Bolt Action Rifles

This is the most in depth article Ive ever been able to find on describing the differences in bolt action rifles. What I like about it the best is that after describing the inherit designs, still leaves it up to the individual to decide what is best for them. Its well worth checking out the link for pictures of the different systems and a comparison chart of manufaturing data. The only thing that isnt mentioned from a survivalist/preparedness angle are rifle twists.This only really applies to the 223 cartridge, being the current military round. Military rounds usually the primary choice, believing that they will be more common after SHTF. Im not a big believer in that philosophy myself. The below article is written on standard rifle features and not from a military sniper nor a competition perspective.

Rifling is the process of making spiral grooves in the Gun barrel which imparts a spin to a Projectile around its long axis. This spin serves to gyroscopically stabilize the projectile, improving its aerodynamic stability and accuracy. Rifling is described by its twist rate, which indicates the distance the bullet must travel to complete one full revolution, such as “1 turn in 10 inches” (1:10 inches), or “1 turn in 30 cm” (1:30 cm). A shorter distance indicates a “faster” twist, meaning that for a given velocity the projectile will be rotating at a higher spin rate.

The 223 round is generally made with a 1 in 12 twist for sporting shooters. This will stabilize a production 55 grain load. Military rounds are a 69 grain ball projectile or if wanting to use a 223 for larger game, need to be loaded with for example a 70 grain hollow point. To stabilize the heavier rounds a faster twist rate is required. The twist rate of military firearms I believe is 1 in 7 but dont quote me on that.

There are three main actions that are now made with faster twist rates as standard in bolt actions. If wanting to change an existing twist rate on another action or barrel then another barrel needs to be fitted. Tikka make a 1 in 8 twist and both Savage and Remington come out with 1 in 9 twists in their tactical models.�

By Rick Jamison

One of the questions I am most frequently asked is: “Which bolt-action rifle is best?” The inquiry nearly always comes from someone intending to buy a hunting rifle, not a competition target rifle. My usual response is that, for the price, all the popular and current American-made actions are good. A shooter can simply pick one he likes and go with it without going wrong. That might sound like a cop-out, but it’s true. At the same time, however, there is more to the story. While they all function well and reliably, they are far from all the same. They are designed differently, and it is these design features that may hold the key to finding the rifle that is right for you.

On the surface a bolt action appears to be basically simple. But when one examines all the different aspects of what it takes for a fully functioning system, the actions are not simple. Some of the designs and innovations that solve the same problems are what separate the makes. Most of these design features aren’t of interest to the average shooter. What is important is how the rifle feels, handles, and functions in your hands. Again, the key is to look at firearms from the standpoint of what suits you best. To help you decide what’s best for you, let’s look at the key features of what I consider to be the top six popular bolt actions.

Locking Lug Design
For example, all the popular bolt actions feature locking lugs situated near the front of the bolt. Most have two opposing lugs (Remington Model 700, Ruger Model 77 Mark II, Savage Model 110 Series, Winchester Model 70), but the Browning A-Bolt has three and the Weatherby Mark V has three banks of three for a total of nine locking lugs. What this means to the shooter is that two opposing lugs make for a 90-degree bolt lift. Three lugs, or banks of three, make for a shorter 60-degree bolt lift. If you want a shorter arc in bolt lifting, go with the Browning A-Bolt or the Weatherby Mark V.

Since the camming distance is shorter with the shorter lift, some have suggested that something is sacrificed–that the bolt is probably more difficult to lift, the spring is weaker, perhaps, or that the striker falls a shorter distance. In reality, the mainspring is quite long and is compressed a relatively small percentage during bolt lift. What you will find is that the Weatherby and Browning actions both open with normal to light resistance. When it comes to sporting rifles, the user has little concern about how a manufacturer achieves the final product. What is important to the shooter is how the rifle feels during operation. Again, all the modern actions function well and reliably enough for sporting purposes.

