Where to find Training in OZ (Australia)

PT 1 Defensive Driving

Defensive driving� is relevant, enjoyable, and will far improve your skills and ability levels. Young drivers are strongly encouraged to develop better on-road defensive driving skills and more solid techniques, but more experienced drivers also benefit enormously from advanced driver training, including the correction of old habits and improving judgement and reactions. �

This one-day Defensive Driving Course� Level 1 course is suited to all drivers of regular passenger vehicles, including four-wheel drives and light commercial vehicles. The mix of practical and theoretical components of this advanced driver training session deliver actual on-road safety skills that underpin proactive driving. �

The practical driving component of our Fleet Safety and Defensive Driving Program� is conducted on wet roads at suburban speeds. It includes a variety of on road exercises including emergency braking, swerving and multiple direction changes.

Suitable to all drivers 18 to 80 years and suitable to most vehicles including four wheel drives and light commercial vehicles. Presented in a relaxed, friendly, and supportive environment by qualified, experienced instructors with over 20 years’ experience, with a balanced mixture of theory and practical driving exercises. We guarantee that regardless of your driving experience you’ll be amazed at what you’ll learn, and what a great time you’ll have learning it with us.

The aim of these exercises is to educate drivers in:

  • A comprehensive open forum that exposes many well worn motoring myths and where we are most vulnerable in our driving habits. The open forum is a time for breaking down barriers.
  • Enlightening facts about tyre capabilities and the absolute necessity of understanding their limitations.
  • Practical simulated emergencies in a controlled environment on the bitumen. You do the driving.
  • Extensive correctional tuition in simulated emergencies in skid control/skid prevention/car control.
  • Practical simulated emergencies and skid control/skid prevention on an unsealed surface*.
  • Extensive correctional techniques for dirt driving*.
  • Explanations of vehicle dynamics and how they change according to the dirt surface.
  • Defensive driving guidelines that will help avoid “the other driver”.
  • Course certificate and information handout presentation.
  • Question and answer time.

*(Dirt component may be altered due to weather/track conditions – in the event of poor conditions an extension in bitumen surface training will be implemented).

The classroom component of this course covers basic road safety concepts and the key principals of defensive driving including:

Fleet Safety and Defensive Driving Program key learning objectives:

  • Through practical driving exercises, become more ‘speed aware’, particularly in how the degree of vehicle control difficulty increases exponentially in relation to increases in vehicle speeds.
  • Develop an understanding of basic vehicle dynamics, in emergency situations
  • Learn to predict potential hazards, identify risky situations and minimise danger
  • Understand the importance of keeping your vision high and maintaining sensible safety margins around your vehicle at all times

Develop a positive and proactive attitude towards defensive driving �


PT 2 Knife Skills

It has become increasingly clear that the world we live in is rapidly changing. Values that were once accepted as being the norm are no longer valid and the need to take control and responsibility for your own personal safety is now critical to individual survival. Violent crimes on the streets and inside of homes of the citizens that involve edged weapons are taking place on a daily basis. �
Awareness of personal safety issues are at the forefront of individuals everyday concerns and especially those who have families and work in occupations that put them in potentially risky situations.�
Nobody can expect criminals to do the right thing or for Government Agencies to be able to protect you from these people in times of social disorder, or in the instant that you life is threatened. �
Being proficient in the AMOK! Tactical Knife Method is not a overreaction to the current state of the world or a product of unjustifiable paranoia, but more a small step in helping to guarantee your self preservation and in turn, that of those in your care.

AMOK! Australia is proud to announce the creation of an advanced Edged Weapon Solutions curriculum that has been specifically designed for those who work in the Security or Law Enforcement field, as well as for individuals who work in high risk occupations. Only in the last few years have Edged Weapon Training gained acceptance as a necessity in Military, Law Enforcement and the Security Industry and while the Edged Weapon Defence industry itself takes shape, it will undergo a period that will sift the incompetents from the experts.�

People’s lives depend on this technology and everyone needs to be reminded that being an expert in one area does not make you an expert in another. Edged Weapon training ought to be diverted to the experts in that field for whom it is their specialty.�

Certain recent social trends have contributed to the urgent need for an edged weapons defence training system which provides answers to the most difficult self defence situation one can face, and also takes into account the legal considerations and ramifications for people who are involved in edged weapon assault scenarios.�

The rapid escalation of blade assaults on Australian streets, as well as the growing edged weapon problems emerging in areas of organised criminal activity, indicate that the use of the blade and other edged implements is on the increase and is now the weapon of choice amongst many career criminals, gang members, and even teenage groups, with the ease of availability and the ability to conceal these weapons making them attractive to those who have no regard for the laws of society.�

When it comes to teaching the concepts and techniques required to minimize potential injury by bladed weapon assaults, even the best martial arts generalist can’t be expected to have expert answers to such a specialist problem. In addition, it is a dangerous misconception to think that non knife specialists are in any way qualified to design concepts and techniques to be used against knife attacks, even if the attacker is someone who is untrained.�
Any person who trains in any form of self defence, should realise that in the future they may well be at risk of being involved in and possibly injured by, a bladed or edged weapon assault. AMOK! Edged Weapon Solutions will teach you tactical edged weapon defence concepts and techniques which are legal, easy to learn and effective, offering the best possible outcome in any violent edged weapon confrontation.

