping. Why are the British prepping? Because…. They fear an upcoming SHTF situation if the Brexit passes or does not pass.

The article states that 20% of the British population are considering stockpiling food and supplies while another 5% already have done so. I guess the British Prepper community is larger than the 3%.

Lets keep an eye on this situation and see how it transpires over the next few months.

What have you done today to get ready for SHTF?

Bravo

Survival Prepping for Normal People

If I had to recommend one YouTube Channel to my fellow Preppers and Survivalists it would have to be hands down without a doubt Kyle’s channel “Survival Prepping for Normal People”. Kyle offers the most informative information and insight on survivalists and prepping that I have ever seen. His video’s are to the point, with no Bullshit and absolutely no Fear Mongering or Fear Porn of any type.

He releases around 1 to 2 videos a day, and has been doing so for at least a couple of months now. So Kyle has at least 400 videos on his channel, each one includes valuable knowledge and insight on a range of topics that affect Survivalist and Preppers in many ways. I love watching his videos, I am a subscriber and I also joined him on Patreon and donate to watch his exclusive content. I highly recommend his Channel to ALL my readers!

The channel link is here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCBHwPKsYjC90XCY-6SapvKg/featured

Like , Subscribe and add him to your notifications.

Also Kyle’s Patreon page is here:https://www.patreon.com/survivalpreppingfornormalpeople

Where you can join for as little as $1.00 a month up to $7.00 a month, But I like his content so much I give a lot more for his efforts.

Kyle….Thank You!

What have you done today to get ready for SHTF?

Thanks,

Brent

Bug Out Bag – Essential Antibiotics

Your Bug Out Bag – Essential Antibiotics
There are several reasons why you could need to evacuate your house. It could be because of a natural disaster, such as an oncoming storm, rise flood waters, or an earthquake. It could also be due to a fire or some other emergency. Just do not get too many ideas from that ridiculous San Andreas movie.

That movie was preposterous. The point is, when we leave our house in a hurry to head to somewhere safer, we often don’t have the time or opportunity to take along a lot of things. We only take the bare essentials, and other necessary items if we remember too.
Continue reading “Bug Out Bag – Essential Antibiotics”

No sauerkraut after SHTF

Usually there is not much humor in prepping, but today there is an exception. There will be no sauerkraut after the SHTF!

During our scheduled can food storage inspection and rotation we noticed something odd about the can of sauerkraut. It appears to have corroded from the inside out. Possibly from the vinegar inside eating away at the cans enamel coating.

Just goes to show that preppers must always keep an eye on their prepping and rotation schedules.

Bug In or Bug Out (Evacuate or Stay put/ Survival in place)

I get asked this question all the time, so I figured I will talk about it a little more. Should I bug in or Bug out? Lets look at both:

Bug In – (AKA Survival in place, Staying put, etc)

This is where your primary residence, whether it be a house, apartment, trailer, mobile home or farm, is the place you go to when the SHTF or the balloon goes up. It is more cost effective (cheaper) to bug in , if you have all your preps at this location and have created a survival retreat out of your house. This includes but is not limited to food reserves, water storage, water collection devices, survival gardens, livestock, defensive plans, reinforced structure, etc.

Bug Out – (AKA Head for the hills)

Bugging out is when you leave your primary residence and go to a PRE-DETERMINED survival location. This is usually the situation when you live in a fairly large . Possibly dangerous after civil unrest city, that you feel is way to dangerous to Bug In or you have other concerns about your primary residence where you are not comfortable bugging in. Bug out locations are usually at least 15 miles away from your primary residence and could be as far away as 150 miles, but should be under 60 miles away if possible. These are usually farm type locations with at least one acre of land.

So what is the differences and which one is better? This is up to you, your location and your financial abilities. If your primary residence is in a suburban area, where it can be defended, and you have enough preps and supplies on site and the ability to raise or grow and store more, it is best to bug in and stay. If you do not own your primary residence, or you have the financial ability to have a dedicated bug out location, or if your primary residence is located in an unsafe zone, It is best to bug out.

Fire Extinguishers at the Bug Out Location

The title says it all, the one thing I never read about or see in any survivalist or prepper writings. The need for fire extinguishers in your bug out location. Remember there is no 911 after the SHTF. The fire department will not come to your rescue. You most be able to stop any fires before they get out of control, or better yet stop any potential fires from happening in the first place.

