Long Term Food Storage-PT 1 Nutrition

Long Term Food Storage-PT 1 Nutrition

I won’t go too far into nutrition, but need to cover the basics to explain the reasons behind the way I’ve approached things. Proteins have two main functions, firstly to promote growth. Secondly they maintain supplies of enzymes, hormones, antibodies to regulate body functions. Proteins are made up of amino acids, approximately twenty act like building blocks. Nine of these are essential, that our bodies cannot do without or synthesis them itself.These include; isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine. Proteins from animal sources contain all essential amino acids. No single vegetable contains all of these and need a combination to provide a complete protein. �

In contrast to animal products, most of the foods derived from plants rarely have the complete array of the 9 essential amino acids you need to survive. For example, rice is quite high in the total amount of amino acids it contains, but misses out on several of the 9 required by the human body. For this reason, from the perspective of getting enough of amino acids in your diet you cannot survive indefinitely on rice alone like you could on beef.�

Plants have provided a means to obtain the complete amino acid array we need to survive without having to consume any animal products at all. This is done by mixing and matching. What some plant based foods lack in amino acids, other foods have. For example, eating just beans or eating just rice will result in not obtaining all the 9 essential amino acids you need to survive. However beans and rice complement one another so that by combining them into the same meal you will receive all the amino acids you need to maintain health.�

��Rice / Chickpeas

��Corn / Lentils

��Corn / Rice

��Corn / Beans

��Beans / Rice

��Rice / Lentils

��Pasta (Wheat) / Chickpeas�

To achieve a complete amino chain with vegetables; beans, corn and squash need to be used in combination. These are also refered to the three sisters. Corn, beans and squash also complement each other nutritionally. Corn provides carbohydrates, the dried beans are rich in protein, balancing the lack of necessary amino acids found in corn. Finally, squash yields both vitamins from the fruit and healthful, delicious oil from the seeds.

Many societies throughout history have hit upon the right food combinations that together provide the complete amino acid set necessary for survival. For example beans on corn tortillas in Central America, soybeans and rice in the Far East, cornbread and pinto beans in southern US. When laying in your preparedness food supplies you would do well to emulate those who have successfully figured out the correct combinations necessary for health and survival.

Examples of Foods High in Amino Acids

  • Grains include wheat, oats, rice, barley, and corn.
  • Seeds and Nuts include almonds, cashews, sunflower seeds, and pumpkin seeds.
  • Legumes include peanuts, soybeans, lentils, peanuts, and a wide variety of beans.

Food Combinations for the Essential Amino Acids

For example, beans (a legume) when combined with rice (a grain) are an excellent source of the complete array of essential amino acids. Combining rice with nuts is still a good combination, but not optimal as compared with the beans and rice combination. Therefore if you have these kinds of foods on hand you can optimize your diet by making food combinations.

If you add some milk products, in the form of powdered or canned milk or long lasting cheeses, your options are increased. For example a glass of milk with a whole wheat sandwich is an excellent combination for obtaining the essential amino acids.�

Carbohydrates consist of two types 1) Simple e.g.; sugars and 2) Complex e.g.; starches.� Sucrose the most commonly eaten (sugar) have no nutrients and is used mainly for taste and fast energy. Complex carbs are from potato’s wholemeal bread and flour products.Before being used by the body must be broken down into simple sugars and absorbed through the small intestine. Then used as energy or as a reserve to maintain blood sugar levels, between meals or during exercise.� �

Apart from providing energy, carbs are needed to metabolize protein, so they can be used for the above functions.� To release the energy from carbs the body needs sufficient quantities of vitamins. Everything is connected.When I first started to research long term food storage, complete proteins were never really mentioned. Everything was based around old methods.�

Mormon Four�

1.�Wheat

2.�Milk Powder

3.�Sugar

4.�Salt�

This provides the basic minimum to stay alive, (but who would want to on this) and needs to be incorporated with foraging.�

An alternative is the Kearney Diet of;�

��Red Wheat

��Corn

��Pinto Beans

��Olive Oil

��Salt�

Which is slightly better at providing complete proteins, but very limited to recipe ideas.�

A One Year Grub Stake consisted of;�

��Split Peas

��Beans

��Flour

��Salt

��Sugar

��Dried Eggs

��Cooking Oil

��Coffee

��Rice

��Pepper

��Baking Powder

��Baking Soda

��Yeast�

I wanted to combine these and add a few more essentials to increase variety and nutrition. I also wanted to separate Long term, Medium term and Short term.�

Long Term (5-10 years) are items that could be brought gradually, stored in plastic food grade tubs, sealed and wouldn’t be touched.�

Medium Term (1-2 years) items used all the time and rotated fortnightly, mainly tinned foods with a three to six month supply.�

Short Term (6 months-1 year) essentially foods used in homemade MRE’s to be used in my BOB kit or backpacking trips.

HEALTHY PINTO BEANS – and PEOPLE

About 20 years ago, someone noticed that the people in one remote village (A) on the East coast of Mexico were very healthy, yet the people in another remote village (B) about 70 miles away were not healthy. Their diets were virtually identical: a little fish, their home grown beans, some corn, and a few vegetables. The soil conditions and water available for gardening were virtually identical, and the villagers used similar clay crocks or jugs for storing their harvests.

Another obvious difference between the two villages was that the first one was able to store beans from one harvest to the next, but the poorer villagers often ran out of stored beans, as bean weevils destroyed their dried beans.

The people in village A were healthy and industrious, their children full of energy, with strong limbs and teeth, ran to their tasks and games as healthy children do. Meanwhile, in village B, the people were listless, did less work, and the children all had symptoms of rickets and scurvy.

So what could make such a tremendous difference in the health of people in two neighboring villages? After considerable study, it turned out there were two things the people of the distant villages were doing differently.

In village A, a watchful villager had noticed that bean weevils had to brace themselves against one bean in order to gnaw through the hard outer shell of another bean. So they only filled their storage crocks three-fourths full, and once a month would shake them. The shaking of the beans would by itself kill the been weevil larvae, and thus their beans would remain unharmed in storage.

Again, in village A, persons long before had noticed that beans were hard to digest, which meant that all of the food value was not being extracted from them. So they added a teaspoon full of wood ashes (lye) to the soaking water for their beans, then rinsed the beans and discarded the soaking water before cooking. The lye altered the state of the lysine in the beans, so the available amino acids were much more readily assimilated by the human digestive tract. It worked: they were healthy.

You are wondering if the researchers took those lessons from Village A back to Village B, and everything turned out just fine, like in a fairy tale, right? Well, they tried, but the B villagers said they had been growing and saving beans for years, they knew what they were doing, and something as simple as shaking their beans was dumb, and they weren’t going to put any wood ashes in their beans. Sounds like the tale of the ant and the grasshopper to me!

Toxicity

Before they are eaten, the raw bean seeds should be soaked in water for several hours and then boiled for at least ten minutes in new fresh water to degrade a toxic compound – the lectin phytohaemagglutinin – found in the bean which would otherwise cause severe gastric upset. This compound is present in many varieties (and in some other species of bean), but is especially concentrated in red kidney beans and white kidney beans (Cannellini beans). Although in the case of dry beans the ten minutes required to degrade the toxin is much shorter than the hours required to fully cook the beans themselves, outbreaks of poisoning have been associated with the use of slow cookers whose low cooking temperatures may be unable to degrade the toxin. Sprouts of pulses high in haemaglutins should not be eaten. Kidney beans, especially, should not be sprouted.

This is the most commonly used bean used for refried beans (fresh or canned) and in many dishes at Tex-Mex restaurants. Rice and pinto beans served with cornbread or corn tortillas are often a staple meal where there is limited money for meat, as the combination of beans and corn creates all the protein amino acids needed in a meat substitute. When it comes to making chili, if a bean is added, this is the one typically used, although the kidney bean, black bean, and many others may also be used in other locales.�

Long Term Food Storage-PT 2 Storage

Long Term Food Storage-PT 2 Storage

There are three ways of storing foods for long term use; Descendants, Nitrogen and Dry Ice. I’ve tried to suit these to an Australian context as most of the information on the net is suited to other countries where different products and pricing are available.�

There are two types of desiccants or moisture absorbers, short term that lasts for six months without opening then once opened only last for twenty minutes and those that last for a year before needing to use. These can last up to two hours once exposed to the environment.�

These need to be used in conjunction with mylar bags as they form a partial vacuum and can cause the collapse of a pail. When used with mylar only the bags contract and use the structure of the buckets for support. The amount of desiccants need to matched to the size of the container being used to remove the correct amount of moisture. The bags cannot be used alone as they are easy to puncture. I haven’t been able to locate a local supplier for either the mylar bags or food grade moisture absorbers.�

Nitrogen can be used immediately, as the pails can be closed as soon as they are full. This may be a good choice if sharing the cost between several people for large amounts of buckets to be sealed. �

To rent a food grade nitrogen bottle G size 8000 litres weighing 60 kilo at five foot in height costs approximately $150/yr for the bottle, $110 for the gas, $175 for the regulator, not counting hoses and still requiring transportation. Bringing a subtotal to $450 or there about.NOTE: when using Nitrogen in enclosed spaces it becomes deadly.�

Using Dry Ice costs $6.50/kilo in pellet form requiring approximately 10 kilo or $50 – $60 for the amount of containers I would need to fill. Dry Ice forms CO2 as it melts, removing the O2. The idea is to remove as much oxygen as possible to stop oxidization and to prevent insects from mulitplying through their life cycles. NOTE: when handling dry ice it can burn. Always wear safety glasses and gloves when handling.�

I want to use 10-15 kilo buckets as these will fit under a double size bed, stored out of the way and are light enough to be easily moved without the need of a sack truck. If one pail should become contaminated or have broken seal, only a small amount of the stores will be effected and not the entire amount.