AMOK Edged Weapons Solutions


PT 3 Knife Defense

In this seven day intensive course you will be learn techniques from the highly respected and innovative combative systems, Tactical Krav Maga and Floro Knife & Stick Fighting Systems.�

The extensive content covered in this course will take your edged, impact and improvised weapon skills to a whole new level. Learn how to defend against knife and stick attacks using both empty hand and improvised weapon defences. Learn how to utilise found items as edged weapons, short & long impact weapons and more!

This is an amazing opportunity. Being instructed by the Chief Instructors of Tactical Krav Maga and Floro Fighting Systems, you will get to train with two of the most highly respected instructors in the country all within the one course.�

This is a rare opportunity to get to the heart of this vital information in a concise and intensive training experience.

Guest Instructors:

Carl Halley
International TKM Chief Instructor�
Certified by Eyal Yanilov I.K.M.F & Itay Gil PROTECT�
Australian Goverment Accredited Martial Arts Instructor�
Member of Martial Arts Industry Association

Ray Floro
Chief Instructor for Floro Fighting Systems �
Floro Fighting Systems is a system of Edged Weapon combat and defence that is not only simple to learn, but is one of the most effective systems of Self Defence available today. Efficient, direct and immediate, FFS is one of the very few styles that is still based on the blade, and is used by Civilians, Military, and Law Enforcement Agencies Worldwide. With over 30 years of experience, Ray Floro has instructed various elite units around the World. Such Units as:

  • US Special Forces
  • Korean Special Forces
  • Australian Special Forces
  • Various Swat Teams
  • Australian Defence Force
  • Australian Federal Police
  • New Zealand Police
  • Victorian Police
  • New South Wales Police
  • Northern Territory Police


PT 4 Hand to Hand

Level 1 – Foundation Skills
Day 1&2

  • Introduction, Isolation and Integration of Intercepting and Stabilising Skills
  • Forklift, Helmet, Dive, Arm Drag, 2 on 1 Escort, Wrist Weave, Seatbelt, �
    Harness, Body Lock, Shake the Blanket, Under hook and Pike, The Triple �
  • Introduction to Resolution – The “S” Position, Arm Wrap and Knee Ride

Day 3

  • Resolution – above + back mount with rides, handlebar, resolution for �
  • Integration of Day 1&2 skills against alive resistance during various drills �
    including multiple subjects and confined spaces

Level 2 – Intermediate Applications (Level 1 Pre-req)
Day 4&5 Ground and Combative Applications including attached striking, clinch �
with cloth, ground recovery, clinch

Specialist Modules (Level 1 Pre-req)
Subject Control Team Tactics – (One Day) including leg anchors, confined �
spaces, immediate and delayed second and third responding officer�
Law Enforcement Weapons Retention, Counter Weapons and Vehicle �
Extractions(Restricted – One Day)

Option 1: Introduction to ISR Matrix PM – Days 1&2 (2 day block)�
Option 2: ISR Matrix PM Foundation Skills – Days 1-3 (3 day block)�
Option 3: ISR Matrix PM Team Tactics – Days 1-3 + Team Tactics Module (4 �
day block or 2 x 2 day blocks)�
Option 4: ISR Matrix PM Individual Intermediate Applications (5 days total – �
blocks preferred)�
Option 5: ISR Matrix Physical Management Full Spectrum Operator – �
Intermediate (Civilian)
(All modules minus LE module. 6 days total – �
consecutive or in blocks)�
Option 6: ISR Matrix Law Enforcement Foundation Skills (All modules �
minus PM Intermediate skills)

ISR Matrix


PT 5 Medical

Field Medical training in Austere Environments

providing personnel with the skills, knowledge & attitude required to

undertake the initial or ongoing management of a range of life-threatening

medical emergencies, in a range of tactical situations & environments. Based on proven tactical medical practice

and taught by instructors with real-world tactical medical experience, courses

cover such topics as;