Fire Extinguisher Basics:
Class A extinguishers are for ordinary combustible materials such as paper, wood, cardboard, and most plastics.
Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, grease and oil.
Class C fires involve electrical equipment, such as appliances, wiring, circuit breakers and outlets. Never use water to extinguish class C fires – the risk of electrical shock is far too great!
fire extinguishers are commonly found in a chemical laboratory. They are for fires that involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium.
Class K fire extinguishers are for fires that involve cooking oils, trans-fats, or fats in cooking appliances found in the kitchen.
Water extinguishers or APW extinguishers (air-pressurized water) are suitable for class A fires only. Never use a water extinguisher on grease fires, electrical fires or class D fires – the flames will spread and make the fire even bigger! Water extinguishers are filled with water and are typically pressurized with air. Only fight the fire if you’re certain it contains ordinary combustible materials only.
Dry chemical extinguishers come in a variety of types and are suitable for a combination of class A, B and C fires. These are filled with foam or powder and pressurized with nitrogen.
1. BC – This is the regular type of dry chemical extinguisher. It is filled with sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate. The BC variety leaves a mildly corrosive residue which must be cleaned immediately to prevent any damage to materials.
2. ABC – This is the multipurpose dry chemical extinguisher. The ABC type is filled with mono-ammonium phosphate, a yellow powder that leaves a sticky residue that may be damaging to electrical appliances.
Dry chemical extinguishers have an advantage over CO2 extinguishers since they leave a non-flammable substance on the extinguished material, reducing the likelihood of re-ignition.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers are used for class B and C fires. CO2 extinguishers contain carbon dioxide, a non-flammable gas, and are highly pressurized. The pressure is so great that it is not uncommon for bits of dry ice to shoot out the nozzle. They don’t work very well on class A fires because they may not be able to displace enough oxygen to put the fire out, causing it to re-ignite.
Water Extinguishers are the only ones that can be reused and have a indefinite shelf life as they can be refilled. All the other ones listed above loose charge over time and may not be there when you need it. Keeping flammable materials away from fire sources is a start to a safe survival retreat.

Hide your Preps

Just a quick note and reminder to all of our readers. Hide your preps, Nosy neighbors are no good. This should not be too hard if everything is inside, but watch out for your exterior preps. There are very crafty ways to hide such outside preps. This include storing them in a shed, making them look like a shed, Disguising them as pool equipment if you have a pool, Making them look like compost bins, etc.

Long Knives

Long Knives

By long Knives I mean swords, kukri’s and machete’s. Anything over 10 inches that can be used for chopping in a self defense senario. I am not a sword expert and have only just brought my very first sword blade. I have had a large collection of kukri’s, down to 5 at the current moment and had a little experience with machete’s. Below is the research Ive collated from the following links, that I thought may make it easier for another purchaser to use when buying their first long knife.

Ive found that anything over 18 inches is not practical in terms of concealment POST SHTF. Anything under 10 is more a camp chopping blade. 12 inch kukri’s can be carried in a dundee rig, inverted across the shoulder blades as can a medium length golok, 14.5 inches in blade length. Ive modified my golok by reshaping the tip so its more rounded and had it reground from a convex to a V grind for better decapitation qualities. At the moment it is also having a kydex sheath made for an inverted carry option. I suggest watching Cold Steels fighting Machete dvds from Cutting Edge Knives to see the capabilities of a machete in action. As these seem the wave of the future in defensive choppers.

I was about to purchase a Cheness Ko-katana but just got in with the pre-orders of Swamprat Rodent Waki’s made from SR-101 with a 17.5 inch blade. If I ended up purchasing a ko-katana. I probably would have cut it down to an 18 inch blade from the handle end and replaced the grip with micarta. (Personal observation). I believe theyve now come out with a Practical Katana called a Tak Wak at 18 inches in length made from 5160 steel.

One blade Ive taken a chance on buying to see how it would perform is a Rambo 4 chopper. Ive got to tell everyone before mentioning this not to laugh, but it ended up being a great chopper at 12 inches. The temper is a little soft, so doesnt keep an edge when chopping hardwood. However it wasnt brought for that reason. Going up against a steel bar or similar a softer temper has less chance of snapping when compared to a harder steel, being brittle with a harder temper. Ive ended up doing the same as with the golok with an inverted kydex sheath and reshaping the initial grind to a slightly thinner edge for slicing. I havent touched the secondary grind to keep the weight behind the length. The grip has also been replaced with black paracord. These would make a very good design for a combat machete made from a better quality steel.