The smallest food grade buckets/pails I’ve been able to find hold 15 litres/15kgs are 13inches/330mm in height with lid or 290mm without and 12inches/300mm in width. The lids have a rubber seal in the base of the lip and a tamper seal on the lips edge, preventing removal with out first removing the tamper strip.�

This size will fit 24 containers under a double bed frame and are light enough filled, to be easily moved for either rotation or possible evacuation. A sack truck is still needed to move more than one container at a time.�

I was considering importing Gamma seal screw on lids from the States costing $6.85US ea not including shipping subtotal $168US or $200AUD before shipping is included. It costs $228AUD for 24 buckets and lids from the local manufacturer. Other than the cost, what sold me with using the push on lids were the tamper seal, luckily these are reusable.You definitely know that no one has gotten curious and decided to open any of the pails to see what’s inside and release the carbon dioxide stuffing up hours of preserving. These have cost me $6.36/bucket and $2.27/lid with 0.87 GST/EA coming to a total of $9.50EA or $228/24 containers.�

I like using mylar bags in association with buckets, this is the simplest and easiest way to store food long term. NOTE: Do not use O2 absorbers and Moisture aborbers in the same container unless in a high humidity area and then do not place in close proximity to one another or either wont work. These can be brought from Sorbent Systems or straight off Eprey. Eprey have deals where the bags and the correct size O2 aborbers are sold together. A 5 Gallon bag 4.3mm in thickness measuring 20 x 30 inches generally requires from 2x750cc=1500cc to 2000cc O2 absorbers.�

Generally 10 cups of wheat will make approximately 14 cups of flour. This depends on how fine you are grinding and the type of grinder being used.

10 cups of wheat makes 14 cups of flour

1 Litre = 1 Kilogram

4 cups per 1 litre/kilogram

60 cups per 15 litres/kilograms

60 cups of wheat should make 84 cups of flour or

42 loaves of bread per 15 litre bucket

Preserving Meat without Refrigeration

Preserving Meat without Refrigeration�

http://giles.freehostia.com/

        1. Preserving Techniques
          1. Salt Curing
            1. Brine / Pickle
            2. Dry Curing
          2. Smoking
            1. Cold
            2. Hot
          3. Drying
          4. Pickling
            1. Vinegar
            2. Sugar
          5. Combination Processes
        2. Storage Methods
          1. Dry Hanging / Storage
            1. Waxed / Sealed
            2. Oiled / Larded
            3. Spiced / Salted
          2. Wet Storage
            1. Brine
            2. Oil
            3. Pickle
        3. How Do I Do This
          1. Salting
          2. Smoking
          3. Drying
          4. Pickling
        4. Using the Preserved Product
          1. Consume As Is
          2. Cook As Is
          3. Freshen and Cook
        5. What Can Go Wrong
          1. Spoilage / No Guarantee
          2. Mold
          3. Health Risks
          4. Insects

Preserving Techniques�

Salt Curing�

Salt curing meat to preserve it is probably one of the oldest preservation techniques known to man.� This method of curing meat was known to the Romans, as well as smoking.� There exists a story that salt meat was important enough to the Romans that the senate once debated whether man could exist without it.� Salt curing preserved both raw and cooked meats, as well as poultry, game and fish.� Several receipts for salt curing exist from the Roman occupation to the end of period.� These receipts call for a variety of preparations of the meat, and a variety of curing mixtures.� One of the receipts from the 15th century even calls for the addition of �great salt of Peter�, or sodium nitrate, which is still used in modern food processing operations.�

Brine curing is the process that consists of soaking the raw or cooked meat in strong salt solution.� If multiple pieces of meat are brined in the same container, the meat is usually rearranged every couple of days to ensure consistent coverage.� Often the brine would contain spices other than salt to add flavor or to attempt to disguise the sometimes-heavy salt flavor of the meat.� After several days in the brine solution, also called a pickle, the meat is hanged until completely dry on the surface.� It can then be stored.� The shelf life of the finished product depends on many factors among which are the amount of meat to be processed, the strength of the pickle, and length of the brining process.� In many instances brine curing becomes a pre-process to another preservation method.�

Dry curing is the process of rubbing the raw or cooked meat with a dry salt mixture, and allowing the meat to stand for several days.� Often the salt rub is reapplied after a few days.� This may be repeated more than once.� The product is normally cured in a container that will drain, laid on a bed of the salt cure mixture.� The curing rub was often more than just salt.� Saltpeter was added as early as 400CE.� Many spices or sweeteners were used in the curing mixture, often in an attempt to cover the salty flavor of many of the foods preserved in this manner.�

A combination of brining and dry curing was also used.� Both of these methods were used with both raw and cooked meat, fish and poultry, whether domestic or game.� Both of the processes should be performed between the temperatures of 35�F and 50�F.� This means that unless some kind of refrigeration is employed this must be done at a time of the year when the nighttime low dips no lower than 32�F, and the daytime high is no greater the 53�F.�� If the temperature drops below 32�F the process is suspended.� If the temperature rises above 50�F there is an increased chance of spoilage during the curing process.� This 50�F high temperature becomes less important as the meat cures longer.� In many cases that is the end of the process; the preserved meat is then stored.� Often this was only the first step in a process that involved one or more of the other preservation techniques.�

The chemistry and biology (note I�m telling you what�s coming so you can skip this part if you want) of this is that most harmful bacteria, including the bacteria that cause botulism, cannot exist after the salt content gets so high, or when the water content of the meat gets so low.� Soaking the meat in a salt solution, or rubbing it with salt both causes the meat to assume the salt, and leaches moisture out of the meat.� Even meat cured in a pickle loses water weight during the curing process.� If the meat starts the curing process raw, it will still be raw when completed.� The curing process will not kill trichinosis or salmonella.� If the meat should be fully cooked before eating fresh, it should still be fully cooked after curing!

Smoking


Smoke as a preservative has probably been around as long as man has been eating meat.� A widely believed theory is that smoking was seen to improve both the flavor and the keeping qualities of meat as a side effect of it�s being hung above the fire to keep insects off.� As with many beneficial discoveries this was probably completely accidental, but would probably have been noticed because even our most primitive ancestors would have had an interest in preserving their food supply.� Although I have seen no period documentation of the processes used, there is evidence of smoked meat from the Roman occupation through the end of the 16th century.� This primarily appears in descriptions of Roman foods and orders and invoices for armies and in preparation for lengthy voyages where fresh supplies may be in short supply.�

Cold smoking is a process involving saturating the meat in smoke at a temperature of 75�F to 120�F.� Meat to be cold smoked is almost always at least partially cured before smoking.� In most cases it is fully cured before smoking.� The meat is usually hung or placed on racks, and smoked for days instead of hours.� Sometimes the process took place in special buildings for that particular purpose, sometimes strips of meat were hung around a fire, and sometimes meat was placed near the hearth or hung in the hearth or chimney where smoke from the cooking fire would pass.� The resulting product was either completely raw or only partially cooked.� When combined with salt curing this can result in a product that will remain edible and tasty for a year or longer without refrigeration, even under the worst conditions.� Cold smoking can be used for all meats, poultry, fish and game.�

Hot smoking is essentially the same process with temperatures in the range of 140�F to 200�F.� In many cases meat to be hot smoked is not cured, or is only slightly brined for the salty flavor, or to inhibit bacterial growth during the smoking process.� The meat is then hot smoked for several hours, cooking in the process.� These hot smoked products are usually intended for immediate (relatively) consumption, and will not keep like the fully cured, cold smoked variety.� In some cases the hot smoking process was also used to further dry the product in addition to flavoring and adding the smoke based preservatives, as with the famous double smoked red herring.� These meats are usually fully cured before smoking.�

In both processes the meat is usually completely dried on the surface before it is smoked.� In some cases cold smoking is followed by a period of hot smoking.� The smoking process, either cold or hot, flavors the meat, improves the shelf life and prevents attack by many insects that will infest meat that is only salt cured or not cured at all.� Virtually all manner of meat, fish, poultry, and game was smoked.� Many of today�s local specialty smoked food products, and smoked food names survive from the middle ages or earlier.�

Now we move to the science.� Smoking meat deposits the resins from the burning wood into the meat.� Many of these resins contain aldehydes.� These chemical compounds force the moisture out of the meat.� (Remember how your fingers dried out in biology class.)� This has a twofold effect; first, the aldehyde compounds themselves inhibit bacterial growth, and the lowering of the moisture content further slows bacterial growth.