Introduction to tactical medical operations

Tactical Risk assessment & management strategies

Communications, leadership & decision-making

Phases of tactical care & scene management

Tactical medical equipment

Tactical patient assessment

Tactical trauma care

Tactical triage & evacuation techniques

Care through the barricade

Tactical emergency drills

Integrating with emergency services

Medical threat assessments


Wilderness First Aid

Basic Wilderness First Aid (BWFA) (2 days – 16 hours) Fun, practical and loaded with scenarios this is the ideal introduction to the field of Wilderness Medicine for those playing in the outdoors. �
Wilderness First Aid (inc CPR) (3 days – 24 hours) This 3-day course covers the same material as the 2-day course as well as offering CPR and more scenario based teaching. A well rounded introduction to Wilderness First Aid for bushwalkers, climbers, paddlers and those who find themselves out and about. �
Advanced Wilderness First Aid (AWFA) (4 days – 32 hours) The AWFA course is an excellent starting point for serious recreational adventurers or those starting in the Outdoor Recreation/Education fields. Plenty of scenarios, CPR/EAR and a solid understanding of patient assessment sets you up for success. �
Wilderness First Responder (WFR) (10 days – 80 hours) The WFR is our highest level of training. It is accepted as the defacto international standard for outdoor professionals, and is required by companies such as NOLS and Outward Bound (USA) for all of their field staff. �



PT 13 First Aid Update

Intraosseous Vascular Access
IV Fluid Therapy
Wound Closure
Cert III in Occupational Emergency Care
Spinal Injury Management
Cyanide Poisoning Management
Supraglottic (Rescue) Airways
Isolated Area Emergency Care
Pain Management
CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)
Life Support (CPR)
Senior First Aid (Apply First Aid)
Low Voltage Switchboard Rescue
Oxygen Therapy & Resuscitation
Advanced First Responder

PT 6 Firearms

Prerequisites of having security licences and current firearms licences are needed for Tactical Firearms Training.

Security Firearms Entry Level Course (Revolver)
4 days full time

Content:Legalities, firearms safety, firearms characteristics, loading techniques and practical shooting for H6 licensing. Police Clearance required prior to enrolment on this course. �

Security Firearms Entry Level Course (Semi-Automatic Pistol)
1 day full time �

Defensive Tactics Course
2 days full time PPCT accredited instructor

Content: Legalities, Force Continuum Techniques etc Baton Techniques Handcuff Techniques Pressure Point Control Techniques Joint Locks/Escort Techniques Blocks, Strikes & Kicks, Restraint and removal techniques. Attendance Course Only�







PT 7 Instructor Level

Instructor Certifications

Our programs cover instructor certifications across the entire force response continuum for operational use of force – from presence & communication, to unarmed defence & control, mechanical restraints, intermediate force and firearms. The content covers skills for delivering use of force training to personnel in ‘standard’ operational roles, but all programs can be customised to specific agency or workplace requirements. �

We are proud to offer instructor certifications in Defensive Tactics and Firearms. Instructor programs have been divided into 2 levels for accessibility and cost effectiveness. Level 1 focuses on core skills for officer safety, whilst Level 2 explores advanced concepts to further develop instructor competency and motivate an attitude of ongoing continuous improvement. All programs are progressive in format – core skills progress into intermediate and advanced concepts and methodologies – with instructors learning delivery and assessment strategies for both theory and practical components of use of force application.

ASP Instructor Certification

We are currently the only organisation in Australia certified to provide ASP Instructor Certification (AIC), the most dynamic impact weapon and restraint training available. ASP training incorporates easily remembered and devastatingly effective techniques that can be used by all personnel under actual field conditions, coupled with court defensible procedures that have reduced liability whilst improving safety. Thousands of operational personnel have learned first hand that ASP techniques work under the stress of actual street confrontations. The program has revolutionized baton and handcuff instruction, and has been implemented by agencies throughout the world, with training being conducted in 77 countries. The 3-day competency based training program is based upon a conceptual model for the use of force and teaches the ASP principles of control using the ASP Tactical Baton & Handcuffs. It focuses on instructional techniques, mechanical functions and maintenance procedures for ASP Tactical Baton & Handcuffs, and increases instructor familiarity and skill with expandable impact weapons and the full range of ASP handcuffs. The program is easy to understand and provides efficient defensive tactics for all personnel without long hours of training. The tactics are quickly learned, easily practiced and readily maintained long after the program is completed and training incorporates drills which simulate the stress of street encounters. As a realistic training program ASP instruction recognises that nothing works 100% of the time, so all ASP training retains the officer’s ability to disengage or escalate, and since there are no complicated moves the ASP program avoids the training complexities which often plague other programs. Once certified, participants are prepared to instruct other personnel in operational use of the ASP Tactical Baton & Handcuffs, for ASP Basic Certification (ABC). Instructor Recertification is recommended every 3 years. �

Firearms Instructor

This program trains participants to instruct others in the operational use of revolver and/or semi-automatic handguns. Theory content covers firearms safety, liabilities & responsibilities, mechanical operations, ballistic theory, equipment, fundamentals of survival shooting, maintenance, first aid & post crisis trauma, and documenting use of force incidents. Practical content covers carriage & presentation, handling skills & operational techniques including rectifications, dry drills & live firing, and weapon retention. Trainer content covers key principles of training & assessment, safety in training, professional ethics & standards for UOF instructors, range management including conducting hot ranges, coaching strategies, and use of drills and simulations for stress inoculation training. The program makes use of practical skill acquisition and development through extensive range practice exercises and drills. Level 1 is recognised and approved by Licensing Services Division, Victoria Police, for Security Industry Firearms Instructor certification in Victoria, with instructor certification issued through Licensing Services Division. Recertification is mandatory every 3 years (in Victoria). �

Defensive Tactics Instructor

This program presents in-depth information for instruction of operational personnel in empty hand defensive tactics, restraint & control, mechanical restraints, and intermediate force options with the expandable baton. The strategies presented are simple, practical and effective, and are designed for use by operational personnel in real world situations against real violence. Theory content covers threat assessment, interpersonal communication for conflict, understanding stress, lawful guidelines for use of force responses, human physiology, anatomy and biomechanics and fundamental combat principles and concepts. Practical content for empty hand component covers strategies for creating distance, escape countermeasures, strike theory, takedowns and ground work, low and high threat restraint and control strategies, fundamentals of weapons awareness and defence against multiple subjects. Mechanical restraints and baton components cover types of restraints and batons, carriage, lawful use and maintenance or equipment. Trainer content includes professional demeanour and presentation, safety in training, class formats and structure, using active and dynamic drills effectively, creating tactical blueprints and avoiding training scars, and general fitness for use of force incidents. Recertification is recommended every 3 years. �



PT 8 Search & Rescue





PT 9 Volunteering-State Emergency Service(Cert)

Training consists of learning a wide variety of skills that will be used and adapted in the variety of situations that volunteers may find themselves. Many of the courses undertaken result in a nationally accredited award. Some of the skill areas include:

  • General Rescue
  • Storm Damage
  • Communications
  • First Aid
  • Chainsaw Operation
  • Cliff Rescue
  • Map and Navigation
  • Land Search
  • Air Observer
  • Four Wheel Driving















PT 10 Internet Resources








PT 11 Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)

By Ed Harris�


Why teach “survival” in the city? �
Catastrophes vs. disasters �
This is about your SURVIVAL, not volunteering �
Priorities for human survival �
Break-out sessions: �
Shelter construction �
Fire making �
Signaling �
Equipment and supplies �
Social implications of disasters �
Personal security concerns

Why? �
Complete loss of civil infrastructure �
Minimal or no police, fire or EMS response �
No electricity, municipal water, communications �
Transport of fuel / food is severely impaired �
Public safety agencies will be overwhelmed �
Recovery is long term (over 30 days) �

Disaster V. Catastrophe �
Disasters are short term �
“Make do for 3-4 days until help arrives�” �
Catastrophic events are long term �
Katrina-scale hurricane, tsunami, earthquake �
Major terror attack, nuclear detonation, dirty bomb �
No help is coming soon, “you are on your own” �

What the military survival schools teach: �
Seven Priorities For Survival �
“Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst” �
Positive mental attitude �
First Aid / Sanitation �
Shelter �
Signaling �
Fire �
Water �
Food �

Situational awareness, basic knowledge and �
a “survivor’s mindset” enable you to cope effectively �

STOP Calm down, and size up your situation� �
THINK Anticipate which hazards are most likely �
Take stock of materials and resources around you �
OBSERVE Orient yourself to your surroundings �
PLAN Select equipment and supplies appropriately �
ACT! Execute your plan, evaluate progress, adjust, “party on.” �

Have an evacuation kit ready at all times �
Don’t presume that a disaster will be short-term �
Pack essentials first, then consider comfort items �
In real emergences, forget last-minute purchases �
Plan for more supplies than you “think” you may need �
Inspect / renew your supplies each spring and fall �
Provide entertainment for young children. �

Size Up Your Situation �
Determine Objectives (stay or evacuate?) �
Identify Resources (either stored supplies or salvaged materials from your surroundings) �
Evaluate Options (use the safest way) �
Plan (use your head) �
Act…Improvise and overcome �

Maintain personal and family health �
Prompt treatment reduces infection risk �
Sanitation reduces risk of disease vectors �
Water borne illnesses, diarrhea �
Major cause of dehydration �
Increases your survivability! �

Disaster Injury Risk Factors: �
Tool / equipment hazards, risk of hand, eye, head injuries, electric shock, chemical burns �
Human factors, stress / fatigue �
Structural instability �
Trauma risk, falls, building collapse potential �
Terrain, loose rock, fallen limbs, wet or insecure footing, risk of falls, puncture wounds and lacerations from debris. �

Disaster Contamination: �
Stagnant surface water �
Mosquito breeding �
Contaminated flood waters �
Sewage treatment system overflow �
Petroleum, industrial, agricultural chemical contamination �
Airborne contaminant plumes �
Smoke, dust, toxic gases, �
or radioactive fallout. �

Protection from the elements �
Wind and rain resistant �
Insulation from cold �

The “Stay or Evacuate” Decision �
If evacuation is not mandatory, the same safety rules �
for entering a structure apply to using your home as shelter �

There is structural damage �
(6 sides of the “box” are not plumb) �
Utilities cannot be controlled �
Structure was damaged in a fire �
DO NOT occupy a floor that has been flooded, �
micotoxins from molds are respiratory hazard! �

Best to relocate with friends or relatives outside of affected area �
Don’t rely on government-run shelters �
They are an “option of last resort” for those unable to evacuate �
Evacuation route selection is important �
Make sure your vehicle can carry essentials �
A huge “bug-out” vehicle is a handicap on crowded roads �
It uses more fuel, which may be expensive / scarce in an emergency. �
Don’t plan on fuel being available en route �
In normal times always keep your gas tank at least half full �
Upon warning an event is imminent, conserve fuel, keep tank � full �
Carry extra fuel containers outside the vehicle �

Conclusion from FEMA Urban-Rural Evacuation State Planners Workshop Sept. 2006 �
Given: �
? Population of the DC Metro area �
? Propensity to self-evacuate, overwhelmingly by automobile �
? Wide distribution of evacuation destinations, �
? Perceived vulnerability to terror attack, and anticipation of multiple attacks �
Result: �
? A large-scale, chaotic mass self-evacuation should be anticipated. �

Nuclear Detonation – 10-Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device �
http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/21872/D … Report.pdf

Contamination from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) �
would cover up to a few hundred acres with low-level radioactive material; �

A nuclear detonation would affect large areas (10-100 sq. miles) �
damaged by direct effects and 100s to 1,000s of sq. miles with radioactive fallout. �
http://www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/over … print=true

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) – a terrorist attack would most likely be a small device <10 kilotons yield, EMP effect of a ground burst would be mostly within the Moderate Damage Radius, but also propagated by conductors such as power and telephone lines, railroad tracks, pipelines, etc. �

Feasible only if all personnel can evacuate before fallout contamination arrives and; �
Essential functions for Continuity of Operations are transferred to an alternate facility �
Affected area would have to be small and warning time adequate to execute the evacuation �
Detonation effects (blast/thermal/EMP) will likely impede evacuation �
Evacuees may be exposed and/or contaminated. �

Critical facilities that cannot evacuate (hospitals, EOCs) must continue to operate �
Necessary if fallout/contamination would arrive before evacuation can be completed �
Fallout Shelters will be needed to protect against high level radiation/detonation �
Shelter-in-place (not necessarily Fallout Shelter) near RDD/very low level �
Shelter stay may range from a few days to 2 weeks. �
Authorities outside affected area can organize rescue/evacuation effort �
Shelter occupants may be exposed and/or contaminated. �
Necessary if operations can not be transferred or if staff, patients or clients cannot evacuate �
Necessary if needed to support operations of other response agencies �
Must have Radiological Monitoring & Exposure Control capabilities �
Critical Facilities may be used to shelter families of the staff �
Critical Facilities will not be used to shelter the general public. �

DECONTAMINATION after a flood or attack �
start immediately, even if you don’t know what the agent is. �

If you are contaminated: �
Remove everything, including jewelry �
Cut off clothing normally removed over the head �
Place contaminated clothing in plastic bag, tie closed �
Wash your hands before using them to shower �
Flush entire body with cool water �
Blot dry with absorbent cloth �
Put on clean clothes �
Avoid use of affected areas, to prevent re-exposure �
If professional help arrives, report to responders �
for thorough decontamination and medical assessment. �

Structural damage to shelter from nearby detonation �
Fire in the shelter �
Dangerously high radiation levels �
Severely high temperatures and humidity �
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide imbalance in the shelter �
Depletion of essential supplies �
Disease and injury �
Unrest, anxiety, crime or defiance of order or authority �

Time – Fallout radiation intensity decays rapidly; �
90% in just the first 7 hours. The less time you �
spend in a radiation field, the less dose received. �

Distance – The farther you are from a source, �
the less dose you receive. �

Shielding – Denser (heavier, massive) materials �
absorb more radiation. Greater thickness of any �
given material absorbs more radiation. �

Protection Factors & Mass of Materials �
*PF = “Protection Factor” refers to the ratio between the radiation dose rate of the OUTSIDE to that INSIDE the shelter, for instance a PF = 10 means that the inside dose rate is 1/10th the outside rate. �

How Much Protection? �

PF* Lead Steel Concrete Earth Water Wood �
2 .3″” .7″ 2.0″ 3.3″ 5″ 9″ �
4 .5″ 1.5″ 5.0″ 7.0″ 10″ 15″ �
8 1.0″ 2.0″ 6.5″ 10.0″ 15″ 27″ �
16 1.2″ 3.0″ 9.0″ 14.0″ 20″ 3 ft �
32 1.5″ 4.0″ 12.0″ 15.0″ 2 ft 4 ft �
64 2.0″ 4.2″ 13.2″ 19.8″ 2.5ft 4.5 ft �
128 2.1″ 5.0″ 15.0″ 2 ft 3 ft 5 ft �
1000 3.0″ 7.0″ 22.0″ 33.0″ 4 ft – �
2000 3.3″ 7.7″ 2 ft 3 ft 4.5 ft – �

Outside radiation, divided by the Protection Factor, is reduced in proportion. For example, if the outside radiation rate is 1,000 R/hr, a person shielded by 3 ft. of earth would receive a dose rate of .5 R/hr. but a person shielded by 1 ft of earth would receive about 10 R/hr. �

Sheltering at Home During an Emergency �
For using a building without working utilities as shelter �

Exhaust – candles, camp stoves, lanterns, generators, �
heaters, charcoal grills, all generate carbon monoxide �
and must not be used indoors! �
Open flame – above ignition sources �
must never be left unattended! �
Fuel – most of the above require flammable fuels �
to operate, which must be stored outdoors. �
Use Fire Marshal approved fuel containers �

Improvised Emergency Shelters �
As in all real estate, most important is location: �
Avoid low spots with poor drainage �
Seek a gently sloped area so that surface water drains away �
Sheltered from prevailing winds �
Away from bodies of water (attracts insects and animals) �
Insulated from direct contact with ground, rock, �
or concrete, which conducts away body heat. �

Avoid as shelter: �
Areas around downed utility lines �
In or near culverts �
Within the “collapse zone” of a damaged building �
(maintain 2:1 ratio of distance away to building height) �

Improvised Shelters: �
Sheds �
Tents �
Tarps �
Vehicles �

Don’t disable a good car! �
Remove car batteries to power communications and �
shelter lighting only from cars that do not start �
If a car starts reserve it for emergency evacuation, or �
Use it as a “battery charger” �
Salvage lighting, remove dome lights, tail lights, �
trunk lights, etc. & with at least 36″ of wires. �
Position batteries in shelter; attach wires & lights �
As batteries discharge, replace with new batteries �
or recharge batteries. �

Emergency Shelter Materials: �
Salvage building materials from debris or �
from damaged structures only when it can be done safely �
Plastic sheeting �
Roofing paper and shingles �
Siding, plywood �
Chain link fence �
Lumber �
Carpeting �
Wire, rope, and fasteners �

Build Your Shelter In Layers �
Structural framing: lumber, plywood, fencing, metal �
Fasteners: reinforce structural connections with nails, wire or rope ties, wooden spikes �
Water and wind proofing: plastic sheeting, tarp, shingles, roofing paper �
Insulation: drywall, leaves, tree branches, carpeting, (may also be used as ballast to hold water/wind proofing layer in place) �


Day: Mirror flashes – best daylight signal device �
Smoke �
Brightly colored cloth flag / panel (VS-17) �
ICAO surface-to-air signals �
V Require assistance �
X Need medical assistance �
Y Yes – affirmative �
N No – negative �
? I am proceeding in this direction �

Night: Flashing strobe light �
Fire �
Signal flares �
Sound, i.e. whistle, siren, vehicle horn �

Maintains body temperature �
Great morale booster �
Deters wild animals and insects �
Boils water �
Cooks food �
Used as day (smoke) �
or night (light) signal �

Matches or lighter �
Flint and steel (Doan Machinery Corp. Fire Starter) �
Use cotton ball and petroleum jelly as tinder �
Battery and steel wool �
Fresnel lens �

Minimum for drinking �
1 gallon per person, per day �
More water is needed for �
Cooking and food preparation �
Personal hygiene, sanitation and decontamination �
Store a two week supply as minimum �
Food grade containers with screw caps �
Away from direct sunlight �

Captive water in household hot water tank and interior plumbing is OK �
Filter cloudy water to remove particulates, using an EPA-rated filter �
with a pore size ? 1 micron, then: �
Disinfect with Clorox (6% sodium hypochlorite) add 8 drops of Chlorox �
bleach per gallon if clear, 16 drops if cloudy, let water stand 15 minutes before use �
Or boil vigorously for 15 minutes �
Store potable water in clean containers. �

All natural sources (from springs, ponds, rivers or streams) �
must be boiled or chemically disinfected. �
Chemical disinfection or boiling – Kills bacteria and viruses �
Doesn’t remove particulates or chemical pollutants �
Filtration – Coffee filters, etc. remove gross particulates only �
EPA-rated filters (pore size smaller than 1 micron) are needed �
to remove bacteria, viruses and Giardia cysts, but don’t remove chemical pollutants. �
Distillation is the most effective method. �

Lowest of the seven survival priorities �
Need is mostly mental, because we are used to eating regularly �
Healthy people will do OK without food for a week or more, if they are well hydrated �
Balanced nutrition is a important health factor for elderly and infants. �

Food in a refrigerator is safe for a day after the power goes off, �
either use it in 24 hours or throw it away �
Frozen food is safe if there are still ice crystals, �
once thawed, cook and consume it within 24 hours �
Next use non-perishables and dry staples �
Canned foods are best for long term storage �
(up to 4 years) but are heavy to transport and bulky to store �
Dry packaged foods are easiest to transport �
Choose foods requiring minimal preparation �
Eat at least one balanced meal daily �
Include nutritional supplements in supplies �
Drink enough water. �

MREs, or Heater Meals �
Prepared survival rations �
Primitive survival methods: �
Fishing �
Hunting �
Trapping �
Foraging �

Folding utility knife or multi-tool �
Scout type, Leatherman, Swiss Army� �
Manual can opener, if not on utility knife �
Sturdy fixed blade, such as 5″ Military knife �
For chopping, digging, or as pry bar �
Shovel, Gerber field spade or similar �
Hand saw, #7947 Fiskars Woodzig Pruning Saw, folding 10″ �
Axe �

Each person should have their own backpack of personal essentials �
Flashlight �
Portable radio �
Extra batteries �
First Aid Kit, (containing a first aid manual) �
Personal medications and sanitation supplies �
Cooking and eating utensils �
Wool blanket or sleeping bag for each person �
Sturdy shoes and extra socks �
Rain gear �
Change of warm clothing and underwear �
Items for special needs, care of infants �

http://www.redcross.org/services/disast … y/FinPlan/

Electronic transactions, account verifications may be impossible �
Evacuate with enough cash for at least two weeks of essentials �
Carry account numbers, contact addresses and telephone numbers for all important persons and institutions �
Helping one’s unprepared friends and neighbors may prove expensive! �

Cumulative psychological effects upon survivors �

Evacuate or Stay? – Do you have a plan? �
Where will you go? Is it safe to travel? Can you REALLY get there? Do you have enough resources to make it work? �
Warn friends not to invite others to come and evacuate with them �
They’ll overwhelm your limited resources! �
Never allow family members to be separated �
Even if it means waiting for later rescue and/or evacuation �
The well prepared may be threatened by those who weren’t – get to know your neighbors NOW for a safer community later in case of a disaster �
Make plans to ensure neighborhood security/family protection �
Post a guard in rotating shifts, to deter roving criminals or looters �
Keep firearms and ammunition safely secured �
Take a home firearms safety-protection course �

Lessons from Hurricane Katrina �
When help arrives, you may get it �
“��.whether you want it or not.” �

Don’t believe that all rescuers will respect your property �
Relief workers from other States often don’t know local laws �
Relief organizations have their own bureaucratic requirements that may conflict with your needs �
Expect frustration over lack of communication and empathy by rescuers and local/State government. �

Positive attitude – Stop Think Observe Plan �
First Aid / Sanitation – Maintain proper hygiene, preserve family health, prevent illness or injury �
Shelter – Protection from environmental hazards – use Time, Distance, Shielding �
Signaling / Communication- be heard / seen �
Fire – Warmth, light, food prep, water sterilization �
Water – Prevent water-borne illnesses through filtration, chemical sterilization, boiling or distillation �
Food – Eat at least one balanced meal daily, drink enough water, include nutritional supplements �
Equipment- Flashlight, knife, saw, axe, shovel �
Planning – Prepare a Kit, Make A Plan! �

PT 12 SES PDF Downloads


Vertical Rescue

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  • pre-rig.pdf: Pre-rigging Training Module (PDF file). Pre-rigging is the way to improve vertical rescue response times by reducing rigging time on the scene. Includes tips for pre-rigging common systems, and for deciding what to pre-rig and what not to.
  • prusiks.pdf: A 1 page fact sheet (PDF file) on prusik loops (currently incorporated into NSW SES VR training package).
  • scripts.pdf: Vertical Rescue Scripts (PDF file). These scripts demonstrate the correct usage for vertical rescue prowords (calls and commands that have an extended meaning). Useful to resinforce the extanded meaning of the prowords with learners. Helps to use prowords to their fullest, minimise confusion and communication problems on the job.
  • Spanlines.pdf: A 1 page fact sheet (PDF file) on spanlines: that is highlines, flying foxes, cableways, zip lines, etc. Includes notes on tensioning so you can’t over-tension the spanline.
  • sustrauma.pdf: Suspension Trauma Training Module (PDF file). Every Vertical Rescue needs to know this! How to keep yourself and your casualty safe from it. Suspension trauma is also known by many other names: harness induced pathology, haness hang syndrome, etc.
  • vector.pdf: Vector or Force Analysis Training Module for Vertical Rescuers. A simple method to work out the real forces in any rope system. Helps rescuers to understand forces in their rig and hence be safer riggers.
  • BelayBehaviour.pdf: Rescue Belay Behaviour – A Theoretical Analysis of rescue belay behaviour which highlights previously not considered hazards of rescue belays as published in Technical Rescue Magazine. A must read for all vertical rescuers. (>800K PDF file).
  • Equipment_Testing-Kiama_VRPDW.pdf: Report on destructive testing of vertical rescue equipment from the Kiama VR Trainer Professional development Weekend 2004. (>900K PDF file).
  • Friction Testing and Pulley Systems in Vertical Rescue.pdf: Results of practical friction testing of common vertical rescue pulleys done by Oberon SES. Results are applied to common VR haul systems to illustrate actual mechanical advantages of haul systems.
  • Load Testing.pdf: More destructive load testing results of VR equipment by Oberon SES. (1.1M PDF file).
  • LRFAnalysis.pdf: Report on Finite Element Analysis modelling of a Larkin Rescue Frame with particular interest in the factors that affect “step back”. Good practical tips on how to prevent step back in your Larkin Frame!
  • Vertical Rescue Friction Testing.pdf: Practical friction test results of some common rescue pulleys. (1.4M PDF file).
  • VR Load Testing Wellington.pdf: Report of destructive load tests carried ou on VR equipment at the Wellington VR Professional Development weekend 2004. (1.8M PDF file).

Land Search

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  • sarcalc2.zip: Microsof Excel Worksheet for calculation of Land Search Probabilities of Area (POAs). Free download. You will need Winzip to unzip the archive.
  • MUSHPSAR.HTM: Survival Tips for Mushroom Pickers. Every year hundreds of people come to the pine forests surrounding Oberon to pick mushrooms. Around one or two each year get lost requiring a land search. Here are some things you can do so that you aren’t one of them!
  • bushsafe.htm: Tips for bushwalkers and other adventurous people who use the bush to be safe and reduce the risk of needing a search or rescue.


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  • LIGHTNIN.HTM: Outdoor Lightning Protection and Safety. Everyone should know than when lightning is about they should be indoors… but what if you can’t get there? Here’s some tips collected from a wide variety of sources.
  • beaufort.htm: The Beaufort Scale for estimating wind speed…with descriptors for use on land or sea.

Miscellaneous Resources

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  • JUDGEDIS.HTM: Judging Distance. Judging distances is a valuable skill to a lot of people including navigators, land searchers, and most things SES volunteers do. This page includes the normal three methods described in most Map Reading texts plus another method based on visibility of features – adapted from Coastal Skipper Training course for use on land.
  • impnav.htm: The Bushwalker’s Guide to the Galaxy… or How to Navigate the Surface of the Earth with less than a GPS or Compass. Improvised navigation skills increase not only yor skill as a navigator, but your knowledge of your surroundings.


Our Remote Area Search Assessment Instrument [Word document]

One-page GPS instruction summary sheets for Garmin eTrex, Gecko and 12XL GPS units [Zipped PDF documents]

A locally developed Map Reading and Navigation presentation [PowerPoint, 1.6MB]

Our Cordless Nail Gun Training Package [Zip archive containing Manual, Lesson Plan and Assessment Instrument PDF files]

Our Summary Cards [PDF file, 3.5MB] Revised: November 2008

Our Field Team Leader Training Package [PDF file, 1MB] Revised: September 2009