Cold steel DVD’s

http://www.coldsteel.com/fima.html

Swamprat Rodent Waki

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRnVY9qLCEE

Valiant Goloks

http://www.valiantco.com/

http://www.oldjimbo.com/survival/valiant1.html

http://survivalpreps.blogspot.com/2007/10/after-reading-several-online-reviews-e.html

Cheness Ko-Katanas

http://www.chenessinc.com/ko-katana.htm

Sword Buyers guide

http://www.sword-buyers-guide.com/buy-swords-online.html

Cold Steel Gurkha Kukri

Review of the Cold Steel SK-5 Gurkha Kukri

by Mc Joe Donald

http://www.survivalistboards.com/showthread.php?t=39286

So far, the CS SK-5 Gurkha Kukri has been a fantastic companion. It chops, it splits, it carves, it stabs and pierces deeply. It comes with a great edge, and it keeps a great edge. I’ve used mine regularly with little more than the occasional touch up to the edge, I haven’t had to actually re-sharpen the knife in the year that I’ve owned it.�

Aesthetics: The knife is 17″ from tip to tail, 5/16″ at the spine (which tapers after the curve down to the point), with a wedge-shaped blade, and a v-shaped edge grind. �
It has a kraton handle, which can be described as a hard rubber or soft plastic, durable, grips well when wet, and has proven to be comfortable so far. The black coating has held up well. I’ll be posting pics and hopefully videos of the knife in action at a later date.�

Steel: SK-5 (I’m no expert) is a high carbon tool steel. It’s similar to that used in hardened cutting tools, such as chisels and wood carving knives. It is a tad on the brittle side as compared to say 1055, but with the shape of the blade it seems it would take a really stupid mistake to ever make this a factor. I’ve split countless logs (batoning) chipped tinder, carved spears, notched traps, drilled fire boards, hammered tent stakes, cleared trails and lanes and so far the only noticeable wear on the edge is where it caught a couple grains of sand while splitting a 4″ ash log (you can feel it with a finger nail, still cant really see it). For as much hardwood as this knife has been through, I am amazed. I’ve never seen an edge on any knife last this long after so much hard use, except for my high quality bee-keeping hive knife.�

Style/Shape:
The kukri shape of the blade definitely adds to its utility. I do not exaggerate when I say this knife chops like a good hatchet. There’s one less tool you need to carry. The downward angled, weight-forward design makes it bite deep, and the V-shaped grind on the blade makes it spit chunks like an axe. Have yet to get it stuck.�
The narrow part of the blade (nearer to the handle) makes carving tools a breeze. You have good leverage when choking your hand up nearer to the edge, and the weight of the blade makes taking small consistent shavings an easy task. This is one area where a heavier knife shines, as you are able to make more controlled (and resoundingly safer) strokes with less effort. Let the weight of the blade do the work. I’ve found a lighter knife for carving tools to be dangerous and much more fatiguing.�

Advantages: When in the wilderness, every calorie counts. Every drop of sweat counts. Every drop of blood really counts. Having a little weight in your blade will save you effort in the long run, even though it’s more to carry. That’s why I like a bigger knife… fewer blisters, you don’t have to swing as hard. You don’t have to push the knife to carve, you gently swing it. And more weight = more steel, and usually that means stronger. It’s worth the extra carry weight to me to have it easier when its work time.�

Quality:The knife comes with a 5 year Warranty. Judging from what I’ve seen I don’t think I’ll need it. The handle would probably be the only thing I’d expect to wear out. It is made of Japanese steel (great stuff) in China (eh, didn’t know it when I bought it, glad I didn’t though) but so far it has far exceeded my expectations.�
The sheath is decent, 2 pieces of molded kydex style plastic, suspended vertically on a nylon web loop. The halves are riveted together, kind of a negative in my mind, as I like to be able to take the sheath apart. It secures on the bulge near the business end of the grip by snapping around it. There is a hole in the sheath tip to allow for water drainage. There are many places to attach a leg-lashing to keep it in place. I like to lash the sheath to a pack with the 2″ wide holes running along its sides. It also hangs low enough to wear it on a belt on your hip while also wearing a backpack padded belt (mine is a Kelty external frame) and still have easy access to it.�

Drawbacks: The only other negatives I can see to the knife are the fact that you need to keep the edge oiled (animal tallow would work for this), and the fact that it is a tag big for gutting and skinning smaller animals, but does well at this task, with care, on whitetail (and I assume larger) deer or animals. This would be a reason to carry a smaller, more suited knife for fine tasks, besides the the fact that you should always have a backup anyway. I like the Tom Brown Tracker T2 by Topps for this purpose. I’ll be reviewing it at a later date.�

Overall: I’d give this knife a 9 out of 10, loosing a point for the potential long term durability issues of the handle, and limited utility on small game. I plan on ordering a couple extra handles from cold steel, I understand they are hammered on, so it should be a simple task to replace the handle once the worn one is removed.�

This is my favorite knife to date. The price is reasonable (i’ve found them for less than $80) the steel is quality with a good ring to it. It is hard and sharp, and in my opinion, just the right size.