Drying


Drying meat and fish as a preservation technique has been practiced for hundreds of years; possibly thousands in more arid areas.� In many communities along the Mediterranean coast meat and fish were suspended in nets above the roofs to dry in the sun.� Many early fishermen would clean and salt the daily catch, and hang it in the rigging until it was �hard as oak planks�.� In the Middle East and Africa dried meat very similar to modern jerky was produced.� Drying was most often done in the sun, but in regions where this was impractical special drying sheds were built to dry the meat with mild heat.�

Except in arid environments, meat to be dried was usually partially cured before drying.� In extreme dry areas the meat would dry before bacterial action could start.� In more humid climes partial curing was necessary to retard spoilage long enough to dry the meat enough that bacterial action could be inhibited.� To effectively dry meat and fish more processing of the raw meat is required.� Large pieces for raw flesh do not dry well unless hung for extended periods of time, which usually rendered the meat inedible.� So meats to be dried are cut or pulled into smaller pieces.� Often the size and shape of the prepared meat depended on its intended use.� If properly stored, dried meat and fish will keep indefinitely.�

Red meat and fish are the usual candidates for drying.� There is some evidence that the Chinese were smoking and drying duck before 500 BCE.� Dried meat products are excellent foodstuffs for travelers.� They are light in weight, and a small amount of the meat provides a large amount of protein, so less is consumed at each meal.� Small cubes and thick strips of dried meat can be reconstituted for use in soups and stews or noodle dishes. Thin strips are usually spiced in some manner when dried, with the intent that they be consumed in the dried state.�

Ok, here�s more of the scientific stuff.� As mentioned before, most harmful bacteria cannot exist when the moisture content of their environment gets too low.� Drying relies on this principle heavily.� The salting process prior to drying is usually only sufficient to protect the product during the drying process, and may be safely omitted if the meat is cut so that it will dry quickly, or spiced in some other manner to prevent bacterial growth.� After the process is complete, the lack of moisture is usually sufficient to normally inhibit bacterial growth indefinitely.

Pickling


Pickling is usually applied to preserving food by soaking in either heavy vinegar or sugar solutions.� The Egyptians have practiced this type of preservation for thousands of years.� Foods and bodies have been found preserved in honey in many Egyptian tombs.� Evidence of pickled meats can be found from pre-period Roman documents.� This technique was also widely applied to fresh fruits and vegetables.�

Vinegar pickling is accomplished by immersing the food in a strong vinegar solution.� The Romans pickled lamb and many pork by-products. Many of these are still available today.� One medieval pickling receipt adds a strong spice mixture, and claims that the process will work for meat, poultry, or game.� Most meat intended for pickling is cooked before the pickling process begins.� This keeps the vinegar pickle from assuming too much water from the meat, and as a result going rancid because of the lower acid content of the pickling solution.� Vinegar pickling was often used in areas where salt was unavailable or at a premium.� If stored properly foods pickled in vinegar will last for years, and in many cases will retain their natural color and texture.� Foods preserved in vinegar solutions have a very tart or acid flavor.� If spices are included in the pickling solution the food will readily pick up the additional flavors.�

Preserving in sugar, or honey, has been practiced in northern Africa, the Middle East, and the Orient for hundreds or thousands of years.� Although this method is used primarily for fruits, vegetables, and flowers, there is evidence that meat can also be preserved in strong sugar solutions.� There is a Roman recipe for preserving meat in honey.�

Behind the scenes, these processes do essentially the same thing as salting.� This is one of the reasons that they are grouped together.� Both of these processes leach the moisture from the food and replace is with components of the pickle, in this case vinegar, sugar, or spice.� Not only is the moisture content of the food decreased, it is also impregnated with a substance that resists bacterial growth.

Combination Processes


In many cases a combination of preserving techniques are used together on the same product.� Much of the time this is standard operating procedure, as in the case of most smoked meats and sausages.� Meat and fish are usually prepared for drying by first brining or salting the food.� In some cases these foods were also smoked before or during drying.� The same process would be applied repeatedly to certain products.� This is the case in the well-known red herring that traveled well through Europe through the 13th and 14th centuries.� This product was heavily salted, then hot smoked twice, until it was very dry.� This product was often still edible after more than two years, but reportedly tasted like �dried wood� after that length of time.

Storage Methods

Dry Hanging / Storage


Dry storage refers to the storage of a product at room temperature in a dry (relatively) environment.� This is the preferred storage method for many salt-cured, smoked, or dried meat and fish products and many sausages.� No, the processed meat was not just thrown on the shelf.� The meat was usually wrapped or stitched into a close fitting cloth sack.� Often this was not the only preparation to storage.� Many preserved products specifically target this storage method.� Fully cured hams can be wrapped in butcher�s paper and hung in a close fitting linen or muslin bag.� These hams will remain edible and tasty for two years or longer.� Dried meat and fish can survive for years if kept dry.� There are still many storage related problems.� Several enhancements to dry storage have been made throughout the years.�

Sealing is the act of preventing air contact with the preserved food product. Waxing food to be dry-stored enhances shelf life by sealing out air, and sealing in moisture.� This had the dual effect of inhibiting mold growth, and keeping the stored product moist and edible, both of which are problems with this type of storage.� This was usually done with cheeses, and later in the Middle Ages with fruit preserves.� Modern housewives still pour a layer of paraffin on top of each jar of homemade jelly and jam to inhibit mold growth.� The method would probably work with dry cured or smoked meats, but there is no evidence that this was ever tried.� Dry hung meats were sealed using other substances also.� Often salted and smoked meats were closely stitched into linen sacks, and painted with a lime wash.� The wash dried to a very thin cement-like coating, effectively sealing it from the air.� Potted meats were sealed with a layer of butter or lard in milder climates.�

Larding and oiling perform a function similar to waxing.� Applying a thin coating of oil or other grease that will not go rancid seals the product from the air and greatly reduces the risk of mold growth.� Oiling is not as effective against drying because the oil tends to dry which then allows air exposure.� This method was used primarily for smoked and salted meats.� The meat was larded before sacking, and usually required treatment again during extended storage.� Larding is a reasonably effective deterrent to mold but might attract insects.�

Spicing or salting the meat before hanging is also done as a deterrent to insects and mold.� Strong spices, such as pepper and mustard seed, are generally used, because of their repellent qualities.� These spices also perform better at inhibiting mold growth.� The meat is usually dredged in the cracked or very coarsely ground spice or spice mixture, then sacked and hung as usual.� The usual candidates for spicing are smoked and salted meats.� On occasion dried meats are spiced before drying to keep insects off during the drying process.� Spicing also adds flavor to the meat, especially after it has aged well.� Salt packing is the storage of salted meat or fish in crocks or barrels between layers of salt.� This storage method is generally used with salted fish and fatty pork products.� This is quite effective at preventing both insect attack and mold growth, and it will prevent the fats from going rancid for quite a long while.� It is also quite effective at rendering the meat inedible, especially after extended storage.� Salt packing can extend the shelf life of salt cured meats by years.

Wet Storage


Wet storage refers to the storage of preserved food in a liquid medium at room temperature.� This storage method is used for a very wide variety of preserved foods, including several preserved meats and fish.� Both salted and smoked meats were stored in liquids.�

Brine storage is immersing the preserved food in a strong salt solution.� The product must be fully immersed.� Storage in brine was usually reserved for brined or salted meats.� Foods stored in brine could last for several years, and would not dry out as much as those packed in salt.� These foods would still suffer from too much salt content after extended storage, rendering them as inedible as those packed in salt dry.� Storing meat in brine requires some maintenance.� Because the container is not sealed the brine might turn rancid after a time.� To prevent this, and to redistribute the meat within the solution, the meat is unpacked, the brine boiled and strained, and replenished if necessary, and the meat is repacked in the brine.� This is also done at any sign of mold or off odor.�

Oiling and larding are processes that seal the preserved food from contact with the air.� Smaller pieces of salted or smoked seafood or meat were immersed in a variety of oils or covered with melted lard or butter.� The oil or lard should completely cover the preserved food, leaving no air pockets.� This would allow trapped microorganisms to multiply and start spoilage.� Jars and crocks of oil stored foods were often also sealed with a piece of leather or waxed cloth tied close about the opening, or the opening was plugged with a piece of cork.� Later bottles and jars were available with a close fitting lid or stopper.� Smoked and salted foods stored in oil often lasted for years, and were usually still quite edible after lengthy storage.� This is very similar in concept to sealing as previously discussed.�

Preserved foods stored in a pickle are usually stored in a strong vinegar solution.� When completely immersed these foods are also sealed from contact with the air.� Foods to be stored in this manner are usually pickled first, and then simply left in the pickling solution for storage.� Often the container was sealed for storage.� Preserved foods stored in a pickling solution will often remain in good eating condition for years.

How Do I Do This

OK, here goes.� If you try this, and someone gets sick or worse, I am not responsible.� The author will assume no liability for any failure when using any of the food preservation, or storage techniques outlined.� All responsibility falls to the person performing the preservation and storage.