The real answer is to go to a gun shop and try the bolt function of the different designs to see which one feels right to you. A shop owner might not want you working the bolts on new guns just for testing, but there should be no problem in working the bolts of used guns. For some, the short 60-degree lift just doesn’t feel quite right. Others will appreciate the shorter and potentially quicker bolt throw.

There has been a lot of controversy about multiple lugs. It is said that not all of them can be made to bear evenly in a production gun. Today’s machinery is pretty good, and it is in the interest of the manufacturer to make the strongest rifle possible in accordance with the design. The average shooter doesn’t know whether all the lugs bear or not. If this is an issue for you, the answer is to purchase only an action, then have the lugs lapped by a good gunsmith before fitting and chambering a new barrel. (And if you desire that much precision, you would probably want to have a number of other aspects of the rifle altered as well.)

Production manufacturing of popular rifles is designed to keep costs down while offering a serviceable product, and again, for the price you pay, popular rifles offer a lot. As for my own hunting guns, I don’t worry about lug bearing and action machining unless I re-barrel. Off-the-shelf rifles shoot okay for hunting purposes, and the actions are plenty strong. This is really the crux of the issue.

When you are testing different actions you’ll notice that Browning, Remington, Ruger, Savage, and Winchester rifles have the same diameter bolt body (around .690 inch). The exception is the Weatherby with a bolt diameter of about .839 inch. In the Weatherby, each lug is small and is machined within the large bolt body whereas in the two-lug bolt rifles mentioned the lugs project outward from the bolt body. You will also notice that the Weatherby action is exceptionally smooth.

Safety Location & Operation
Insofar as the feel of the rifle, aside from bolt operation, the safety location and operation are perhaps the next most important features on any rifle.

Another aspect of the safety is what it blocks. You might want a safety that is functional even though the bolt handle is not blocked. Some shooters desire this feature so that rounds can be cycled through the action with the safety engaged. If you want this feature, be sure that the rifle offers it–for example, the Winchester Model 70, Ruger Model 77 Mark II, Savage 110 Series, or the right Remington Model 700. On the Remington 700, some rifles have it and some do not. On some Remington models, depressing the safety lever straight down unlocks or locks the bolt. It is an added feature on the safety.

Extractors & Ejectors
While much as been made of extractors and ejectors, they all work well. If you’re a controlled-round-feed aficionado, go with the Winchester Model 70 with controlled-round feed or the Ruger 77 Mark II. The rest of the six rifles mentioned have the push-feed feature. A controlled-round feed means the cartridge is grasped by the bolt (claw-type extractor) immediately when the bolt pushes it forward and the round exits the magazine box. In the push-feed design, the round is free to move about after it exits the magazine and before it enters the barrel.

As for ejectors, a plunger ejector places constant spring pressure on one side of the base of the cartridge. As the cartridge is withdrawn from the action, the mouth of the case drags on the barrel and receiver ring until it is flipped out the ejection port. It is ejected with the same force regardless how the bolt is withdrawn.

A standing ejector places no pressure on the cartridge. In fact, the ejector is not even in contact with the cartridge case until the bolt is pulled to the rear and the ejector extends past the boltface to flip the case out of the action. With a standing ejector, the speed and force of bolt operation control how the round is ejected. Pull the bolt back slowly and the empty case can easily be grabbed for handloading. Pull the bolt back quicker and the empty is flung a short distance. Pull the bolt back sharply with a lot of force and the empty is flung farther away. Some shooters desire this latter feature for the control it provides. If you want it, make certain the rifle you purchase has it. The Model 70 Winchester with controlled-round feed and the Ruger Model 77 Mark II have this (standing ejector) feature.