What is the best type of steel for a sword?

This is a common question asked by beginners, but it is somewhat akin to asking ‘how long is a piece of string’ – mostly because ‘best’ depends on what type of sword we are talking about and what its intended usage is…

Not to mention that there are other factors that are actually more important than just the type of steel it is made from (for example, heat treatment and the quality of the forging is more important than the steel itself – a properly heat treated piece of the cheapest plain carbon steel is much better than than the best quality L6 tool steel if the attempt is not NOT tempered properly!).

BUT LET’S TRY TO KEEP IT AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE!

So let’s ask instead ‘what are the different types of steel commonly used to make a sword – and what are their strengths and weaknesses’ (when tempered properly of course!)?

In this article, we will attempt to answer THIS question – and let you make up your own mind on what types of steel best suit YOUR preference (and budget) in a sword.

STAINLESS STEEL

It used to be that just about every sword on the market was made from Stainless Steel. Now, it is almost only relegated to cheap decorative swords – and for good reason!

Stainless steel swords (or any blade over 12″ long) is considered to be TOO brittle for serious usage and can shatter relatively easily.

To get just a little technical with it – Stainless steel is ‘stainless’ because it has a high Chromium content (over 11%) – and when a blade gets over 12″ long (such as a sword..) the grain boundaries between the chromium and the rest of the steel start to weaken, creating stress points. So the purpose of a sword made from stainless steel is to put it on the wall – and just keep it there to admire from a distance!

NOTE: There are a few exceptions to this rule. Stainless steel swords can be used for NON CONTACT forms practice. And there have been a few smiths who have been able to use more sophisticated techniques to make it suitable for cutting – but these techniques come at a price, and are never found on the ‘surgical quality stainless steel’ blades being sold on the Internet and marketed as battle ready because they are sharp… (Yikes!).

PLAIN CARBON STEEL SWORDS

At the very least, for a functional sword it has to be a (properly tempered) ‘High Carbon steel sword’. But what exactly does this mean?

Generally, The American society of automotive engineers (SAE) scale is the one most commonly used by sword manufacturers. And the most commonly used steel for functional swords is plain carbon steel, which is designated by the first two digits 10 – and a number from 01 to 99 afterwards, with each point signifies that .01% of that steel is carbon.

For example, steel classified as AISI 1045 has 0.45% carbon content, 1060 is 0.60 carbon, etc.

Steels with a carbon content between 0.05 to 0.15 are considered to be LOW CARBON STEEL, and 0.16 to 0.29 MILD STEEL – neither of which are suitable for a functional sword (as any sword with a carbon content of less than 0.40% can’t really be hardened and given a decent heat treatment).

The most popular three types of carbon steel used in swords are 1045, 1060 and 1095, starting with the most inexpensive (1045) with most sword experts agree that the ideal range for a durable and sharp sword is somewhere between 0.5 and 0.7 carbon content.

1045 CARBON STEEL

1045 Carbon Steel swords are quite cheap to make because, being relatively soft, they are easy to make (either by hand forging, pressing or machine milling) but can be hardened, so are effectively the MINIMUM acceptable steel for a functional blade.

If well tempered, they can be surprisingly strong, and when you look at a sword under US$100, if it just says ‘high carbon steel’ – it is probably 1045… (and at this price, it is almost certainly machine milled).

1060 CARBON STEEL

1060 Carbon Steel is a great compromise between hardness (edge holding ability) and pliability (strength) – and many swords famous for their DURABILITY, such as those by COLD STEEL and DARKSWORD ARMORY , are made from 1060 carbon steel.

Consequentially, 1060 Carbon Steel swords are very popular, though because the steel is harder than 1045 – are more difficult to forge, shape and polish and thus almost always has a higher price tag.

Definitely a great all round steel that is hard enough to take and keep a good edge but focused primarily on it’s durability.