Salting


Most red meat, pork, fowl, game and fish can be successfully salt cured.� Red meat and pork can be either dry salted or brined.� Fowl is usually brined, and fish is usually dry salted.� Salt curing meat and fish must be done during cool temperatures or under refrigeration.� If the temperature gets too high there is a great risk of spoilage, and if the temperature gets too low the curing process is suspended.� The optimal temperature for curing with salt is between 35� F and 45� F.� Temperatures lower than 32� F or higher than 50� F should be avoided.�

A basic curing salt can be made with 1 pound of pickling or kosher salt and a teaspoon of saltpeter.� Do not use table salt, iodized or otherwise.� The smaller granules tend to impede the flow of moisture out of the meat, and the ability of the meat to assume salt.� The saltpeter can be omitted but shelf life and product color may suffer.� This cure may be directly applied to the meat or mixed into a quart of water to make brine.� Sugar cures can be made by replacing up to � of the salt with about twice as much amount of sugar, or brown sugar in dry cures.� Liquid sweeteners, such as honey, molasses, or maple syrup can be used to make sweet cure brines.� Be careful not to replace too much salt.� This can lead to improper curing and spoilage.� Many herbs and spices can be added to cures and brines.� These additions can add considerable flavor to the preserved meat, but have little effect on the quality of the cure.�

Although the cure itself remains mostly unchanged, the process and curing time vary greatly depending on the food being cured and the size of the pieces.� As a general rule, fish, less fatty fowl, and game will cure in shorter periods of time; fowl containing more fat will finish next; less fatty meats like beef and lamb will take somewhat longer; and fatty meats like pork take longest to cure.� There is very little difference in the curing time required for dry curing versus brining.�

To dry cure fish, scale but do not skin the fish and split or fillet the fish.� If the fish is split remove the backbone except enough near the tail to provide some rigidity.� Lay the fish skin side down on a bed of salt about �� deep.� Cover this layer of fish with �� of salt.� Place the next layer of fish skin side up on top of the first.� Cover this layer of fish with �� of salt.� This is continued until all of the fish have been added to the stack.� Fillets � inch thick will cure in 6 to 10 days.� Thicker fillets will take longer; about 1-2 days per � inch.� Fillets greater that 1� inches should not be dry cured due to the greater risk of spoilage.� Dry cured fish is normally packed in salt or dried for storage.�

Brining fish takes a little more attention.� Make the brine using the basic salt cure.� Prepare the fish as for dry curing.� Put the fish in the brine, leaving plenty of space.� If the fish floats to the surface, place sufficient weight on the fish to force it under the curing brine.� Curing times are about the same as dry curing.� The brine should be agitated daily to ensure that all of the fish is properly exposed to the brine.� Brine cured fish can be stored as dry cured fish.� It is not advised to store the fish in brine, but brined fish can be stored in oil after the surface has dried completely.� It will become mushy in time.� Most brine-cured fish will eventually be smoked.�

Dry salt curing pork, beef, or other red meats works best for larger cuts of meat such as pork hams or shoulders, lamb leg, or ��round beef roast, but can be used for smaller cuts also.� Avoid trying to cure pieces too large because they may spoil before curing is complete.� Dry curing meat requires about a cup to a cup and a half of curing salt per pound of meat.� Rub each piece with about � of the salt required for that piece of meat.� Place the meat in a cool dry place well protected from insects and animals for 4-5 days, and not touching the walls of the container or other pieces of meat.� After this time rub the meat with the remaining cure mixture and replace.� If the pieces are very large, greater than 7� at the smallest part, rub with an additional � pound of cure after 5 days.� If boneless the meat should cure for 5 days per inch of breadth at the narrowest part, or 7 days per inch if the meat contains a bone.� Rinse off the excess salt with fresh water, allow to air dry and store.�

To cure these meats in brine, make basic brine from your curing mixture, and immerse the meat in the brine.� Make sure that the meat us fully immersed in the brine.� The meat should remain in the brine for 48 hours per pound, if boneless.� If the meat contains bone it should be cured for an additional 12 hours per pound.� If multiple pieces are cured in the same container the meat should be removed from the brine and repacked every couple of days to ensure equal coverage by the brine.� Curing should be extended by 12 hours per pound in this case also.� If the brine should start to turn rancid, remove the meat and rinse in fresh water.� Boil the brine to kill the contaminant, replace water lost while boiling, and replenish the brine, if necessary.� After the brine has cooled repack the meat in the brine and continue curing.� After curing is complete the meat should be rinsed in fresh water and hung to air dry, unless it will be stored in the brine.�

The preferred method for salt curing fowl is brining, though dry curing is possible.� To brine fowl immerse the bird in sufficient brine to cover completely.� Make sure that the body cavity is filled with solution, and that the bird is weighted to keep it under the brine.� The bird should remain in the brine for 30-48 hours per pound, depending on the fat on the bird, the strength of the brine solution and whether the meat is to be processed further.� Fowl with higher fat content, like duck and goose, will take longer to properly cure because the fat doesn�t absorb the curing solution as readily as meat.� If fat poultry is improperly cured the fat will soon turn rancid, and the meat will quickly follow.� After curing is complete the bird should be rinsed in fresh water and hung to air dry, unless it will be stored in the brine.�

Dry salting whole fowl is nearly impossible because of the shape and cavities.� If the bird is split or cut up this presents less of a problem.� Small birds are better candidates for dry salting.� The bird should be rubbed well with curing mix, and laid on a bed of the same mixture.� Cure the fowl for about 4 days per inch of meat thickness.� Rinse off the excess cure with fresh water, allow to air dry and store.� I do not suggest doing this.� It is only presented for completeness.� If the cure is not well distributed over the entire surface of the meat, it may not cure properly.� Because of the unusual shape of cleaned poultry this is usually the case.

Smoking


Meat, fowl, fish, and game to be smoked must be salted sufficiently to at least resist bacterial growth during the smoking process.� This is particularly important during cold smoking, which is performed at optimal temperatures for bacterial growth.� Often smoked meats are fully cured before smoking.� The length of the curing process is determined by the anticipated storage time and often by personal preference and taste.� The cure used on the meat will often contain sweeteners, spices and other flavoring agents.� The length of smoking time is also a matter of personal preference in many cases.� When smoking to cure taste is less of a consideration; the food must be smoked sufficiently to deposit the curing agents supplied by the smoke.� Smoke cured meats are smoked much more heavily than those produced today for the smoke flavor alone.�

Smoke curing is done at low temperatures, 75�F to 120�F.� If the temperature gets too high the meat will start to cook and caseharden.� This cooks and seals the surface of the meat, and as a result decreases the amount of smoke preserving agents that can be absorbed by the food product.� While fully or partially cooking the product while smoking may be the eventual aim, the food must be cured at low temperatures, only after curing is complete should the temperature get high enough to actually cook the food product.�

Pork, red meats, and game meats other than fowl should be cold smoked for at least 6 to 24 hours per inch of breadth at the narrowest point.� The time per inch in the smoker is dependant upon the density of the smoke and to a degree on personal preference.� If the smoke is very dense (meat is nearly obscured by only a six inch curtain of smoke) exposure for 6 hours per inch of meat should be sufficient.� However light smoke (the meat is obscured at 2-3 feet) would require 24 hours or more per inch.� Animal skin or a thick layer of fat covering most of the meat surface will retard the absorption of the curing agents.� Smoking times should be doubled for these meats.� A whole, skin covered ham, about 10� across might be in the smokehouse as long as 3 weeks.� For normal smoking the surface of the meat should be air dried before smoking is begun.� The meat will either be hung in the smoke chamber or laid on a rack, depending on the configuration of the smoking equipment and the cut of meat.�

Poultry and game fowl should be cold smoked for 12 to 24 hours per inch of thigh or breast depth, whichever is greater.� Fatty birds such as duck and goose should be well cured before smoking because the fat in the meat resists penetration of the curing agents carried in the smoke.� Ideally fowl should hang by the wings when smoking.� This allows smoke to pass freely through the body cavity, and it allows moisture to drain during smoking.� If necessary, fowl can be smoked on a rack lying on their back.� If this is the case make sure that the body cavity remains open to allow smoke passage through the cavity, and hang the bird to drain well before storage.�

Very little fish is cold smoked; salmon and herring are processed this way.� Cold smoked fish is processed between 75�F and 100�F for 4 to 12 hours.� The fish must be sufficiently cured to resist spoilage during the smoking process.� If the temperature rises above 100�F, the fish will start to cook, and may caseharden.� This will retard the smoking process.� Unless fully cured cold smoked fish will only keep for several days unless refrigerated.� Under refrigeration smoked fish will often keep for 3 weeks or more.�

Some fish can be hot smoked at temperatures ranging from 140�F to 180�F.� This is usually done with salted herring or a similar fish, or small (under 5�) whole fish like anchovy and shiner sardines.� This process cooks the fish while smoking.� Smoking times and smoke density vary greatly depending on the intended product, but will usually range from 2 hours to 2-3 days.� Fish destined for the hot smoker should be fully cured unless it is to be eaten immediately or stored under refrigeration.� Most hot smoked fish is intended to be dry stored, sometimes in oil.�

A third process for smoking fish, called kippering, involves cold smoking the fish for several hours, then hot smoking for sufficient time to cook, or partially cook, the fish.� This is usually done with fatter or oilier fish such as herring, trout, and salmon.� Depending on the desired end product and fish being used the fish may be only lightly salted or fully cured.� The lightly salted varieties should be eaten immediately, or stored under refrigeration.� Fully cured kippers can be dry stored or packed in oil.