One other thing on ejectors: When it comes to very big cartridges with heavy bullets designed for African game, standing ejectors can be deformed by continually flinging the bolt open with a loaded round. The force of the round with the weight of the bullet constantly batters a standing ejector. Some shooters intending to go to Africa practice rapid bolt operation using dummy rounds that have bullets but no powder or primer. This practice can destroy a standing ejector. While the controlled-feed Model 70 Winchester is often a rifle of choice for African hunting, this same rifle is susceptible to extractor battering and deforming (bending in the middle). It is no problem during normal use because the cartridge is usually fired prior to ejection, and an empty round does not have the same battering effect.

Hopefully, this article will help you make a more informed choice. But remember: You aren’t limited to just one!

A plunger ejector is just as prone to problems. I have had plunger ejectors become jammed inside the boltface under adverse conditions, but again, this is not a normal occurrence and seldom happens.

Many rifles have adjustable triggers, but not all do. Some factory triggers can be replaced by aftermarket triggers, but aftermarket triggers are not available for all models. If you want an adjustable trigger, be sure the rifle you purchase has it. I’ve included a chart to indicate the features of six of the most popular rifles discussed here.

The Weatherby Mark V has a bolt stop that operates in conjunction with the trigger lever. As with plunger ejectors, this bolt stop can become jammed inside the receiver under adverse conditions. The result is that the bolt is pulled clear out of the action when the action is opened. Or, open the Weatherby Mark V action and point the muzzle skyward. Press the trigger and the bolt falls out onto the floor if you don’t catch it. On the other hand, it is very easy to remove a bolt from the Weatherby because squeezing the trigger releases the bolt from the action.

Removing a bolt from a Savage is not quite so easy. You have to depress a lever at the right side of the receiver bridge while at the same time press the trigger and then withdraw the bolt from the action. You can do it with two hands pretty well once you learn how, but when you’re learning how you’ll wish you had three hands.

This discussion is not intended to dissuade you from any particular action type. While the Weatherby has the trigger/bolt stop combination, it has a short 60-degree bolt lift and is also perhaps the smoothest action going. While the Savage has the bolt stop manipulation situation mentioned, it is also known to be one of the most consistently accurate rifles. The point is that each rifle has a variety of features. Some you might like and some you might not like. If you find a rifle that has all the features you like and none you don’t like, you’re easier to please than most shooters.

Special But Basic Features
As for some basic features that are special, the Ruger Model 77 Mark II has integral scope mount bases. Ruger even makes the rings for its rifles. Other rifles require aftermarket scope rings and bases. The Ruger rifle also has a forward action screw that enters the recoil lug at a 60-degree angle from the rear. These features are not found on the other five popular bolt guns mentioned.

The Savage has an unusual barrel attachment feature. While the receiver is threaded in a normal manner, the barrel has threads extending forward of the receiver. There is no shoulder on the barrel that serves as a stop against the face of the receiver. Instead, the barrel is turned into the receiver until the chamber headspaces properly and then a nut is turned down on these exterior barrel threads against the washer-like recoil lug at the face of the receiver.

The main rear action screw of the Savage also enters the receiver under the bridge instead of back at the tang. And the Savage has what appears to be a secondary set of action locking lugs. In reality, they remain blocking the lug raceways when the primary lugs are locked and serve as gas baffles in the event of a ruptured cartridge case.

Another feature of the Savage is that the action lugs are a piece separate from the main part of the bolt body. The Browning A-Bolt has a similar setup in this regard. The A-Bolt also has a box magazine that can be detached from the floorplate when the latter is opened. Inside the magazine box is a unique scissors-type cartridge elevator that puts even pressure on both the front and rear of the cartridge as it rises out of the box. The A-Bolt also has an unusually shaped bolt knob. Some shooters love it and others hate it. Again, personal preference plays an important part in action selection.

These are just some of the different designs of the basic actions. All of the rifles mentioned are offered with a variety of different features. You can get a standard weight rifle, heavy barrel, ultra lightweight model, stainless steel or blued, synthetic stocks or wood in such different versions as Classic, Mountain, Coyote, Safari, etc. The purpose of this article is not to get into all the variations but to focus on the main features of the basic actions of six popular rifle models.