1095 CARBON STEEL

1095 Carbon steel is very HARD – and unless it is properly heat treated, this hardness can sometimes be problematic when used on harder targets (either intentionally, or unintentionally – such as accidently hitting a wooden stand).

The main advantage to swords made from 1095 carbon steel is that they can take and keep a much keener edge than swords with a lower carbon content. The disadvantage is that they can sometimes be a little on the brittle side – so durability is traded off for edge retention.

It doesn’t mean that a sword made from 1095 carbon steel is exceptionally fragile, but it is simply no where near as TOUGH as the lower carbon content swords. The video below of the Akio Hattori Katana distributed by DARKSWORD ARMORY show that while they may not be as tough as the lower carbon content swords, they are still quite durable…

So it just depends on what you are looking for in a blade…

SPRING STEEL

For our purposes, there are basically two types of spring steel swords – 5160 and 9260. As with the plain carbon steel swords, the last two digits represent the carbon content – so both have .60% carbon and therefore, are like the 1060 carbon steel swords (a great compromise between hardness and durability) – and when properly heat treated, allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant bending or twisting, thus giving 1060 spring steel a special kind of ‘twist’.

So let’s take a look at these two different steel types:

5160 SPRING STEEL

5160 Spring Steel is a low Chromium alloy steel, with around 0.7 Chromium – which is not enough to make it stainless (which requires a minimum of 13% Chromium) – but combined with a small amount of silicon (0.2%) results in an extremely tough and durable sword and is favored by sword makers such as ANGUS TRIM, GENERATION 2 and the blades designed by Michael Tinker Pearce and made by the HANWEI FORGE.

5160 Spring Steel was also the steel of choice for the famous Nepalese Khurki – blades so tough and so sharp they are reportedly able to cut off a buffalos head with a single strike!

Again, what is critically important is the heat treatment – if it is applied wrong, even the best 5160 Spring Steel sword will take a set (Generation 2 had some issues with this way back in 2007), but when applied properly – the end result is spectacular.
9260 SPRING STEEL

Made famous by CHENESS CUTLERY – 9260 Spring Steel (also called Silicon Manganese Steel) consists of 2% silicon content, giving it an even more dramatic resilience against lateral bends and allowing it to spring back to true even after being bent almost to 90 degrees.

Swords made from 9260 Spring Steel have a reputation for durability – with 9260 Spring Steel having a tensile strength almost double that of 5160 (source – efunda.com).

While these swords are almost legendary for their toughness, like any blade they are not indestructible – and while rare, they can be broken or damaged. I’ve tested quite a few myself very hard and never had this happen, but I have heard of it occurring – and there is this video on youtube showing a Konron forge 9260 blade breaking against a thick bone (thicker than any human bone would be) – which would happen to almost any blade striking it – so they don’t have magical powers that defy metallurgy or physics..! 😉

The moral of the story is that no blade is indestructible – and because of the nature of what swords were originally designed to do, it is never a good idea to put yourself in a situation where you expose yourself to the potential of a blade snapping off and flying through the air anywhere near you…

TOOL STEELS

Tool steel swords have been quite popular in recent years, mostly because swords made from these steels are hard yet quite tough and tend to hold and keep a good edge. While there are several types on the market, there are two that everyone tends to be talking about – and those two are T-10 tool steel and the legendary L6 Bainite.

T-10 TOOL STEEL

T10 Tool Steel is a Tungsten alloy steel with a very high carbon content (around 0.9 to 1.0%) with a little bit of silicon (around .35% maximum) and is often referred to as ‘High Speed Steel’.

This stuff tends to be very hard (above HRC60 when properly tempered) and the Tungsten means that it is also more resistant to scratches and abrasions than most other types of steels, plus considerably tougher than other swords with a similar level of carbon content.

While these swords are generally only seen on higher end production swords, the $330 SBG Custom Katana series swords are made from T10 steel, hold their own quite well.

L6 BAINITE

L6 Bainite is also a tool steel (band saw steel actually), with the L designating it is a low alloy steel and – when properly heat treated, has a reputation as the TOUGHEST type of sword steel currently on the market – mostly due to the innovative custom sword work of Howard Clark, a smith for the Bugei Trading company who started producing this steel in the late 1990s.

While when properly heat treated (it can be a hard steel to work with) there is little argument that it is one of the toughest steels commercially available for swords, it can sometimes be prone to rust so needs plenty of maintenance, and of course, is quite expensive to make (no decently made L6 sword has a price tag of under US$1,000).