Drying


The process of drying for preservation is primarily used for red meats, game meats, sausages, and fish.� Some oriental cultures will dry smoked duck and other waterfowl.� Unless previously processed meat or fish that will be dried should be cured sufficiently to resist spoilage during the drying process.� Because much of the meat to be dried is sliced quite thin curing times are often significantly reduced, often to only hours.� Often meats that will be dried are smoked first.� Some recipes even call for the product to be cooked before drying.�

Meats that will be dried should be cut into strips no more than �� thick, or cubes about 1� square.� The prepared meat should be cured sufficiently to inhibit spoilage during the drying process.� Usually 6 to 12 hours is enough.� A variety of spices may be added to the cure, depending on the intended use of the dried meat.� After curing the meat may be rubbed with additional spice, or smoked, or both before it is dried.� Fish should be fully cured before drying.�

In dry climes the product can be sun dried.� This is not the case for most of us.� Alternative methods include oven or commercial food driers, drying in a smoker at low temperatures, and drying near an open flame.� Drying times will vary depending on the size of the pieces, and on the drying method chosen.�

Sun drying is recommended only for thin slices of meat and fish fillets.� Meat should be laid on a rack and placed in the sun.� It should remain there until nearly all of the moisture has been removed from the meat.� The time will vary according to the relative humidity.� If the product must be dried for more than one day take care to protect it from dewfall.� When it is done it will be leathery and crack when bent or folded.� Fish fillets should be hung in the sun to dry.� Again the time will vary with relative humidity.� Fish should be dried completely.� It will resemble wood when done.� In less arid climes oven or smoke drying is the preferred method.� Heat the oven or smoker to 100�F to 120�F; place the meat into the oven or smoker on racks, and dry until done as above.� Make sure that the oven door is left slightly open or that there is good flow through the smoker to evacuate the moist air.� This should take between 12 and 24 hours, depending on whether the meat is sliced or cubed.

Pickling


Pickling is accomplished by soaking the meat in a strong vinegar, honey, or sugar solution.� Both acid and sugar have the property of inhibiting bacterial growth.� Red meat, fowl, and fish can be successfully pickled.� To pickle, the meat should be cut into smaller pieces or sliced, and immersed in the pickling solution.� The meat must remain in the solution until it is permeated with either sugars or acids, and should be kept at lower temperatures (35�F to 45�F) until pickling is complete to avoid bacterial contamination.� The time required depends on the size of the pieces or thickness of the slices.� It may be either raw or cooked, however most pickling receipts call for the meat to be cooked first.�� Normally, pickled meats are stored in the pickle until used.�

When pickling in vinegar, the vinegar should have at least 6% acid content.� This is stronger than standard white or cider vinegar.� Check the specialty vinegars, or vinegars sold at gourmet shops.� Sugar pickles should contain at least 50% sugar by weight.� Honey pickles should be 100% honey, with only seasoning agents added.� Sugar and honey pickles are not very popular for meats because the flavor of the end product can be somewhat alien to the modern palate.

Using the Preserved Product

Consume As Is


Eat the preserved product without further preparation.� This is usually done with dried red meats safe to consume raw, or kippered meat or fish.� Most preserved meats used in this manner are intended for such consumption.

Cook As Is


The salted, smoked, or pickled meat can be taken directly from storage into the cooking pot.� This will often result in a dish that tastes strongly of salt, smoke or vinegar.� Carefully selecting receipts for the use of these meats will help with this problem by providing ingredients that either compliment or hide the flavor left by the preserving process.� This also allows for the option of leaving out the ingredients supplied by the preserved meats.� (Use pickled meat in a receipt that calls for vinegar or verjuice, and leave out the vinegar.)

Freshen and Cook


This is probably the most common method of using the preserved meat.� This involves soaking the meat in fresh water to reconstitute it and to remove some of the salt, vinegar, or smoke resins.� The meat should be soaked for 24 to 36 hours, sometimes longer.� In some cases the soak is changed several times to keep the water as fresh as possible.� This is not for fear that the water would turn, but to attempt to remove as much of the preserving agent as possible.� The meat is then used as fresh meat, adjusting the spice as required due to the flavor of remaining preservative.� Many dried meats and fish treated in this manner are hard to distinguish from fresh.

What Can Go Wrong

Spoilage / No Guarantee


Remember, there is no guarantee!� Although these are proven methods, there is no guarantee that any preserved food product will not spoil.� Learn to detect spoiled preserved food.� In many cases this is difficult due to the odors of the preserving agents.� Insufficient treatment and improper storage can both lead to food spoilage.� Learn to detect rancid or sour storage brines.� Often the meat can still be salvaged.� Rinse the meat in fresh water and if it smells good after that, repack it in brine.� Boil the brine to kill the infection, and replenish if necessary.� Many types of raw meat also carry disease.� If the meat was not cooked during the preserving process it is still raw!� If cooking is required it should be cooked.

Mold


Many molds will grow on hanging meats.� Most are harmless.� Mold is usually a result of improper storage, which often cannot be avoided.� If hanging salted or smoked meat is found to have molded, the mold can be scrubbed off using a stiff brush and a strong vinegar solution.� The meat can then be safely used.� I have found this solution to molded, cured meat in both period and modern references.� Oiling and larding can retard or prevent mold growth.

Health Risks


In addition to the other problems there can be other risks involved in using preserved meat and fish, depending on the method of preservation.� The most obvious risk is the high salt content of salt cure meat.� This can be a considerable risk to those with heart disease, arteriosclerosis, or high blood pressure.� There is often a high salt content in smoked and dried meat and fish.� Many cures include saltpeter or sodium nitrate.� This substance is suspect as a carcinogen.� Many of the preserving agents in wood smoke, the aldehydes, are suspected as carcinogens also.� One of these preserving agents is formaldehyde.� Today we can weigh these risks and decide; our ancestors had no choice.

Insects


There are a few insects that will infest or attack preserved meats.� Most are deterred by the salt or smoke.� Among those that will attack cured meats are the cheese skipper, mites, ham beetle, and larder beetle.� The skipper larva bores into meat and cheese leaving slime and rot in the infested area.� These are a yellowish color, and are about 1/3� long when fully grown.� The two-winged adult fly is about 1/8� long.� Mites feed on the surface, giving it a powdery appearance.� Since these do not fly, they are usually carried by other insects.� Both the adult ham beetle and its larvae bore through cured meat causing rot.� The larva is a purple color and about 1/3� long.� The adult beetle is a bright green-blue color with red legs and is about �� long.� Larder beetle larvae are a fuzzy brown color, and are about 1/3� long when full grown.� They feed on the surface or just below, and do not cause the meat to rot.� The adult beetle is about 1/3� long and is dark brown with a yellowish band across its back.�
Eastman, Wilbur, Canning, Freezing, Curing & Smoking Meat, Fish & Game (North Adams, MA; Storey, 2002)�

Erlandson, Kieth, Home Smoking and Curing (London; Ebury, 1997)�

Flower, B. & Rosenbaum, E., The Roman Cookery Book (London; Harrap, 1958)

(Apicius, Re de Coquinaria, circa 300)�

Friedman, David, Cariadoc�s Miscellany (http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/cariadoc/miscellany.html)�

Holm, Don, Food Drying, Pickling and Smoke Curing (Caldwell, ID; Caxton, 1992)�

Sheppard, Sue, Pickled, Potted, and Canned (New York; Simon & Schuster, 2000)�

Anonymous, Curye on Inglysch, (circa. 1390)(London; Early English Text Society, 1985)�

Welserin, Sabina, Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin, (1553) (Heidelberg, C. Winter, 1980)

SPAM Recipes

Frijoles with SPAM �

Prep Time: 6 or more hours �
Cook Time: 2 hours �
Servings: 4 �

Ingredients �
– 12 ounces dried pinto beans washed and soaked overnight �
– 6 cups water �
– 1 onion cut into wedges �
– 1 bulb garlic broken into cloves �
– 2 bay leaves �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can, cut into 1/2-inch cubes �
– 2 tomatoes chopped �
– 3 jalapeno peppers chopped �

Directions �
In roasting pan, combine beans, water, onion, garlic, and bay leaves. Cover. Cook over medium heat 1� hours. Before serving, in skillet over medium-high heat, cook SPAM, tomatoes, and jalapeno peppers 7 to 10 minutes or until browned. Stir SPAM� mixture into bean mixture. Cook 20 to 30 minutes longer or until beans are tender �


Creamed SPAM �

Ingredients �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12 oz.), diced �
– 1/3 cup flour �
– 2 1/4 cups milk �
– 1/2 teaspoon prepared mustard salt, and pepper, to taste �
– 8 eggs fried, scrambled or poached �
– 8 slices of bread or English muffins, toasted �

Directions �
In large skillet, over medium-high heat, fry SPAM until lightly browned; stirring often. Drain SPAM on paper towels. Return SPAM to pan and sprinkle with the flour, stirring to coat. Whisk in the milk and mustard. Cook, stirring constantly, until mixture is thickened. Season, as desired, with salt and pepper. Prepare eggs, as desired. For each serving, place toast on plate. Top with cooked egg and creamed SPAM mixture �

Fancy SPAM Musubi �

Ingredients �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12 oz) �
– 1 clove garlic, minced �
– 1 teaspoon grated fresh ginger �
– 1/3 cup brown sugar �
– 1/3 cup HOUSE OF TSANG� Soy Sauce �
– 2 tablespoons CARAPELLI� Olive Oil �
– 3 cups cooked white sushi rice �
– 1 package hoshi nori (Japanese dried seaweed) �

Directions �
Slice SPAM lengthwise into 8 equal pieces. In a shallow dish, combine garlic, ginger, brown sugar, and soy sauce. Place SPAM� slices in the mixture and let sit for 30 minutes. Remove and pat dry. In a skillet, heat the oil and brown the marinated SPAM slices. Moisten hands and mold rice into 8 thick blocks with the same outside dimensions as SPAM� slices. Cut nori into 8-1/2 inch strips. Place SPAM slices on rice blocks and wrap individual nori strips around each middle. Moisten 1 end slightly to fasten together and serve. The remaining marinate may be used as a dip. �


Crunchy SPAM Bites �

Ingredients �
– 2 cups sweetened corn cereal �
– 20 butter flavored crackers �
– 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder �
– 1/2 teaspoon onion powder �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12 oz.)* * �
– 1 egg, beaten �
– For Cheese Dip: �
– 3 ounces processed cheese �
– 1/4 cup ranch salad dressing �
– 1/4 cup sour cream �

Directions �
Heat oven to 425�F. In a work bowl of a food processor, crush cereal and crackers*. Stir in garlic and onion powder. Using a butter knife, slice SPAM into one-fourth to one-half-inch slices. Using your favorite cookie cutter, cut SPAM into shapes. Dip SPAM into cereal mixture, then into beaten egg and again into the cereal mixture to coat. Place SPAM on a lightly greased baking sheet. Bake 15 minute, turning after eight minutes. Meanwhile, for cheese dip, melt processed cheese in a microwave-safe dish. Stir in dressing and sour cream until smooth. Serve SPAM bites with cheese dip for dipping. �

*If a food processor is not available, place the cereal and crackers in a plastic food storage bag. Seal the bag and use a rolling pin to crush the mixture. �



SPAM Breakfast Bagels �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can �
– 2 tablespoons butter or margarine �
– 6 eggs beaten �
– 6 (1-ounce) slices American cheese �
– 6 bagels sliced �

Directions �
Slice SPAM Classic into 6 slices (3 x 1/4 inch). In skillet, saut� SPAM over medium heat until lightly browned. Remove from skillet; keep warm. In same skillet, melt butter; pour in beaten eggs. Cook and stir to desired doneness. Layer scrambled eggs, SPAM, and cheese on bagel bottom. Cover with bagel top �


SPAM Salad �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can cut into strips �
– 1/4 cup butter softened �
– 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar �
– 3 tablespoons lemon juice �
– 1 (7-ounce) package rice sticks or 8 ounces angel hair pasta �
– 6 cups shredded cabbage or coleslaw mix �
– 1/2 cup chopped green onions �
– 1 large green bell pepper cut into thin strips �
– 1 cup seedless green grapes halved �
– 1 (11-ounce) can mandarin oranges drained �
– 1/4 cup toasted slivered almonds for garnish �
– 1/4 cup dried cranberries for garnish �

Directions �
Prepare the rice sticks or pasta as package directs. Meanwhile, in large skillet, saut� SPAM over medium heat until lightly browned. In small bowl, combine the butter, brown sugar and lemon juice. Add the brown sugar mixture to the SPAM. Simmer over low heat until the SPAM is evenly coated with the brown sugar mixture. Keep SPAM warm while assembling the salad. Place the cooked rice sticks or pasta on a large serving platter. Combine the cabbage and green onions; sprinkle cabbage mixture over rice sticks or pasta. Arrange the green pepper strips and grapes over the cabbage. Top with the saut�ed SPAM and mandarin oranges. Garnish as desired with slivered almonds and dried cranberries. �


The Original Baked SPAM Classic �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can �
– whole cloves �
– 1/3 cup firmly packed brown sugar �
– 1 teaspoon water �
– 1 teaspoon prepared mustard �
– 1/2 teaspoon vinegar �

Directions �
Heat oven to 375�F. Place SPAM Classic on rack in shallow baking pan. Score surface; stud with cloves. Combine brown sugar, water, mustard, and vinegar, stirring until smooth. Brush glaze over SPAM. Bake 20 minutes, basting often. Slice to serve. �


Island SPAM �

Ingredients �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12-ounce), cut in cubes �
– 1 chopped onion �
– 1 clove chopped garlic �
– 1 1/2 cups water �
– 1 cup uncooked white rice �
– 1 tablespoon chopped parsley �
– 1 bay leaf, finely crushed �
– 1/4 teaspoon pepper �
– ground red pepper �

Directions �
In large skillet, lightly brown SPAM, onion, and garlic. Stir in remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil; reduce heat and simmer, covered, 15 minutes. Sprinkle with red pepper before servings. �


SPAM Sticks �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can �
– 1 egg �
– 2 tablespoons milk �
– 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour �
– 1/2 cup soda cracker crumbs �
– tartar sauce or ketchup �

Directions �
Heat oven to 375�F. Slice SPAM into 6 pieces; cut each slice in half lengthwise. Beat together egg and milk. Coat each SPAM slice with flour. Dip in milk mixture and roll in cracker crumbs. Place on baking sheet. Bake 15 to 18 minutes or until golden brown. Serve with tartar sauce or ketchup. �


SPAM Piccadilly �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can �
– 1/4 cup cranberry-orange relish �
– 1/4 cup brown sugar �

Directions �
Heat oven to 350�F. Place SPAM loaf in small shallow baking dish. Combine relish and brown sugar; spoon over SPAM. Bake 20 to 25 minutes or until hot. �


Crunchy SPAM Sticks �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can �
– 1 egg �
– 2 tablespoons milk �
– 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour �
– 1/4 teaspoon black pepper �
– 1 cup instant mashed potato flakes �
– Ketchup �

Directions �
Heat oven to 375�F. Slice SPAM into 8 pieces; cut each slice in half lengthwise. Beat together egg and milk. Combine flour and black pepper. Coat each SPAM slice with flour mixture. Dip in milk mixture. Roll in potato flakes. Place on baking sheet. Bake 15 minutes or until golden brown, turning once. Serve with ketchup. �


Caribbean Mushrooms and SPAM �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can cut in short strips �
– 1 tablespoon chopped green onion �
– 1 clove garlic minced �
– 1/4 teaspoon thyme �
– 8 ounces mushrooms sliced �
– 1 1/2 cups water �
– 1 green pepper cut in thin strips �
– 1 cup uncooked white rice �

Directions �
In skillet, cook SPAM, green onions, garlic, and thyme until lightly browned. Add mushrooms and water. Bring to a boil. Add green pepper and rice; reduce heat and simmer, covered, 15 minutes. �


Curried SPAM and Rice �

Ingredients �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12 oz), diced �
– 2 cups cooked rice �
– 1 cup frozen peas �
– 1 cup celery, sliced �
– 1/3 cup chopped red onion �
– 1 cup mayonnaise �
– 1/2 cup PATAK’S Major Grey Mango Chutney , chopped �
– 2 tablespoons sugar �
– 2 tablespoons lemon juice �
– 1 1/2 teaspoons curry powder �

Directions �
In a large mixing bowl, combine SPAM, rice, peas, celery, and onion. In a small bowl, combine mayonnaise, chutney, sugar, lemon juice and curry powder until well blended. Add dressing to SPAM mixture. Toss gently to coat with dressing. Cover and refrigerate at least one hour. �


Hawaiian SPAM Sandwich �

Ingredients �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12-ounce), cut into 8 slices �
– 1 can pineapple rings (8-ounce), drained �
– 4 slices American cheese �
– 4 hamburger buns, split and toasted �

Directions �
Brown SPAM slices in skillet. Place 2 SPAM slices on each bottom half of hamburger bun. Top with pineapple ring and cheese slice. Cover sandwich with top half of bun �


Sunnydogs �

Ingredients �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12 oz.) �
– 1 1/2 cups complete buttermilk pancake mix �
– 1/4 cup water �
– 2 eggs �
– 1/2 cup applesauce �
– 1 teaspoon vanilla �
– 1/8 teaspoon ground cinnamon �
– 18 popsicle sticks, short kabob sticks or toothpicks �
– vegetable or light olive oil �
– honey, maple syrup and applesauce, for dipping �

Directions �
Cut SPAM widthwise into 6 sections (1/2 inch pieces). Cut each section into thirds. In bowl, combine pancake batter, eggs, applesauce, cinnamon and vanilla. Slowly add water and stir until combined. Place SPAM pieces into batter and coat evenly. Meanwhile, heat a large nonstick skillet with a small amount of vegetable oil over medium heat. Remove SPAM from batter with a fork and let the excess batter drip off of the SPAM pieces. Place SPAM into skillet and cook until cakes are golden brown and batter is cooked through, turning once. Repeat with additional SPAM and pancake batter. To serve, insert popsicle sticks into the SPAM and serve with honey, maple syrup or applesauce for dipping. Makes 18. *Tip: Use any excess pancake batter to make small pancakes to serve alongside sunnydogs. �


SPAM Stroganoff �

Ingredients �
– 1 SPAM Classic (12-ounce) can �
– 1/2 cup chopped onion �
– 2 tablespoons butter or margarine �
– 1 (10 3/4-ounce) can cream of mushroom soup �
– 1 (4-ounce) can sliced mushrooms drained �
– 1/8 teaspoon black pepper �
– 1 cup sour cream �
– cooked egg noodles �

Directions �
Cut SPAM into strips 2×1/2-inch strips. In large skillet, saut� SPAM and onion in butter until onion is tender. Stir in soup, mushrooms, and pepper. Simmer 10 minutes. Stir in sour cream. Heat thoroughly but do not boil. Serve over noodles. �


SPAM Muffins �

Ingredients �
– 2 cans SPAM Classic (divided) �
– 2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour �
– 1 1/2 cups cornmeal �
– 1/2 cup sugar �
– 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon baking powder �
– 2 cups milk �
– 1/2 cup vegetable oil �
– 2 eggs �
– 1 cup canned corn �
– 1 cup shredded Monterey Jack and Colby Cheese �
– Heart-shaped muffin pans or small disposable heart-shaped pans �

Directions �
Preheat oven to 400�F. Slice one can of SPAM into 8 slices and set aside. In bowl, combine flour, cornmeal, sugar and baking powder. In another bowl, combine milk, oil and eggs. Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients. Pour in the liquid mixture and stir until well combined. Dice the remaining SPAM and stir into the cornmeal mixture. Stir in the corn and cheese. Lightly spray the heart-shaped muffin tins or pans with nonstick cooking spray. Fill each cup 2/3 full with batter. Bake for 15-20 minutes or until toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean. Meanwhile, cook sliced SPAM in skillet until golden brown. Cut slices into heart shapes using a small heart-shaped cookie cutter. Before serving, place one heart on each muffin. �


SPAM Sandwich Spread �

Ingredients �
– 1 can SPAM Classic (12 oz), or any variety �
– 1 small onion �
– 2 tablespoons pickle relish �
– 3 dashes of salt and pepper �
– 6 tablespoons (or more) salad dressing or mayonnaise �

Directions �
Grind the SPAM and onion in food chopper. Mix with salad dressing enough to spread evenly. �
Enchilada Breakfast Casserole �

12 oz can SPAM – cubed 1/2″ 4 eggs �
1 small onion chopped 2 cups whipping cream �
1 small green pepper, chopped 1 tbsp all-purpose flour �
1 small tomato, chopped 4-oz can diced green chiles �
2 cups shredded Cheddar cheese 1/4 tsp garlic powder �
8 7″ flour tortillas Picante sauce �

Place about 1/4 cup SPAM, 1 tablespoon onion, 1 tablespoon green pepper, 1 tablespoon tomato and 1 tablespoon cheese on one side of tortilla. Set remaining cheese aside. Roll up jelly-roll fashion; place seam side down in greased 13×9″ baking dish. In small bowl combine remainin ingredients; blend together with wire whisk. Pour over ehchiladas. Cover; refrigerate overnight. Heat oven to 350. Bake, uncovered, for 40 to 50 minutes or until egg mixture is set. Sprinkle with remaining cheese. Return to oven; bake for 5 minutes or until cheese is melted. Serve with picante sauce. Yield: 8 enchiladas. �


Fritatta �

3 tbsp butter 7-oz can SPAM, cubed 1/4″ �
1/2 cup chopped onion 10 pitted black olives, chopped �
1/2 cup chopped green pepper 6 eggs �
2 medium potatoes, peeled and 2 tbsp water �
cubed 1/4″ 1/4 tsp pepper �

In 10-inch omelet pan or skilet melt 2 tbsp butter over medium heat. Add onion, green pepper and potatoes; cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until vegetables are crisply tender (5 to 7 minutes). Add SPAM and olives; continue cooking until SPAM is heated through. Loosen sauteed ingredients from bottom of pan; add remaining 1 tbsp butter. Tilt pan to cover bottom with butter. In small bowl mix eggs, water, and pepper; pour over SPAM mixture. Cover; cook over low heat 12 to 15 minutes or until egg mixture is set on top. With pancake turner, loosen edges and bottom; invert onto serving platter. Yield: 6 servings. �


Country Rice Salad �

1/4 cup olive oil 10-oz pkg frozen peas, thawed & drained �
9 green onions, sliced 1/4″ 1/2 cup chopped fresh parsley �
1 1/2 tsp paprika 3 1/2-oz pkg sliced pepperoni �
1/2 tsp cumin 1 red pepper, cut into 1/4″ strips �
2 cups rice 1 green pepper, cut into 1/4″ strips �
2 (14 1/2-oz) cans chicken broth �
12-oz can SPAM, cut into 2×1/4″ strips �

In 3-quart saucepan heat oil over medium heat. Add green onions; cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until onion is tender. Add paprika and cumin; stir to blend. Add rice, coating grains with oil. Add chicken stock; stir to combine. Cook over low heat until rice is tender and all liquid is absorbed (20 to 30 minutes). Meanwhile, in skillet cook SPAM over medium heat, turning occasionally, until SPAM is heated through (4 to 5 minutes). Add peas and chopped parsley to rice mixture. Stir in remaining ingredients or arrange ingredients on salad. Serve at room temperature. Yield: 6 servings. �



Three bean salad �

7-oz can SPAM, cubed 1/2″ 1/3 cup choppd onion �
16-oz can cut green beans, 1/3 cup sugar �
drained 1/3 cup cooking oil �
16-oz can yellow wax beans, 1/3 cup cider vinegar �
drained 1/4 tsp pepper �
16-oz can kidney beans, 1 tbsp stone ground mustard �
drained �

In medium bowl combine SPAM, green beans, wax beans, kidney beans and onion. In small bowl combine remaining ingredients; pour over SPAM mixture. Stir gently, mixing thoroughly. COver; refrigerate 2 to 3 hours or until serving time. Yield: 6 servings. �



Cool cucumber avocado sandwiches �

-oz pkg cream cheese, 1 medium cucumber, sliced 1/4″ �
softened 12-oz can SPAM, sliced 1/8″ �
1/4 cup sour cream 2 ripe avocados, cut into 1/4″ wedges �
1/4 cup chopped fresh dillweed 2 tbsp lemon juice �
1/4 tsp pepper 8 slices rye bread �

In small bowl combine cream cheese, sour cream, dillweed and pepper; stir to blend. Spread 2 tablespoons cream cheese mixture on each slice of bread. Reserve remaining cream cheese mixture. Arrange cucumber slices on bread slices; op with 3 slices of SPAM. Dip avocados in lemon juice; Arrange on sandwiches. Garnixh with remaining cream cheese mixture. Yield: 8 sandwiches. �



Reuben sandwich �

8-oz can sauerkraut 8 slices rye bread �
1 cup grated swiss cheese 3 tbsp butter, softened �
1/4 cup Russian dressing 12-oz can SPAM, cut into 8 slices �

Rinse sauerkraut; drain well. In small bowl combine sauerkraut, cheese and dressing; mix well. Spread each bread slice on one side with butter. Spread half of sauerkraut mixture on unbuttered side of 4 bread slices; top each with 2 slices SPAM. Cover with remaining sauerkraut mixture. Top with remaining rye bread, buttered-side up. Grill over medium heat in skillet or griddle until cheese melts and sandwiches are browned on both sides. Yield: 4 sandwiches. �



Cornbread brocolli pie �

8 1/2-oz pkg cornbread mix 10-oz pkg frozen broccoli spears �
12-oz can SPAM, cubed 1/2″ thawed and drained �
1 1/2 cup shredded cheddar cheese �

Heat oven to 400. Prepare cornbread according to package directions. Stir in SPAM. Spread into greased 9″ pie plate. Bake for 15 to 20 minutes or until cornbread is almost done. Arrange broccoli spears on top of cornbread; sprinkle with cheese. Return to oven; continue baking for 5 to 10 minutes or until cheese is melted and cornbread is completely baked. Yield: 6 servings. �


Hearty bean soup �

2 cups dried pinto beans, 3 cloves garlic, minced �
wash and soak overnight 1/4 cup firmly packed brown sugar �
120oz can SPAM, cubed 1/2″ 2 tbsp chili powder �
1 quart water 3 bay leaves �
2 (13-oz) cans tomato juice 1 tsp oregano �
1 (14-oz) cans chicken stock 1 tsp cumin �
1 medium onion, chopped 1 tsp thyme �

In 4-quart saucepan add all ingredients; stir to blend. Cook over medium heat until mixture comes to a boil. Boil for 10 minutes. Reduce heat to low; continue cooking, stirring occasionally, until soup is thickened (3 to 4 hours). Remove bay leaves. Yield: 6 servings �


Spaghetti carbonara �

1 1/2 lbs spaghetti 4 eggs, slightly beaten �
12-oz can SPAM, cubed 1/4″ 1/2 cups grated parmesan cheese �
1/2 cup chopped onion 1/4 cup chopped fresh parsley �
3 tbsp olive oil ground pepper �
3 tbsp butter �

Cook spaghetti according to package directions. Meanwhile, in skillet cook SPAM and onion in oil and butter over medium heat until lightly browned. Set aside. When spaghetti is cooked, drain; return to pot. Add egs; toss to combine. Add SPAM mixture, cheese and parsley; toss to combine. Season to taste with pepper. Serve immediately. Yield: 6 servings. �



Summer skillet supper �

2 tbsp butter 12-oz can SPAM �
6 medium new potatoes, 16-oz whole tomatoes �
sliced 1/8″ 1 tsp basil �
3 medium zucchini, cut into 1 tsp oregano �
1/4″ slices 1/4 tsp pepper �
1 large onion, thinly sliced �

in 10″ skillet melt butter over medium heat. Add potatoes; cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until tender (6 to 8 minutes). Add zucchini and onions; continue cooking until vegetables are crisply tender (3 to 4 minutes). Cut SPAM into 6 slices; halve each slice. Add remaining ingredients; stir to blend. Cover; cook over medium heat until heated through (8 to 10 minutes).Yield: 4 servings. �


Foil dinner on the grill �

1/4 cup brown sugar 8 new potatoes, sliced 1/4″ �
1/4 cup beer 2 cups carrots, sliced 1/4″ �
1/4 cup stone ground mustard 1 large onion, thinly sliced �
1/2 tsp celery seed 12-oz can SPAM, cut into 12 slices �

In small bowl combine brown sugar, beer, mustard, and celery seed. Divide vegetables and SPAM into equal portions, arranging each portion on a 18×12″ piece of foil; drizzle mustard sauce over each and fold up to form 5×4″ packet, sealing well. Place over medium hot coals, grilling 45 to 0 minutes or until vegetables are tender. Yield: 6 servings. �



Cabbage apple supper �

1/4 cup butter 1/3 cup honey �
2 cooking apples, sliced 1/4″ 1/2 tsp nutmeg �
3 cups shredded cabbage 1/4 tsp clove �
12-oz can SPAM, cubed 1/2″ �

In skillet melt butter over medium heat. Add remaining ingredients; toss to combine. Cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until apples and cabbage are tender and SPAM is heated through (10 to 12 minutes).Yield: 4 servings. �



Cantonese sweet and sour �

2 tbsp cooking oil 3 tbsp sugar �
1 lg. carrot, sliced diagonally 3 tbsp catsup �
6 green onions, sliced 1/4″ 3 tbsp vinegar �
1 clove garlic, minced 1 tsp ginger �
1 small cucumber, cut in chunks 1 tsp soy sauce �
2/3 cups water 12-oz can SPAM, cubed 1/2″ �
1 tbsp cornstarch 8-oz can bamboo shoots, drained �

In wok or large skillet, cook oil over medium heat. Add carrot, green onion, garlic and cucumber; cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until crisply tender (4 to 5 minutes). Add remaining ingredients except SPAM and bamboo shoots. Continue cooking, stirring constantly, until suce is thickened (5 to 6 minutes). Add SPAM and bamboo shoots. Cook over medijm heat until heated through (4 to 5 minutes). If desired, serve over rice. Yield: 4 servings �


Polynesian bake �

1/4 cup lemon juice 12-oz can SPAM, cut into 7 slices �
1/4 cup apricot preserves Dried apricots �
1 tbsp prepared mustard Maraschino cherries �
1/4 tsp pepper Mushrooms �
1 fresh pineapple �

Heat oven to 350. In small bowl combine lemon juice, preserves, mustard and pepper; stir to blend. With sharp knife, halve the pineapple, cutting through foliage and fruit. Cut flesh away from skin; slice crosswise to yield 6 slices. Use remaining pineapple half in fresh fruit salad or serve fresh pineapple with other meals. Alternate pineapple, SPAM slices to form loaf; place in halved pineapple. Brush with apricot mixture. Bake for 30 to 35 minutes or until heated through, brushin with marinade every 15 minutes. Garnish with dried apricots, maraschino cherries or fluted mushrooms. Yield: 6 servings �


Open-faced SPAMburgers �

1 can Spam �
10 oz. Velveeta cheese �
1/4 cup onion, diced �

Grate the Spam and the Velveeta cheese (difficult to do, but it can be �
done). Mix all ingredients together by squishing with your hand like �
you would a meatloaf mixture. Spread mixture onto hamburger bun halves �
and broil until tops are bubbly and slightly burnt. �


SPAM Wellington �

2 cans Spam �
1 can Pillsbury biscuit dough �
1/2 cup brown sugar �

Preheat oven to 350. Place SPAM, as close together as possible on �
cookie sheet. Sprinkle with brown sugar. Pop Pillsbury can. Cover �
SPAM with dough. Mash edges of dough together with fingertips so �
that SPAM is not exposed. Bake for 30 minutes or until dough is golden �
brown. Let stand 10 minutes before carving. �


Basic Baked SPAM �

1 can SPAM 2 teaspoons yellow mustard �
Whole cloves 2 teaspoons water �
2/3 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon Worchestershire sauce �
1 teaspoon vinegar �

Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Score SPAM in diamond pattern and dot �
with cloves. Mix sugar, vinegar, mustard, water and Worchestershire. �
Brush on SPAM. Bake 25 to 30 minutes, basting three or four times. �
Note: This is a generous amount of topping, enough for two cans �
of SPAM at once, if you want to serve more. �

Spambalaya �

1 (12 ounce) can SPAM Lite Luncheon Meat, cubed �
1 cup chopped onion �
2/3 cup chopped celery �
2 cloves garlic, minced �
1 (14-1/2 ounce) can Cajun style or regular stewed tomatoes �
1 (10-3/4 ounce) can lower sodium chicken broth �
1/2 teaspoon dried leaf thyme �
6 to 8 drops hot pepper sauce �
1 cup CAROLINA or RIVER rice �
2 tablespoons chopped parsley �

In lagre non-stick skillet or 3-quart non-stick saucepan, saute SPAM �
Luncheon Meat, onion, green pepper, celery, and garlic until vegetables �
are tender. Add tomatoes, chicken broth, thyme, hot pepper sauce, and �
bay leaves. Bring to a boil; stir in CAROLINA or RIVER rice. COver. �
Reduce heat and simmer 20 minutes or until rice is tender. Discard �
bay leaves. Sprinke with parsley. Makes 6 servings. �


SPAM and Popping Peas �

1 can SPAM 1/2 package medium egg noodles �
1 large can whole tomatoes 1 package frozen peas �
1 package dry onion soup �

Fry SPAM cubes for a few minutes. Add soup mix and tomatoes. Mash the �
tomatoes with a spoon. Add noodles (uncooked) and cook until soft. �
Then, add peas and cook a few minutes. Do not overcook. They should �
pop in your mouth. �


SPAM Quiche �

1 (9inch) pie shell, frozen or your 3 eggs �
own recipe 1 can (12 ounces) evaporated milk �
1 tablespoon butter or margarine 1/2 teaspoon salt �
1/2 cup SPAM, cut into 1/2 inch strips 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg �
1/4 cup onion, sliced Dash of Tabasco sauce �
1 cup grated cheese (Swiss, Cheddar, Parmesan cheese �
or Jack) �
1 cup broccoli, sliced and parboiled �

Bake pie crust in 450 degree oven for 5 minutes. Set aside. �
Parboil (or microwave) broccoli and drain. Saute SPAM and onions �
in butter until onions are limp. Fill pie crust with SPAM, onions, �
broccoli and grated cheese. Beat together eggs, evaporated milk, �
nutmen, salt and Tabasco sauce. Pour egg mixtre over the ingredients �
in pie crust. Sprinkle with Parmesan cheese. Bake at 425 degrees �
for 10 minutes. Reduce oven temperature to 350 degrees and bake �
for 20 minutes or until quiche is set and golden brown. Cool 10 �
minutes before slicing. Serves 6. �

SPAM Stuffed Celery �

1 can spam, grated Dash of pepper �
1/4 cup onion, minced Celery stalks �
3 to 4 tablespoons mayonnaise �

Mix grated SPAM, onion, mayonnaise and pepper. Cut celery stalks �
into 2 to 3 inch lengths and stuff with SPAM.