REAL Swords have a FULL TANG

The weakest point of most modern swords is the handle, in particular the metal insert into the handle attached to the blade known as the tang. Unless a sword has what is known as a “full tang” it is liable to break when struck against any surface. Or worse still, come loose from the handle like a helicopter blade when swung with even moderate force (and for obvious reasons cannot be called a functional sword).

REAL Swords have been properly HEAT TREATED

Real swords (at least these days) are for safety reasons always properly heat treated and tempered to create a blade that is not too brittle and not too soft. If a sword is described as “carbon steel” but there is no mention of how it is heat treated and you don’t know about the manufacturer – there is a good chance that it hasn’t been heat treated at all. And if it hasn’t been heat treated, it doesn’t qualify as a real sword.

REAL Swords are made from CARBON STEEL

Real swords are always made from carbon steel. The vast majority of cheap swords being sold online are made from stainless steel. While stainless steel is a great choice for knives, it starts becoming very brittle on anything longer than 12″ and is NOT a suitable material for a functional sword, no matter what some marketers might claim�

What are you going to cut with your sword?

  • There are light, medium, and heavy use cutters. Most manufacturers will tell you right up front what a particular sword is designed for:�
    • Light cutting: beach mats, pool noodles, water bottles, etc�
    • Medium cutting: regular cutting of light targets and occasional cutting of tatami omote�
    • Heavy cutting: regular cutting of Tatami Omote and occasional cutting of heavy targets such as 3″+ bamboo, multiple rolls of tatami omote, or mats wrapped around an oak dowel

A Beginner’s Glossary of Terms�

Arms of the Hilt | Basket | Blade | Blade Length | Blunt | Button | Center of Gravity (CoG) | Center of Percussion (CoP) | Counterguard | Cross (Cross-guard) | Cruciform | Edge | False Edge | Ferrule | Finger Ring | Forte’ | Foible | Fuller | Furniture | Grip | Guard | Hilt | Knuckle-guard | Langet | Overall Length | Pas D`ane | Point of Balance | Pommel | Port | Quillion | Quillion Block | Ricasso | Scabbard | Shell Guard | Side Ring | Tang | Terzo | Turk’s Head | Wire-wrap

Arms of the Hilt�
Part of the sword hilt extending on each side from the cross guard (or quillions) toward the blade and having the form of a small arc. The arms of the hilt are known to have been in use from the 15th century but they had probably made their appearance in the 14th, protecting the forefinger when it gripped the ricasso. They represented an important step in the development of the guard. In the swords of the 16th and 17th centuries the arms of the hilt served as a support for loops and rings of the guard, as well as for bars of the counterguard. �

Basket�
An arrangement of bars, plates, and rings that form a “cage” around the sword hilt, creating a protected guard (or “basket”) around the wielder’s hand. �

Blade�
The cutting and/or thrusting part of edged weapons, excluding the hilt. �

Blade Length (BL)�
A unit of measurement representing the length of a weapon’s actual blade; generally measured from the tip to the end of the guards. �

Blunt�
A term applied to an unsharpened sword or dagger that has had its edges rounded for safe sparring activities. �

Button�
A raised piece on the pommel of swords, daggers and knives, to which the tip of the tang of the blade was peened. It usually formed part of the pommel, but could also be a separate piece; it was sometimes made of a different material. Since the 19th century the button on military weapons has had a threaded hole inside to be screwed onto the threaded end of the tang. �

Center of Gravity (CoG)�
See Point of Balance.�

Center of Percussion (CoP)�
The Center of Percussion of a blade is the measured value along its length that produces the least amount of vibration upon hitting a target. It’s the area able to deliver the most efficient, powerful blow and is often called the blade’s “sweet spot”. �

Counterguard�
Also called inner guard, a system of rings, loops, and bars in a sword guard that was developed in c.1500 to protect the inner side of the hand and body. Bars or branches of the counterguard usually joined the knuckle-guard and arms of the hilt. �

Cross (Cross-guard)�
A part of the furniture of edged weapons, positioned crosswise to the blade and the grip. As the simplest form of guard, it has been known since antiquity. In some swords of the 16th to 18th centuries, cross guards were extended forward and backward to form the fore and rear quillions. Cross guards can also be seen on some staff weapons, on which they served the same purpose of protecting the hand. �

Cruciform�
A term describing a sword with a simple cross-guard, that when inverted point up, forms the profile of a crucifix. �

Edge�
The sharpened cutting portion of a weapon’s blade. �

False Edge�
In single-edged weapons, a sharpened portion of the back near the point; it is also called the back edge. It served both for better thrusting penetration and for cutting strikes carried out from the same position of the sword (without turning the hand). �

Ferrule�
A ring or cap reinforcing the grip of an edged weapon or the shaft of a pole arm. The term is also often applied to scabbard bands. �

Finger Ring (Finger Guard)�
The portion of a sword’s guard that is a semi-circular bar laying in the plane of the blade, attached to the root of the quillions and curved round to touch, or nearly touch, the edges of the blade. Finger rings are also called the Arms of the Hilt. �

Foible�
The upper third of the blade, ending in the point. The division of the blade into forte, terzo, and foible is attributed to the Italian school of fencing, which enjoyed a fine reputation in the 16th and 17th centuries �

Forte’�
The lower third of the blade of a sword, nearest the hilt, which is the strongest section of a blade and does most of the parrying. �

Fuller�
The grooves running lengthwise on some blades of edged weaponry, designed to both lighten and make flexible the weapon. Compared with the various other structural modifications made to blades, the fuller appeared relatively late and only after considerable technological advances had been made in metalworking. In the Bronze Age there were opposite forms, with various angling and ribbing methods designed to reinforce the blade. During the “barbarian” migrations, we find swords with blades having a wide, shallow groove running down both faces. At a later stage the first signatures or marks of the craftsman appeared in these grooves. Through the centuries the fuller became an even more integral part of the blade until, in the 16th and 17th centuries, it also became a demonstration of the craftsman’s skill. �

Furniture�
A generic word used to describe the accessories and fittings on various types of weapons. It refers, in particular, to everything built onto the tang of any edged weapon to facilitate its use and any decorative mounts on the handle, blade, or scabbard. It is also used in a general sense, when referring to attachments, fittings, and accessories of armor. �

Grip�
The part of edged weapons that is gripped by the hand. In the Stone Age it was made by rounding off and smoothing the part held, then binding it with leather or fabric. In the Bronze Age, because of the greater possibilities offered by this metal, the grip became markedly different from the rest of the weapons and added some sort of protection for the hand. From the late Middle Ages, the wooden shaft was predominately used, covered with colored fabrics, sheets of decorated precious metal, polished leather, or twisted and braided wire. In order to provide a firm hold, the grip almost invariably had a spindle-like form, was fairly rounded, and trimmed and grooved. �

Guard�
In edged weapons, a device or a part designed to protect the user’s hand. �

Hilt�
The whole of the grip and the guard in a bladed weapon, generally consisting of the pommel, grip, and cross guard. �

Knuckle-guard (or Knuckle-bow)�
An important part of the hilt of swords and sabers in the form of a bow extending from the cross guard toward the pommel. As can be adduced from several English swords, it appeared no later than the mid-15th century, first as an extension of the cross guard strongly bent upward to protect the hand from cutting blows. Later the knuckle-guard became a central piece of the sophisticated system of side bars forming the guard of swords and rapiers. Although it gradually lost its importance with the introduction of light thrusting smallswords in the second half of the 17th century, some examples of this weapon preserved the knuckle-guard as a traditional pattern up to the 20th century. In most types of military swords and sabers, the knuckle-guard has always retained its role of protecting the hand from cuts, and it is still a feature of fencing sabers and of swords of historic form worn with full dress uniforms. �

Langet�
In staff weapons, the langet consisted of an iron strap, usually straight but sometimes zigzag shape, extending from the socket down the wooden part of the shaft and attached to it by nails or screws. There were usually two langets, in line either with the cutting edges or with the flat faces of the head. They carried out the dual task of increasing the strength of the attachment of the head to the staff and of protecting the most exposed part from blows; in hafted combat weapons, therefore, the other two sides of the wood were sometimes protected by “false langets,” with one end fitted into the socket or into a square ring under the socket, thus protecting the other two sides of the wooden staff.�

In sabers, and less often, in other swords, the langets are extensions of the cross guard going symmetrically from its center into the grip and over the shoulder of the blade, on both faces of the blade. In most cases, there is a small space between the blade and langets, which tightly fit the locket of the mouth of the scabbard, thus preventing an accidental unsheathing. There is a possibility that strong langets were also used by experienced swordsmen to stop and catch an opponent’s blade at a sliding lateral strike. �

Overall Length (OL)�
A unit of measurement representing the complete length of a weapon from tip to end. �

Pas D`ane�
A term of French origin, used fairly widely but incorrectly since the 19th century to describe the arms of the hilt. In the 17th century, it was used to describe one of the oval shells forming the sword guard. �

Point�
A term referring to the sharp tip or end of a sword blade at the opposite end of the hilt. �

Point of Balance (PoB)�
The Point of Balance on a sword is simply the point on which the center of gravity is located. In other words, it’s the spot along the blade’s length that has equal mass on either side of it. The PoB will vary widely between sword types and their intended functions. �

Pommel�
The end of the grip in swords and daggers, which served either to give a better hold on the weapon or to balance it. �

Port�
See Side Ring.�

Quillion (or Quillon)�
An extended cross guard of swords and daggers designed in the 16th century to parry or entangle the opponent’s blade. The quillions extended from a base, the quillion block, below the grip, and were either straight, recurved in S-Form, or bent toward the blade (especially in parrying daggers). In some types of hilts the forward quillion was curved toward the pommel, serving as a knuckle-guard. �

Quillion Block (or Quillon Block)�
Part of the guard of edged weapons consisting of a small block of metal with the tang passing through it, acting as a support for the shoulder of the blade and the base of the cross guard. This feature was absent throughout most of the Bronze Age, appearing in antiquity as an intermediate element between the grip and the blade, being slightly broader than the latter. With the appearance of quillions and other elements of the guard, its form and function became more defined; in fact, the quillions extended from it, as did the knuckleguard and the arms of the hilt. The quillion block was also called the ecusson. �

Ricasso�
The unsharpend section of the blade near the hilt and usually within the guards in front of the quillions. One purpose of the ricasso was to allow a user to curl a finger over a quillion, allowing for better point control. Often times, longer swords would have an extended ricasso, allowing the gripping of an entire hand onto the blade past the cross guard for more leverage. �

Scabbard�
A rigid sheath made of wood, metal, or leather-often cuir-bouilli (hardened leather)–used to enclose and carry the blade of an edged weapon, both to protect the wearer and to keep the blade clean and sound. In the protohistoric period, it was often made with plaques of cast bronze; later it was made with small wooden plaques that were covered with leather or fabric and then fitted with bindings and metal mounts. The edged weapon has always been something of a status symbol, and the scabbard was therefore of great importance to keep the weapon in good order.�

The ways in which scabbards have been made down the ages vary a great deal, but they have been generally simple for weapons of war, and richly decorated and ornate for weapons carried by leaders and royalty, and for presentation and ceremonial weapons. �

Shell Guard�
A type of the sword guard, often round or oval in shape. It appeared in the early 17th century and was used in various swords, such as the Pappenheimer or the Walloon sword. By 1630 it had assumed the hemispherical shape and was widely used in Spanish and Italian swords. Shell guards were also fitted to smallswords and to various hunting and naval weapons. �

Side Ring�
Also called ring guard or port, a part of the guard of swords and daggers for protecting the hand during parrying actions, first seen in the 15th century and particularly widely used in the 16th and 17th centuries. The side ring was positioned at the center of the cross guard, at right angles to the blade. It was made of a solid piece of steel welded or brazed to the cross guard and was sometimes fitted, for additional protection of the fingers, with an openwork metal plate. Occasionally a smaller side ring was placed inside another, both meeting at the cross guard. In other types, one side ring projected from the cross guard and the other from below it, both being linked by the arms of the hilt. The latter construction is frequently found on rapiers and two-handed swords. �

Tang�
The stem of the blade, which extends into the handle and serves to attach the hilt. Its form varies depending on the system that joins the handle to the blade. If pointed, the tang is driven in like a nail, a very simple system still used for tool handles (e.g., files, chisels, etc.). In order to achieve a stronger join, the tang is usually shaped like a tapering cylinder that slightly exceeds the length of the handle and is peened onto the pommel or button. In the 19th century the end of the tang was often threaded, and the button was screwed onto it. �

Terzo�
The middle section of a blade, between the forte and the foible. �

Turk’s Head�
A modern nickname for rings made of twisted-wire braid sometimes used to finish off both ends of the grip of swords and daggers. It is so called because of its resemblance to a turban, a type of headdress typical of some Moslem peoples. �

Wire-wrap�
A form of covering and finishing the grip of a weapon, consisting of twisted or braided wire spun round the handle. Often the wire was of alternating types (iron, bronze, copper, etc.) or alternating patterns (twisted clockwise, counter-clockwise, straight, etc.), forming complex visual patterns. Wire wrapping was employed both to increase the security of a weapon’s grip as well as of a means of decoration.